Reina Y. Arakji

American University of Beirut, Beyrouth, Beyrouth, Lebanon

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Publications (8)3.63 Total impact

  • Reina Y. Arakji, Karl R. Lang
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines how innovative business practices are developed, diffuse across organizations, and effect industry-level change. Applying evolutionary economics and evolutionary organizational theory as a theoretical lens, it conceptualizes the adoption and diffusion of innovations as a dynamic process whereby innovations propagate vertically within firms via successive instantiations (or generations) as well as horizontally across firms via imitation and replication. Innovations that describe observable, transparent, and transferable business practices are the specific concern. Examples from management, software development, and e-commerce support the theoretical analysis. A two-level study, based on a formal stochastic process model, examines how innovations arise, which innovations do or do not survive in the market, and whether and under what conditions best practices emerge and industry standardization is achieved. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Electronic Commerce is the property of M.E. Sharpe Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
    International Journal of Electronic Commerce 10/2010; 15(1):145-168. · 1.43 Impact Factor
  • Karl Reiner Lang, Reina Y. Arakji
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the question of how innovations are generated in and diffuse across Web 2.0 service platforms and effect change at the industry level. We apply evolutionary economics and evolutionary organizational theory as a theoretical lens and conceptualize the adoption and diffusion of innovations as a dynamic process where innovations propagate vertically within firms via successive product releases (or generations) as well as horizontally across firms via imitation and replication. We develop a formal stochastic process model that allows us to design a multi-level study that examines how innovations arise, which innovations survive in the market and which do not, and if and under what conditions industry standardization is achieved.
    43rd Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science (HICSS-43 2010), Proceedings, 5-8 January 2010, Koloa, Kauai, HI, USA; 01/2010
  • Reina Y. Arakji, Karl Reiner Lang
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the question of how innovations diffuse across web 2.0 business designs and affect change at the industry level. We apply evolutionary theory as a theoretical lens and conceptualize the adoption and diffusion of innovations as a dynamic process where innovations propagate vertically within firms via successive product releases as well as horizontally across firms via imitation and replication. We develop a formal stochastic process model that allows us to design a multi-level study that examines which innovations survive in the market and which do not and if and under what conditions industry standardization is achieved.
    06/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: Our study examines whether users’ contributions of public resources to social bookmarking sites are circumstantial (a side effect of bookmarking for oneself), or motivational (intentional bookmarking for others). We develop a research model based on these two explanations and test it using survey data from users of two bookmarking sites. Our results suggest that public contributions are mainly driven by intentional bookmarking of resources for other users. In addition, we found that users deliberately bookmark resources for others when they believe that their bookmarks are valuable to other users and when they perceive that other users are contributing as well.
    Decision Support Systems 06/2009; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    Reina Y. Arakji, Karl Reiner Lang
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    ABSTRACT: The recent years have seen the emergence of a number of virtual worlds with various designs and purposes. Some have become very popular and have developed growing in-world economies. Real-world businesses are increasingly experimenting with doing virtual business there as well. In this paper, we present Avatar Business Value Analysis, a novel theoretical framework and a computational method and decision tool to help evaluate and strategically manage business value creation inside synthetic environments, and show how it can be applied to cost-benefit analysis in practical settings. The decision-tree-based method includes traffic metrics that may be used to empirically estimate the business value of virtual commerce ventures. We also investigate some intangible factors that are impacting these metrics in the context of the particular case of the virtual world Second Life and discuss their implications. We conclude by outlining strategies that could be considered by the operators of virtual worlds and the real corporations in order to promote sustainable virtual business in synthetic environments.
    06/2008;
  • Reina Y. Arakji, Karl Reiner Lang
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines new forms of collaboration between producers and consumers that are emerging in the digital entertainment space. Taking the case of the video-game industry, we show how firms have successfully engaged in outsourcing parts of their game design and development process to digital consumer networks. Applying economic analysis, we explore the potential benefits to both producers and consumers. We also discuss implications with respect to copyright enforcement on firm strategy for innovation. We finally indicate potential research areas in producer-consumer collaboration for innovation in general and in the music and moving image industries in particular, the value of digital consumer networks, as well as the effect of outsourcing to consumers on social surplus and the boundary of the firm
    40th Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science (HICSS-40 2007), CD-ROM / Abstracts Proceedings, 3-6 January 2007, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA; 01/2007
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    Reina Y. Arakji, Karl Reiner Lang
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines new forms of collaboration between producers and consumers that are emerging in the digital entertainment space. Taking the case of the video game industry, we show how some firms have opened a portion of their proprietary content for transformation by consumers and allowed the development of consumer-designed and consumer-implemented derivative products. By re-appropriating these derivatives, video game firms are successfully outsourcing parts of their game design and development process to digital consumer networks. Applying economic analysis, we explore the potential benefits and risks associated with outsourcing to networks of consumers. We also derive the optimal combination of copyright enforcement and consumer compensation. Our results suggest that profit-maximizing producers of video games have incentive to partially open game content to their users and to remunerate the most innovative ones, under the condition that the derivatives constitute complements to, and not substitutes for, the original product. We discuss the implications on firm strategy for innovation.
    J. of Management Information Systems. 01/2007; 24:195-219.
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    Reina Y. Arakji, Karl Reiner Lang
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    ABSTRACT: Applying economic analysis, we explore the potential benefits and risks associated with firm-based and social production models and derive conditions that determine when open or closed innovation models are more appropriate. We contrast the newly emerging "user-generated approach" to innovation in virtual worlds with the traditional "producer-controlled approach". Taking the cases of World of Warcraft and Second Life, we show how the two virtual world providers use very different strategies to organize the creation of game content. We conclude with presenting a roadmap that businesses can use to conceive effective innovation and development strategies for designing virtual world offerings.
    DATA BASE. 01/2007; 38:32-39.

Publication Stats

66 Citations
3.63 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010
    • American University of Beirut
      Beyrouth, Beyrouth, Lebanon
    • City University of New York - Bernard M. Baruch College
      • Zicklin School of Business
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2007–2009
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States