[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Derivatives of dimethy-2-phenoxyethylsulfonium p-toluenesulfonate (1) were evaluated for anti-allergic activity to develop the drug for treatment of type I allergic diseases as a lead optimization step. The IgE-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) of rats was inhibited upon oral administration by 3-ethoxy, 3-phenoxy, and 2,3-diethoxypropoxyphenoxy derivatives. The lead compound 2-[4-(3-ethoxy-2-hydroxypropoxy)phenoxy]ethyldimethyl-sulfonium p-toluenesulfonate (11) was selected as a candidate for preclinical study by considering its toxicity and cholinergic activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synopsis To elucidate the correlation between the physicochemical properties and biological activity of sulfonium compound, the kinetics of H-D exchange and methyl transfer reactions were investigated as its remarkable properties. There was a good correlation between acute toxicity (LD 50) and rate constants of H-D exchange or methyl transfer reactions. The control of toxicity is very important in the development of a new drug. The high reactivity of methyl group was not desirable in acute toxicity, therefore, sulfonium p-toluenesulfonates that do not contain unsaturated carbon as a substituent of sulfur were desirable for reducing toxicity. Furthermore it was revealed that OH and COOH groups reduced acute toxicity substantially. The information on toxicity reduction was used in the design of Suplatast Tosilate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The derivatives of dimethyl-2-(phenylcarbamoyl)ethylsulfonium p-toluenesulfonates were synthesized and evaluated for antiallergic activity. The 2,3-dihydroxyethoxy group was introduced to the phenyl ring from the standpoint of lipophilicity and electronic effects of substituent. The IgE-induced rat passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) was inhibited by oral administration of several substituted 2-[(4-propoxyphenyl)carbamoyl]ethyldimethylsulfonium p-toluenesulfonate derivatives. Among them (+/-)-2-[N-[4-(3-ethoxy-2-hydroxypropoxy)phenyl]carbamoyl]ethyldimeth ylsulfonium p-toluenesulfonate (1a, IPD-1151T) was found to possess considerable activity in the PCA test, and it was launched as Suplatast tosilate in Japan.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/1998; 41(18):3330-6. · 5.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of betotastine besilate (betotastine: TAU-284), a novel antiallergic drug, on homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), mediator-induced cutaneous reaction, antigen-induced asthmatic responses and platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced airway eosinophilia in several animal models, were compared to ketotifen. Betotastine (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) and ketotifen (1 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited both rat PCA and histamine-induced cutaneous reaction, whereas they showed little effect on serotonin-induced cutaneous reaction. Betotastine (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.) and ketotifen (1 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited antigen-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs which had been passively sensitized with guinea pig IgE antibody. In actively sensitized guinea pigs, the immediate and late phase increase in airway resistance (Rrs) were observed within 5 min and between 4 and 7 h after the aeroantigen challenge. Betotastine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited both responses. Ketotifen (1 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited the immediate phase response, but did not affect the late phase response. Exposure of guinea pigs to aerosolized PAF increased the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24 h after the stimulation. Betotastine (3–10 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited PAF-induced accumulation of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar cavity. In contrast, cetirizine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) showed a tendency to inhibit eosinophil accumulation, and ketotifen (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and terfenadine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) did not have any affect. These results indicate that betotastine could be useful in the treatment of allergic disease such as bronchial asthma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. We examined the effects of TYB-2285 and its metabolites (TC-286 and TC-326) on antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. 2. Splenic lymphocytes from C57BL/6 strain mice sensitized with human serum albumin were cultured with the antigen in the presence of TYB-2285 or its metabolites (10(-7)-10(-4) M). The lymphocyte proliferation enhanced by antigen was inhibited by TYB-2285 and its metabolites in a dose-dependent manner. 3. Splenic lymphocytes collected from C57BL/6 and Balb/C strain mice were cocultured in the presence of TYB-2285 and its metabolites (10(-7)-10(-4) M). Allogeneic MLR was inhibited by TYB-2285 and its metabolites in a dose-dependent manner. 4. Splenic lymphocytes from C47BL/6 strain mice were cultured with concanavalin A (Con A) in the presence of TYB-2285 and its metabolites (10(-7)-10(-4) M). TYB-2285 and its metabolites did not affect Con A-induced lymphocyte proliferation. Cyclosporin A showed an inhibitory effect on Con A-induced lymphocyte proliferation that was as strong as the inhibitory effect on antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and allogeneic MLR at a lower concentration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported that the 5-fluorouridine derivative, 2',3',5'-tris-O-[N(2-n-propyl-n-pentanoylglycyl]-5-fluorouridine (UK-21), is a newly synthesized lowly immunosuppressive and potent antitumor drug in comparison with other fluorouridine derivatives such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), 5-fluorouridine (5-FUR) and 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (5-FUDR). In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of antitumor activity of UK-21, we compared the effect of the four drugs on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and macromolecular syntheses. When KB cells were subjected to a colony-forming inhibition assay designed to expose the cells to the drugs for 4-96 h and wash out, UK-21 and 5-FUR inhibited the colony formation at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 microM, whereas 1-100 microM was needed for the cytotoxicity of 5-FU and 5-FUDR. By exposure for 24-48 h, all these drugs inhibited cell growth and caused accumulation of the cells in S or G2 phase at almost the same concentrations of 0.32-8 microM. These results suggest that the cytotoxic effects of UK-21 and 5-FUR are irreversible, while those of 5-FU and 5-FUDR are reversible. To confirm this, KB cells were treated with UK-21 and/or 5-FU for 1 h, and continued to be cultured for 1-7 days, resulting in the inhibition of the cell growth by UK-21 in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations of 10-100 microM, but not by 5-FU even at 100 microM. UK-21, 5-FUR and 5-FU showed a linear relationship between exposure time and IC50 in the colony formation assay with a slope of almost -1, but 5-FUDR did not, suggesting that UK-21, 5-FUR and 5-FU are cell cycle non-specific inhibitors, while 5-FUDR is a cell cycle-specific inhibitor. UK-21 and 5-FUR, but not 5-FU and 5-FUDR inhibited the incorporation of [3H]uridine into the acid insoluble fraction, while UK-21 and 5-FUDR, but not 5-FUR and 5-FU inhibited the incorporation of [3H]thymidine. These results suggest that irreversible cytotoxic effects of UK-21 like 5-FUR are exerted through inhibition of RNA synthesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of 3,5-bis-(acetoxyacetylamino)-4-chloro-benzonitrile (TYB-2285) on the accumulation of eosinophils in the peritoneal cavity of Wistar rats sensitized with Ascaris suum extract (Asc). 2. Rats were sensitized by IP injection of Asc on day 0 and were challenged by IP injection of Asc on day 7. Antigen challenge caused a specific, delayed infiltration of eosinophils into the peritoneal cavity that was inhibited by PO administration of TYB-2285, but not ketotifen fumarate, in a dose-dependent manner (3-30 mg/kg). 3. TYB-2285 inhibited the infiltration of eosinophils when during the induction phase, but not during the effector phase. The inhibitory effect of TYB-2285 when during the induction phase was stronger than any other antiallergic drugs, such as tranilast, azelastine, ibudilast, repirinast, tazanolast, oxatomide, or pemirolast. 4. Transfer of lymphocytes, but not serum, from sensitized rats to intact rats provoked a remarkable infiltration of eosinophils after the antigen challenge. In the experiment of adoptive transfer in rats, TYB-2285 was effective when given to donor rats. 5. These results demonstrate that TYB-2285 inhibits the accumulation of eosinophils presumably by inhibiting antigen recognition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. The effect of TYB-2285 on the antigen-induced accumulation of eosinophils into the airway was investigated in two models (inhalant sensitization and noninhalant sensitization) using Brown Norway (BN) rats. 2. In the method of inhalant sensitization, BN rats were sensitized by weekly exposure to ovalbumin (OA). The accumulation of eosinophils was inhibited by the oral administration of TYB-2285 for the first 2 days of each sensitization in a dose-dependent manner. 3. With noninhalant sensitization, BN rats were sensitized by i.m. injection of OA and i.p. injection of killed Bordetella pertussis. The accumulation of eosinophils was inhibited by TYB-2285 in a dose-dependent manner, when TYB-2285 is given p.o. 5 mm before and 5 hr after the antigen exposure. Moreover, this accumulation of eosinophils was inhibited by a single administration of TYB-2285 5 hr after the antigen exposure, presumably when the mast cell degranulation was already finished. 4. In the method with noninhalant sensitization, the accumulation of eosinophils was not inhibited by mast cell stabilizers such as ketotifen, tranilast, or DSCG. 5. The present study demonstrates that TYB-2285, unlike other mast cell stabilizers, inhibits the antigen-induced accumulation of eosinophils into the airway. It also suggests that this drug might be effective in asthmatic patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. TYB-2285 (1-30 mg/kg p.o.) inhibited ovalbumin (OA)- and dinitrophenyl-Ascaris (DNPAs)-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in a dose-dependent manner. 2. The ED50 of TYB-2285 and ketotifen fumarate on OA-induced PCA were 0.5 and 3.9 mg/kg, respectively. The ED50 of TYP-2285 and amlexanox on DNP-As-induced PCA were 3.5 and 0.9 mg/ kg, respectively. 3. TYB-2285 (3-30 mg/kg p.o.) inhibited histamine consumption at the PCA site. 4. Unlike cyproheptadine or amlexanox, TYB-2285 (30 mg/kg p.o.) did not inhibit histamine-, serotonin-, ascites-, 48/80-, or A23187-induced capillary permeability. It inhibited dextran-induced capillary permeability slightly. 5. These results demonstrate that TYB-2285 inhibits PCA by inhibiting histamine release, although it does not inhibit capillary permeability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. We examined the effect of TYB-2285 on the acute phase and the late phase of lung anaphylaxis in rats. 2. TYB-2285 (3-30 mg/kg PO) inhibited antigen-induced bronchoconstriction and TxB2 production during the acute phase of lung anaphylaxis in a dose-dependent manner. 3. Ketotifen fumarate (30 mg/kg p.o.) inhibited bronchoconstriction and TxB2 production less potently than TYB-2285. 4. TYB-2285 (30 mg/kg p.o.) inhibited the accumulation of neutrophils during the late phase of lung anaphylaxis significantly without a significant change in total cells. 5. Hydrocortisone acetate (100 mg/kg p.o.) inhibited the accumulation of total cells as potent as neutrophils.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suplatast tosilate (suplatast) is an antiallergic agent capable of down-regulating the functions of CD4+ T cells. We now investigated the effects of suplatast on the antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and the underlying allergic inflammatory response in sensitized guinea pigs. Animals that had been immunized twice by ovalbumin inhalation on day 0 and day 7 developed an increased airway responsiveness against inhaled acetylcholine 24 h after the ovalbumin challenge on day 14. Suplatast (10 and 100 mg/kg per day) and ketotifen (10 mg/kg per day) given orally from day 0 to day 14 effectively inhibited the expression of airway hyperresponsiveness. They also inhibited the infiltration of eosinophils and macrophages into broncho-bronchiolar walls and lumen. Interestingly, suplatast, but not ketotifen, inhibited the infiltration of lymphocytes including CD4+ T cells. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that suplatast prevents the expression of airway hyperresponsiveness due to the ability to suppress the infiltration of inflammatory cells into lung tissues.
European Journal of Pharmacology 01/1997; 318(2-3):447-54. · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have reported that tranilast, an anti-allergic drug that inhibits chemical mediator release from mast cells, suppresses bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice through mechanisms other than inhibiting chemical mediator release from mast cells. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of tranilast on alveolar macrophage (AM) activation and on the development of fibrosis in ICR mice instilled with BLM intratracheally. Twenty eight days after the BLM instillation (0.01 mg/mouse), AM often migrated into alveolar spaces surrounding the fibrotic areas. Flow cytometry analysis for the size and density of AM (MAC-1 positive cells) suggested that AM were activated not only in the earlier acute inflammatory phase, but also in the later chronic phase. The p.o. administration of tranilast suppressed an increase of AM activity to produce reactive oxygen species in BLM-instilled mice, and it inhibited the subsequent development of pulmonary fibrosis. In vitro treatment with tranilast suppressed the reactive oxygen species production from murine peritoneal macrophages. However, several different anti-oxidants failed to inhibit the development of fibrosis. These results suggest that the activation of AM plays an important role in the development of fibrosis, and it is likely that tranilast suppresses fibrosis by inhibiting AM activation but not by scavenging reactive oxygen species.
The Japanese Journal of Pharmacology 05/1995; 67(4):279-89.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Exposure of sensitized Brown Norway (BN) rats to ovalbumin aerosol induced a remarkable and a sustained accumulation of eosinophils into broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. 2. When male BN rats, sensitized by i.m. injection of ovalbumin and i.p. injection of killed Bordetella pertussis, were exposed to the antigen on day 14, eosinophils accumulated into BAL fluid, maximal 48 hr after antigen exposure. This accumulation of eosinophils was inhibited completely by administration of cyclosporin A (Cs A, 50 mg/kg/day) during induction phase, whereas it was inhibited slightly by administration of CsA (50 mg/kg) during the effector phase. 3. When BN rats were sensitized by weekly exposure of ovalbumin, eosinophils accumulated into BAL fluid, maximal 48 hr after the third exposure of antigen. The accumulation of eosinophils by this method was observed only in female rats and was inhibited completely by administration of CsA (50 mg/kg) during induction phase, whereas it was inhibited slightly by administration of CsA (50 mg/kg) during effector phase. 4. The present study demonstrates similarities and differences between two models of eosinophilia and also suggests increased function of T cells in BN rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously we have isolated the quaternary base alkaloids, magnoflorine and phellodendrine, from Phellodendri Cortex (cortex of Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Rutaceae) as the biologically active principles to suppress local graft-versus-host (GvH) reactions in mice. In this paper, we focus on phellodendrine. Phellodendrine suppressed local semisyngeneic GvH reactions and systemic allogeneic GvH reactions in X-ray irradiated recipient mice. Phellodendrine also suppressed the induction phase of sheep red blood cell (SRBC)-induced delayed type hypersensitivity in mice and tuberculin-induced delayed type hypersensitivity in guinea pigs, but did not suppress the effector phase of these reactions. Surprisingly, phellodendrine, unlike prednisolone and cyclophosphamide, did not affect antibody production in mice to SRBC. Phellodendrine was expected to be a valuable new type of immunosuppressor against the cellular immune response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that Wen-Qing-Yin (Unsei-in), a traditional Chinese blended medicine, inhibited the induction phase of various kinds of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and local graft-versus-host (GvH) reactions, but did not affect humoral immune responses or the effector phase of DTH in experimental animals. In another report, we demonstrated that Phellodendri Cortex (bark of Phellodendron amurense Rupr. Rutaceae) was a component having the most potent suppressive effect on the cellular immune response among the 8 medical plants composing Unsei-in. In the present study, we isolated OB-1 and OB-5 from Phellodendri Cortex as the biologically active principles to suppress local GvH reactions in mice. OB-1 and OB-5 are quaternary base alkaloids known as magnoflorine and phellodendrine, respectively. They suppressed the local GvH reaction, when given i.p. to the host mice at 5-20 mg/kg for 8 consecutive days from the day of spleen cell transfer to cause the reaction. Both OB-1 and OB-5 suppressed picryl chloride-induced delayed type hypersensitivity (PC-DTH) when given i.p. to mice at 10 and 20 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days from the day of the sensitization, but did not suppress it when given at the time of the challenge. These results suggest that OB-1 and OB-5 suppress the induction phase but not the effector phase of the cellular immune response. They are expected to have a value as a new type of immunosuppressor.