[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sensorimotor representations of movements are created in the sensorimotor network through repeated practice to support successful and effortless performance. Writer's cramp (WC) is a disorder acquired through extensive practice of finger movements, and it is likely associated with the abnormal acquisition of sensorimotor representations. We investigated (i) the activation and connectivity changes in the brain network supporting the acquisition of sensorimotor representations of finger sequences in patients with WC and (ii) the link between these changes and consolidation of motor performance 24 h after the initial practice. Twenty-two patients with WC and 22 age-matched healthy volunteers practiced a complex sequence with the right (pathological) hand during functional MRI recording. Speed and accuracy were measured immediately before and after practice (day 1) and 24 h after practice (day 2). The two groups reached equivalent motor performance on day 1 and day 2. During motor practice, patients with WC had (i) reduced hippocampal activation and hippocampal–striatal functional connectivity; and (ii) overactivation of premotor–striatal areas, whose connectivity correlated with motor performance after consolidation. These results suggest that patients with WC use alternative networks to reach equiperformance in the acquisition of new motor memories.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The aim of this study was to evaluate Gd retention in the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) of linear gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) compared with a macrocyclic contrast agent.
Materials and methods:
The brain tissue retention of Gd of 3 linear GBCAs (gadobenate dimeglumine, gadopentetate dimeglumine, and gadodiamide) and a macrocyclic GBCA (gadoterate meglumine) was compared in healthy rats (n = 8 per group) that received 20 intravenous injections of 0.6 mmol Gd/kg (4 injections per week for 5 weeks). An additional control group with saline was included. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before injection and once a week during the 5 weeks of injections and for another 4 additional weeks after contrast period. Total gadolinium concentration was measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Blinded qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the T1 signal intensity in DCN were performed, as well as a statistical analysis on quantitative data.
At completion of the injection period, all the linear contrast agents (gadobenate dimeglumine, gadopentetate dimeglumine, and gadodiamide) induced a significant increase in signal intensity in DCN, unlike the macrocyclic GBCA (gadoterate meglumine) or saline. The T1 hypersignal enhancement kinetic was fast for gadodiamide. Total Gd concentrations for the 3 linear GBCAs groups at week 10 were significantly higher in the cerebellum (1.21 ± 0.48, 1.67 ± 0.17, and 3.75 ± 0.18 nmol/g for gadobenate dimeglumine, gadopentetate dimeglumine, and gadodiamide, respectively) than with the gadoterate meglumine (0.27 ± 0.16 nmol/g, P < 0.05) and saline (0.09 ± 0.12 nmol/g, P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between the macrocyclic agent and saline.
Repeated administrations of the linear GBCAs gadodiamide, gadobenate dimeglumine, and gadopentetate dimeglumine to healthy rats were associated with progressive and significant T1 signal hyperintensity in the DCN, along with Gd deposition in the cerebellum. This is in contrast with the macrocyclic GBCA gadoterate meglumine for which no effect was observed.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bridging the gap between mathematical and biological models and clinical applications could be considered as one of the new challenges of medical image analysis over the ten last years. This paper presents an advanced and convivial algorithm for brain glioblastomas tumor growth modelisation. The brain glioblastomas tumor region would be extracted using a fast distribution matching developed algorithm based on global pixel wise information. A new model to simulate the tumor growth based on two major elements: Cellular Automata and Fast Marching Method (CFMM) has been developed and used to estimate the brain tumor evolution during the time. On the basis of this model, experiments were carried out on twenty pathological MRI selected cases that were carfully discussed with the clinical part. The obtained simulated results were validated with ground truth references (real tumor growth measure) using Dice Metric parameter. As carefully discussed with the clinical partner, experimental results showed that our proposed algorithm for brain glioblastomas tumor growth model proved a good agreement. Our main purpose behind this research was of course to make advances and progress during clinical explorations helping therefore radiologists in their diagnosis. Clinical decisions and guidelines would be hence so more focused with such an advanced tool that could help clinicians and ensuring more accuracy and objectivity.
IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience 10/2015; DOI:10.1109/TNB.2015.2450365 · 2.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The preclinical stage of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is not well characterized. We conducted a brain metabolism (FDG-PET) and structural (cortical thickness) study to detect early changes in asymptomatic GRN mutation carriers (aGRN+) that were evaluated longitudinally over a 20-month period. At baseline, a left lateral temporal lobe hypometabolism was present in aGRN+ without any structural changes. Importantly, this is the first longitudinal study and, across time, the metabolism more rapidly decreased in aGRN+ in lateral temporal and frontal regions. The main structural change observed in the longitudinal study was a reduction of cortical thickness in the left lateral temporal lobe in carriers. A limit of this study is the relatively small sample (n = 16); nevertheless, it provides important results. First, it evidences that the pathological processes develop a long time before clinical onset, and that early neuroimaging changes might be detected approximately 20 years before the clinical onset of disease. Second, it suggests that metabolic changes are detectable before structural modifications and cognitive deficits. Third, both the baseline and longitudinal studies provide converging results implicating lateral temporal lobe as early involved in GRN disease. Finally, our study demonstrates that structural and metabolic changes could represent possible biomarkers to monitor the progression of disease in the presymptomatic stage toward clinical onset.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Paracetamol's (APAP) mechanism of action suggests the implication of supraspinal structures but no neuroimaging study has been performed in humans.
Methods and results:
This randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial in 17 healthy volunteers (NCT01562704) aimed to evaluate how APAP modulates pain-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. We used behavioral measures and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the response to experimental thermal stimuli with APAP or placebo administration. Region-of-interest analysis revealed that activity in response to noxious stimulation diminished with APAP compared to placebo in prefrontal cortices, insula, thalami, anterior cingulate cortex, and periaqueductal gray matter.
These findings suggest an inhibitory effect of APAP on spinothalamic tracts leading to a decreased activation of higher structures, and a top-down influence on descending inhibition. Further binding and connectivity studies are needed to evaluate how APAP modulates pain, especially in the context of repeated administration to patients with pain.
Drug Design, Development and Therapy 08/2015; 9:3853-62. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S81004 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To prospectively compare in healthy rats the effect of multiple injections of macrocyclic (gadoterate meglumine) and linear (gadodiamide) gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) on T1-weighted signal intensity in the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), including the dentate nucleus.
Materials and methods:
Healthy rats (n = 7/group) received 20 intravenous injections of 0.6 mmol of gadolinium (Gd) per kilogram (4 injections per week during 5 weeks) of gadodiamide, gadoterate meglumine, or hyperosmolar saline (control group). Brain T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before and once a week during the 5 weeks of injections and during 5 additional weeks (treatment-free period). Gadolinium concentrations were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in plasma and brain. Blinded qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the T1 signal intensity in DCN were performed, as well as a statistical analysis on quantitative data.
A significant and persistent T1 signal hyperintensity in DCN was observed only in gadodiamide-treated rats. The DCN-to-cerebellar cortex signal ratio was significantly increased from the 12th injection of gadodiamide (1.070 ± 0.024) compared to the gadoterate meglumine group (1.000 ± 0.033; P < 0.001) and control group (1.019 ± 0.022; P < 0.001) and did not significantly decrease during the treatment-free period. Total Gd concentrations in the gadodiamide group were significantly higher in the cerebellum (3.66 ± 0.91 nmol/g) compared with the gadoterate meglumine (0.26 ± 0.12 nmol/g; P < 0.05) and control (0.06 ± 0.10 nmol/g; P < 0.05) groups.
Repeated administrations of the linear GBCA gadodiamide to healthy rats are associated with progressive and persistent T1 signal hyperintensity in the DCN, with Gd deposition in the cerebellum in contrast with the macrocyclic GBCA gadoterate meglumine for which no effect was observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To design a fast and accurate semi-automated segmentation method for spinal cord 3T MR images and to construct a template of the cervical spinal cord.
A semi-automated double threshold-based method (DTbM) was proposed enabling both cross-sectional and volumetric measures from 3D T2-weighted turbo spin echo MR scans of the spinal cord at 3T. Eighty-two healthy subjects, 10 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 10 with spinal muscular atrophy and 10 with spinal cord injuries were studied. DTbM was compared with active surface method (ASM), threshold-based method (TbM) and manual outlining (ground truth). Accuracy of segmentations was scored visually by a radiologist in cervical and thoracic cord regions. Accuracy was also quantified at the cervical and thoracic levels as well as at C2 vertebral level. To construct a cervical template from healthy subjects' images (n=59), a standardization pipeline was designed leading to well-centered straight spinal cord images and accurate probability tissue map.
Visual scoring showed better performance for DTbM than for ASM. Mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was 95.71% for DTbM and 90.78% for ASM at the cervical level and 94.27% for DTbM and 89.93% for ASM at the thoracic level. Finally, at C2 vertebral level, mean DSC was 97.98% for DTbM compared with 98.02% for TbM and 96.76% for ASM. DTbM showed similar accuracy compared with TbM, but with the advantage of limited manual interaction.
A semi-automated segmentation method with limited manual intervention was introduced and validated on 3T images, enabling the construction of a cervical spinal cord template.
PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0122224. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122224 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imaging the spinal cord of spinal cord injury (SCI) patients is challenging due to pain and sores problems that could be caused by a prolonged lying position in the scanner. Once positioned within the MRI the subject cannot be displaced and therefore subject centering within the scanner (A-P and L-R directions) is not ensured. Thus, centering spinal cord images in the A-P and L-R directions is necessary to make group analysis and accurately quantifying cord atrophy in SCI patients. A Symmetry-based reorientation algorithm for the spinal cord 3T R images was proposed and evaluated on 32 data using both an imposed rotation angle and visual strategies. The proposed reorientation algorithm was proven to be efficient at C2 vertebral level.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, the concept of ‘clinically relevant penumbra’ was defined as an area saved by arterial recanalization and correlated with stroke outcome. This clinically relevant penumbra was located in the subcortical structures, especially the periventricular white matter. Our aims were to confirm this hypothesis, to investigate the impact of admission hyperglycemia and of insulin treatment on the severity of ischemic damages in this area and to study the respective contributions of infarct volume and ischemic damage severity of the clinically relevant penumbra on 3-month outcome.Methods
We included 99 patients from the INSULINFARCT trial. Voxel-Based Analysis was carried on the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) maps obtained at day one to localize the regions, which were more damaged in patients i) with poor clinical outcomes at three months and ii) without arterial recanalization. We determined the intersection of the detected areas, which represents the clinically relevant penumbra and investigated whether hyperglycemic status and insulin regimen affected the severity of ischemic damages in this area. We performed logistic regression to examine the contribution of infarct volume or early ADC decrease in this strategic area on 3-month outcome.FindingsLower ADC values were found in the corona radiata in patients with poor prognosis (p