Twan Basten

Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, North Brabant, Netherlands

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Publications (193)25.04 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A Large Scale Printer (LSP) is a Cyber Physical System (CPS) printing thousands of sheets per day with high quality. The print requests arrive at run-time requiring online scheduling. We capture the LSP scheduling problem as online scheduling of re-entrant flowshops with sequence dependent setup times and relative due dates with makespan minimization as the scheduling criterion. Exhaustive approaches like Mixed Integer Programming can be used, but they are compute intensive and not suited for online use. We present a novel heuristic for scheduling of LSPs that on average requires 0.3 seconds per sheet to find schedules for industrial test cases. We compare the schedules to lower bounds, to schedules generated by the current scheduler and schedules generated by a modified version of the classical NEH (MNEH) heuristic [1], [2]. On average, the proposed heuristic generates schedules that are 40% shorter than the current scheduler, have an average difference of 25% compared to the estimated lower bounds and generates schedules with less than 67% of the makespan of schedules generated by the MNEH heuristic.
    Design, Automation and Test in Europe, DATE 15, Grenoble, France; 03/2015
  • Marcel Steine, Marc Geilen, Twan Basten
    ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks 03/2015; 11(2):1-41. DOI:10.1145/2663354 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crucial to the success of Body Area Sensor Networks is the flexibility with which stakeholders can share, extend and adapt the system with respect to sensors, data and func-tionality. The first step is to develop an interoperable plat-form with explicit interfaces, which takes care of common management tasks. Beyond that, interoperability is defined by semantics. This paper presents the analysis, design, im-plementation and evaluation of a semantic layer within an existing BASN platform for the purpose of improving the semantic interoperability among sensor networks and appli-cations. We adopt an ontology-based approach but rather than having a single overall ontology, we find that using clear semantic domains and mappings between them improves composability and reduces interoperability problems. We discuss the design choices and a reference implementation on an Android phone and actual sensor devices. We show by a qualitative evaluation that this semantic interoperabil-ity indeed provides significant improvements in flexibility.
    9th International Conference on Body Area Networks (BodyNets 2014), London, Great Britain; 10/2014
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    Paul Brandt, Twan Basten, Sander Stuijk
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    ABSTRACT: Patient observations in health care, subjective surveys in social research or dyke sensor data in water management are all examples of measurements. Several ontologies already exist to express measurements, W3C's SSN ontology being a prominent example. However, these ontologies address quantities and properties as being equal, and ignore the foundation required to establish comparability between sensor data. Moreover, a measure of an observation in itself is almost always inconclusive without the context in which the measure was obtained. ContoExam addresses these aspects, providing for a unifying capability for context-aware expressions of observations about quantities and properties alike, by aligning them to ontological foundations, and by binding observations inextricably with their context.
    Formal Ontologies in Information Systems 2014, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil; 09/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Tasks executing on general purpose multiprocessor platforms exhibit variations in their execution times. As such, there is a need to explicitly consider robustness, i.e., tolerance to these fluctuations. This work aims to quantify the robustness of schedules of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) on multiprocessors by defining probabilistic robustness metrics and to present a new approach to perform robustness analysis to obtain these metrics. Stochastic execution times of tasks are used to compute completion time distributions which are then used to compute the metrics. To overcome the difficulties involved with the max operation on distributions, a new curve fitting approach is presented using which we can derive a distribution from a combination of analytical and limited simulation based results. The approach has been validated on schedules of time-critical applications in ASML wafer scanners.
    International Conference on Embedded Computer Systems: Architectures, Modeling, and Simulation (SAMOS XIV), 2014, Agios Konstantinos; 07/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Node mobility is a key feature of using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in many sensory applications, such as healthcare. The Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol should properly support the mobility in the network. In particular, mobility is complicated for contention-free protocols like Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). An efficient access to the shared medium is scheduled based on the node's local neighborhood. This neighborhood may vary over time due to node movement or other dynamics. In scenarios including body-area networking, for instance, some clusters of nodes move together, creating further challenges but also opportunities. This article presents a MAC protocol, MCMAC, that provides efficient support for cluster mobility in TDMA-based MAC protocols in WSNs. The proposed protocol exploits a hybrid contention-free and contention-based communication approach to support cluster mobility. This relieves the protocol from rescheduling demand due to frequent node movements. Moreover, we propose a listening scheduling mechanism to avoid idle listening to mobile nodes that leads to a considerable energy saving for sensor nodes. The protocol is validated by performing several experiments in a real-world large-scale deployment including several mobile clusters. The protocol is also evaluated by extensive simulation of networks with various scales and configurations.
    ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks 06/2014; 10(4):1-32. DOI:10.1145/2594793 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synchronous dataflow graphs (SDFGs) are widely used to model digital signal processing (DSP) and streaming media applications. In this paper, we use retiming to optimize SDFGs to achieve a high throughput with low storage requirement. Using a memory constraint as an additional enabling condition, we define a memory constrained self-timed execution of an SDFG. Exploring the state-space generated by the execution, we can check whether a retiming exists that leads to a rate-optimal schedule under the memory constraint. Combining this with a binary search strategy, we present a heuristic method to find a proper retiming and a static scheduling which schedules the retimed SDFG with optimal rate (i.e., maximal throughput) and with as little storage space as possible. Our experiments are carried out on hundreds of synthetic SDFGs and several models of real applications. Differential synthetic graph results and real application results show that, in 79% of the tested models, our method leads to a retimed SDFG whose rate-optimal schedule requires less storage space than the proven minimal storage requirement of the original graph, and in 20% of the cases, the returned storage requirements equal the minimal ones. The average improvement is about 7.3%. The results also show that our method is computationally efficient.
    17th Design, Automation and Test in Europe, DATE2014, Dresden, Germany; 03/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Gossip-based Wireless Sensor Networks (GWSNs) are complex systems of inherently random nature. Planning and designing GWSNs requires a fast and adequately accurate mechanism to estimate system performance. As a first contribution, we propose a performance analysis technique that simulates the gossip-based propagation of each single piece of data in isolation. This technique applies to GWSNs in which the dissemination of data from a specific sensor does not depend on dissemination of data generated by other sensors. We model the dissemination of a piece of data with a Stochastic-Variable Graph Model (SVGM). A SVGM is a weighted-graph abstraction in which the edges represent stochastic variables that model propagation delays between neighboring nodes. Latency and reliability performance properties are obtained efficiently through a stochastic shortest-path analysis on the SVGM using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The method is accurate and fast, applicable for both partial and complete system analysis. It outperforms traditional discrete-event simulation. As a second contribution, we propose a centrality-based stratification method that combines structural network analysis and MC partial simulation, to further increase efficiency of the system-level analysis while maintaining adequate accuracy. We analyzed the proposed performance evaluation techniques through an extensive set of experiments, using a real deployment and simulations at different levels of abstraction.
    Simulation 01/2014; 90(1):103-126. DOI:10.1177/0037549713515028 · 0.66 Impact Factor
  • International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer 01/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10009-014-0340-3
  • Majid Nabi, Marc M.C.W. Geilen, Twan A.A. Basten
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    ABSTRACT: Sensor nodes in many Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) architectures are supposed to deliver sensed data to a gateway node on the body. To satisfy the data delivery requirements, the network needs to adapt itself to the changes in connection status of the body nodes to the gateway. As a prerequisite, Link Quality Estimation (LQE) needs to be done to detect the connection status of the nodes. The quality of links in WBANs is highly time-varying. The LQE technique should be agile to react fast to such link quality dynamics while avoiding frequent fluctuations to reduce the network adaptation overhead. In this paper, we present an empirical study on using different LQE methods for detecting the connection status of body nodes to the gateway in WBANs. A set of experiments using 16 wireless motes deployed on a body are performed to log the behavior of the wireless links. We explore the trade-offs made by each LQE method in terms of agility, stability, and reliability in detecting connection changes by analyzing the experimental data. Moreover, different LQE methods are used in an adaptive multi-hop WBAN mechanism, as a case study, and their impact on the Quality-of-Services (QoS) are investigated.
    Proceedings of the 16th ACM international conference on Modeling, analysis & simulation of wireless and mobile systems; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years accurate algorithms for detecting objects in images have been developed. Among these algorithms, the object detection scheme proposed by Viola and Jones gained great popularity, especially after the release of high-quality face classifiers by the OpenCV group. However, as any other sliding-window based object detector, it is affected by a strong increase in the computational cost as the size of the scene grows. Especially in real-time applications, a search strategy based on a sliding window can be computationally too expensive. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach to adapt at run time the sliding window step size in order to speed-up the detection task without compromising the accuracy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed Run-time Adaptive Sliding Window (RASW) in improving the performance of Viola-Jones object detection by providing better throughput-accuracy tradeoffs. When comparing our approach with the OpenCV face detection implementation, we obtain up to 2.03x speedup in frames per second without any loss in accuracy.
    2013 Seventh International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras (ICDSC); 10/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Synchronous dataflow graphs (SDFGs) are used extensively to model streaming applications. An SDFG can be extended with scheduling decisions, allowing SDFG analysis to obtain properties, such as throughput or buffer sizes for the scheduled graphs. Analysis times depend strongly on the size of the SDFG. SDFGs can be statically scheduled using static-order schedules. The only generally applicable technique to model a static-order schedule in an SDFG is to convert it to a homogeneous SDFG (HSDFG). This may lead to an exponential increase in the size of the graph and to suboptimal analysis results (e.g., for buffer sizes in multiprocessors). We present techniques to model two types of static-order schedules, i.e., periodic schedules and periodic single appearance schedules, directly in an SDFG. Experiments show that both techniques produce more compact graphs compared to the technique that relies on a conversion to an HSDFG. This results in reduced analysis times for performance properties and tighter resource requirements.
    IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems 10/2013; 32(10):1495-1508. DOI:10.1109/TCAD.2013.2265852 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many combinatorial optimization problems in the embedded systems and design automation domains involve decision making in multidimensional spaces. The multidimensional multiple-choice knapsack problem (MMKP) is among the most challenging of the encountered optimization problems. MMKP problem instances appear for example in chip multiprocessor runtime resource management and in global routing of wiring in circuits. Chip multiprocessor resource management requires solving MMKP under real-time constraints, whereas global routing requires scalability of the solution approach to extremely large MMKP instances. This article presents a novel MMKP heuristic, CPH (for Compositional Pareto-algebraic Heuristic), which is a parameterized compositional heuristic based on the principles of Pareto algebra. Compositionality allows incremental computation of solutions. The parameterization allows tuning of the heuristic to the problem at hand. These aspects make CPH a very versatile heuristic. When tuning CPH for computation time, MMKP instances can be solved in real time with better results than the fastest MMKP heuristic so far. When tuning CPH for solution quality, it finds several new solutions for standard benchmarks that are not found by any existing heuristic. CPH furthermore scales to extremely large problem instances. We illustrate and evaluate the use of CPH in both chip multiprocessor resource management and in global routing.
    ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems 10/2013; 18(4). DOI:10.1145/2541012.2541014 · 0.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Latest trends in embedded platform architectures show a steady shift from high frequency single core platforms to lower-frequency but highly-parallel execution platforms. Scheduling applications with stringent latency requirements on such multiprocessor platforms is challenging. Our work is motivated by the scheduling challenges faced by ASML, the world's leading provider of wafer scanners. A wafer scanner is a complex cyber-physical system that manipulates silicon wafers with extreme accuracy at high throughput. Typical control applications of the wafer scanner consist of thousands of precedence-constrained tasks with latency requirements. Machines are customized so that precise characteristics of the control applications to be scheduled and the execution platform are only known during machine start-up. This results in large-scale scheduling problems that need to be solved during start-up of the machine under a strict timing constraint on the schedule delivery time. This paper introduces a fast and scalable static-order scheduling approach for applications with stringent latency requirements and a fixed binding on multiprocessor platforms. It uses a heuristic that makes scheduling decisions based on a new metric to find feasible schedules that meet timing requirements as quickly as possible and it is shown to be scalable to very large task graphs. The computation of this metric exploits the binding information of the application. The approach will be incorporated into the ASML's latest generation of wafer scanners.
    Proceedings of the 2013 Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design; 09/2013
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a collaborative procedure for multiobjective global routing. Our procedure takes multiple global routing solutions, which are generated independently (e.g., by one router that runs in different modes concurrently or by different routers running in parallel), as input. It then performs multiobjective optimization based on Pareto algebra and quickly generates multiple global routing solutions with a tradeoff between the considered objectives. The user can control the number of generated solutions and the degree of exploring the tradeoff between them by constraining the maximum allowable degradation in each objective. This paper then considers the following three multiobjective case studies: 1) minimization of interconnect power and wirelength; 2) minimization of routing congestion and wirelength; and 3) minimization of wirelength with respect to the (finite-capacity) routing resources. The maximum allowable degradation in wirelength is specified in all cases. Our multiobjective procedure runs in only a few minutes for each of the International Symposium on Physical Design 2008 benchmarks, even the unroutable ones, which imposes a tolerable overhead in the design flow. In our simulations, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our procedure using five modern academic global routers.
    IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems 07/2013; 21(7):1308-1321. DOI:10.1109/TVLSI.2012.2205717 · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Much effort has been spent on the optimization of sensor networks, mainly concerning their performance and power efficiency. Furthermore, open communication protocols for the exchange of sensor data have been developed and widely adopted, making sensor data widely available for software applications. However, less attention has been given to the interoperability of sensor networks and sensor network applications at a semantic level. This hinders the reuse of sensor networks in different applications and the evolution of existing sensor networks and their applications. The main contribution of this paper is an ontology-based approach and architecture to address this problem. We developed an ontology that covers concepts regarding examinations as well as measurements, including the circumstances in which the examination and measurement have been performed. The underlying architecture secures a loose coupling at the semantic level to facilitate reuse and evolution. The ontology has the potential of supporting not only correct interpretation of sensor data, but also ensuring its appropriate use in accordance with the purpose of a given sensor network application. The ontology has been specialized and applied in a remote patient monitoring example, demonstrating the aforementioned potential in the e-health domain.
    Computational Intelligence in Healthcare and e-health (CICARE), 2013 IEEE SSCI Symposium on, Singapore; 04/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Dynamic behavior of streaming applications can be effectively modeled by scenario-aware dataflow graphs (SADFs). Many streaming applications must provide timing guarantees (e.g., throughput) to assure their quality-of-service. For instance, a video decoder which is running on a mobile device is expected to deliver a video stream with a specific frame rate. Moreover, the energy consumption of such applications on handheld devices should be as low as possible. This paper proposes a technique to select a suitable multiprocessor DVFS point for each mode (scenario) of a dynamic application described by an SADF. The technique assures strict timing guarantees while minimizing energy consumption. The technique is evaluated by applying it to several streaming applications. It solves the problem faster than the state of the art technique for dataflow graphs. Moreover, the DVFS controller devised using the proposed technique is more compact and reduces energy consumption compared to the controller devised using the counterpart technique.
    Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE 19th Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS); 04/2013
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    ABSTRACT: This paper provides an overview of the architecture for self-organizing, co-operative and robust Building Automation Systems (BAS) proposed by the EC funded FP7 SCUBA1 project. We describe the current situation in monitoring and control systems and outline the typical stakeholders involved in the case of building automation systems. We derive seven typical use cases which will be demonstrated and evaluated on pilot sites. From these use cases the project designed an architecture relying on six main modules that realize the design, commissioning and operation of self-organizing, co-operative, robust BAS.
    Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013 - 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: There is a strong push towards smart buildings that aim to achieve comfort, safety and energy efficiency, through building automation systems (BAS) that incorporate multiple subsystems such as heating and air-conditioning, lighting, access control etc. The design, commissioning and operation of BAS is already challenging when handling an individual subsystem; however when introducing co-operation between systems the complexity increases dramatically. Balancing the contradictory requirements of comfort, safety and energy efficiency and coping with the dynamics of constantly changing environmental conditions, usage patterns, user needs etc. is a demanding task. This paper outlines an approach to the systematic engineering of cooperating, adaptive building automation systems, which aims to formalize the engineering approach in the form of an integrated tool chain that supports the building stakeholders to produce site-specific robust and reliable building automation.
    Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013 - 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: The complexity of today’s embedded systems is increasing rapidly. Ever more functionality is realised in software, for reasons of cost and flexibility. This leads to many implementation alternatives that vary in functionality, performance, hardware, etc. To cope with this complexity, systematic development support during the early phases of design is needed. Model-driven development provides this support. It bridges the gap between ad-hoc back-of-the-envelope or spreadsheet calculations and physical prototypes. Models provide insight in system-level performance characteristics of potential implementation options and are a good means of documentation and communication. They ultimately lead to shorter, more predictable development times and better controlled product quality. This chapter presents the Octopus tool set for model-driven design-space exploration. It supports designers in modelling and analysing design alternatives for embedded software and hardware. It follows the Y-chart paradigm, which advocates a separation between application software functionality, platform implementation choices, and the mapping of software functionality onto the platform. The tool set enables fast and accurate exploration of design alternatives for software-intensive embedded systems.
    Model-Based Design of Adaptive Embedded Systems, 01/2013: pages ??-??; Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Publication Stats

3k Citations
25.04 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2014
    • Technische Universiteit Eindhoven
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering
      • • Embedded Systems Institute (ESI)
      • • Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
      Eindhoven, North Brabant, Netherlands
  • 2013
    • Schneider Electric
      Rueil, Île-de-France, France
    • Cork Institute of Technology
      Corcaigh, Munster, Ireland
  • 2010–2012
    • Embedded Systems Institute
      Eindhoven, North Brabant, Netherlands