Publications (3)6.33 Total impact
Article: Non‐depleting anti‐CD4, but not anti‐CD8, antibody induces long‐term survival of xenogeneic and allogeneic hearts in α1,3‐galactosyltransferase knockout (GT‐Ko) mice[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The anti-galactose-1,3-galactose (Gal) antibody (Ab) response following pig-to-human transplantation is vigorous and largely resistant to currently available immunosuppression. The recent generation of GT-Ko mice provides a unique opportunity to study the immunological basis of xenograft-elicited anti-Gal Ab response in vivo, and to test the efficacy of various strategies at controlling this Ab response . In this study, we compared the ability of non-depleting anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 to control rejection and antibody production in GT-Ko mice following xenograft and allograft transplantation.Hearts from baby Lewis rat or C3H mice were transplanted heterotopically into GT-Ko. Non-depleting anti-CD4 (YTS177) and anti-CD8 (YTS105) Abs were used at 1 mg/mouse, and given as four doses daily from day −2 to 1 then q.o.d. till day 21. Xenograft rejection occurred at 3 to 5 days post-transplantation in untreated GT-Ko recipients, and was histologically characterized as vascular rejection. Anti-CD4, but not anti-CD8, Ab treatment prolonged xenograft survival to 68 to 74 days and inhibited anti-Gal Ab as well as xeno-Ab production. In four of the five hearts from anti-CD4 mAbs-treated GT-Ko mice, we observed classic signs of chronic rejection, namely, thickened intima in the lumen of vessels, significant IgM deposition, fibrosis and modest mononuclear cell infiltrate of Mac-1+ macrophages and scattered T cells (CD8 > CD4). Xenograft rejection in untreated, as well as anti-CD4- and anti-CD8-treated, recipients was associated with increased intragraft IL-6, IFN- and IL-10 mRNA.C3H allografts were rejected in 7 to 9 days by untreated GT-Ko mice and were histologically characterized as cellular rejection. Treatment with anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 mAb resulted in graft survivals of > 94.8 and 11.8 days, respectively. Anti-CD4 mAb treatment resulted in a transient inhibition of alloreactive and anti-Gal Ab production. The presence of circulating alloreactive and anti-Gal Abs at > 50 days post-transplant was associated with significant IgM and IgG deposition in the graft. Yet, in the anti-CD4 mAb-treated group, the allografts showed no signs of rejection at the time of sacrifice (> 100 days post-transplantation). All rejected allografts had elevated levels of intragraft IL-6, IFN- and IL-10 mRNA, while the long-surviving anti-CD4-treated allografts had reduced mRNA levels of these cytokines.Collectively, our studies suggest that the elicited xeno-antibody production and anti-Gal Ab production in GT-Ko mice are CD4+ T-cell dependent. The majority of xenografts succumbed to chronic rejection, while allografts survived with minimal histological change, despite elevated levels of circulating alloAbs. Thus, immunosuppression with anti-CD4 mAb therapy induces long-term survival of allografts more effectively than to xenografts.Xenotransplantation 12/2001; 7(4):275 - 283. · 2.33 Impact Factor
Article: Histological Characterization and Pharmacological Control of Chronic Rejection in Xenogeneic and Allogeneic Heart Transplantation1[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. Chronic allograft rejection remains a major barrier to successful long-term allograft transplantation in humans. Chronic allograft rejection is characterized by the appearance of arterial lesions with concentric intimal thickening. This study investigates the development and control of chronic rejection in hamster cardiac xenografts transplanted into Lewis rats. Methods. Chronic rejection in the xenograft model involves transplantation of hamster hearts into Lewis rats treated with leflunomide (Lef) continuously at 15 mg/kg/day. The allograft model involves transplantation of Lewis hearts into Fisher-334 rats treated with cyclosporine (CsA) at 2.5 mg/kg for 5 days. Results. The average scores of arterial intimal thickening on day 45 after transplantation were 1.89±0.43 in the xenograft and 2.50±0.72 in the allograft. The basic pathology of both xenografts and allografts undergoing chronic rejection was arterial intimal thickening comprising smooth muscle cell proliferation, mononuclear cell infiltration, and fibrosis. The majority of cells infiltrating the arterial intima and myocardium were T cells and macrophages. Compared with the allograft, intimal edema, matrix deposition and fibrinoid necrosis were specifically presented in the xenografts and generally involved the larger arteries. The predominant isotype of antibody deposited was IgM in xenografts and IgG in allografts. When combined Lef and CsA therapy was initiated on day 45 after transplantation, the changes of chronic rejection were reversed in both xenografts and allografts by day 90. The scores of intimal thickening were significantly reduced to 0.97±0.45 and 1.48±0.56, respectively. Conclusions. We conclude that chronic rejection can be induced in xenografts under conditions of inadequate immunosuppression. Chronic rejection in xenografts involves arterial lesions that bear some histological similarities to, as well as differences from, those observed in chronically rejected allografts. Finally, combination therapy with CsA and Lef reduced the incidence and severity of the intimal lesions in both chronically rejecting xenografts and allografts.Transplantation 09/1998; 66(6):692-698. · 4.00 Impact Factor
Article: Anti-galactose-α(1,3) galactose antibody production in α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout mice after xeno and allo transplantation[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Antibodies (Abs) that mediate the hyperacute rejection and acute vascular rejection/delayed xenograft rejection of pig organs in humans and Old World primates are predominantly directed at a single carbohydrate epitope, galactose-α1,3-galactose (α1,3Gal). The T-cell dependence of elicited anti-α1,3Gal Ab responses in humans and Old World primates is controversial. In this study we have characterized anti-α1,3Gal Ab production in mice with disrupted α1,3-galactosyltransferase genes (GT-Ko mice) and determined the T-cell dependence of anti-α1,3Gal Ab responses, following xenograft and allograft transplantation. GT-Ko mice produce natural anti-α1,3Gal IgM and IgG in an age-dependent manner, however, these Abs could not elicit hyperacute rejection nor affect the rate of cardiac xenograft (3–5 days) or allograft rejection (7–9 days). Transplantation of xenogeneic Lewis rats hearts elicited modest anti-α1,3Gal Ab, but vigorous xenoAb responses. The anti-α1,3Gal Ab response was restricted to the IgM and IgG3 subclass while the xenoAb response comprised IgM and all four IgG subclasses. Transplantation of allogeneic C3H hearts elicited weak anti-α1,3Gal Ab responses that were primarily IgM, but vigorous alloAb responses. Despite the restriction of elicited anti-α1,3Gal Ab responses to the IgM and IgG3 isotypes, these responses are T-cell dependent. The ability of allografts to elicit weak anti-α1,3Gal but strong allo-Ab responses, can be explained by the dependence of α1,3Gal-specific B cells on cognate help from T cells.Transplant Immunology.