Banibrata Mukhopadhyay

The Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Poona, Mahārāshtra, India

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Publications (69)179.22 Total impact

  • Upasana Das, Banibrata Mukhopadhyay
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    ABSTRACT: We show that the upper bound for the central magnetic field of a super-Chandrasekhar white dwarf calculated by Nityananda and Konar [Phys. Rev. D 89, 103017 (2014)] is completely erroneous. This in turn strengthens the argument in favor of the stability of the recently proposed magnetized super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs. We also point out several other numerical errors in their work. Overall we conclude, based on our calculations, that the arguments put forth by Nityananda and Konar are fallacious and misleading.
    06/2014;
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    Upasana Das, Banibrata Mukhopadhyay
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    ABSTRACT: We address the issue of stability of recently proposed significantly super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs. We present stable solutions of magnetostatic equilibrium models for super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs pertaining to various magnetic field profiles. This has been obtained by self-consistently including the effects of the magnetic pressure gradient and total magnetic density in a general relativistic framework. We estimate that the maximum stable mass of magnetized white dwarfs could be more than 3 solar mass. This is very useful to explain peculiar, overluminous type Ia supernovae which do not conform to the traditional Chandrasekhar mass-limit.
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 04/2014; 2014(06). · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    Indrani Banerjee, Banibrata Mukhopadhyay
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate nucleosynthesis inside the outflows from gamma-ray burst (GRB) accretion disks formed by the Type II collapsars. In these collapsars, massive stars undergo core collapse to form a proto-neutron star initially and a mild supernova explosion is driven. The supernova ejecta lack momentum and subsequently this newly formed neutron star gets transformed to a stellar mass black hole via massive fallback. The hydrodynamics and the nucleosynthesis in these accretion disks has been studied extensively in the past. Several heavy elements are synthesized in the disk and much of these heavy elements are ejected from the disk via winds and outflows. We study nucleosynthesis in the outflows launched from these disks by using an adiabatic, spherically expanding outflow model, to understand which of these elements thus synthesized in the disk survive in the outflow. While studying this we find that many new elements like isotopes of titanium, copper, zinc etc. are present in the outflows. 56Ni is abundantly synthesized in most of the cases in the outflow which implies that the outflows from these disks in a majority of cases will lead to an observable supernova explosion. It is mainly present when outflow is considered from the He-rich, 56Ni/54Fe rich zones of the disks. However, outflow from the Si-rich zone of the disk remains rich in silicon. Although, emission lines of many of these heavy elements have been observed in the X-ray afterglows of several GRBs by Chandra, BeppoSAX, XMM-Newton etc., Swift seems to have not detected these lines yet.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2013; 778(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    Indrani Banerjee, Banibrata Mukhopadhyay
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    ABSTRACT: Stellar mass black holes (SMBHs), forming by the core collapse of very massive, rapidly rotating stars, are expected to exhibit a high density accretion disk around them developed from the spinning mantle of the collapsing star. A wide class of such disks, due to their high density and temperature, are effective emitters of neutrinos and hence called neutrino cooled disks. Tracking the physics relating the observed (neutrino) luminosity to the mass, spin of black holes (BHs) and the accretion rate (M[over ˙]) of such disks, here we establish a correlation between the spin and mass of SMBHs at their formation stage. Our work shows that spinning BHs are more massive than nonspinning BHs for a given M[over ˙]. However, slowly spinning BHs can turn out to be more massive than spinning BHs if M[over ˙] at their formation stage was higher compared to faster spinning BHs.
    Physical Review Letters 08/2013; 111(6):061101. · 7.94 Impact Factor
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    Sujit Kumar Nath, Banibrata Mukhopadhyay, Amit K Chattopadhyay
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the evolution of magnetohydrodynamic (or hydromagnetic as coined by Chandrasekhar) perturbations in the presence of stochastic noise in rotating shear flows. The particular emphasis is the flows whose angular velocity decreases but specific angular momentum increases with increasing radial coordinate. Such flows, however, are Rayleigh stable but must be turbulent in order to explain astrophysical observed data and, hence, reveal a mismatch between the linear theory and observations and experiments. The mismatch seems to have been resolved, at least in certain regimes, in the presence of a weak magnetic field, revealing magnetorotational instability. The present work explores the effects of stochastic noise on such magnetohydrodynamic flows, in order to resolve the above mismatch generically for the hot flows. We essentially concentrate on a small section of such a flow which is nothing but a plane shear flow supplemented by the Coriolis effect, mimicking a small section of an astrophysical accretion disk around a compact object. It is found that such stochastically driven flows exhibit large temporal and spatial autocorrelations and cross-correlations of perturbation and, hence, large energy dissipations of perturbation, which generate instability. Interestingly, autocorrelations and cross-correlations appear independent of background angular velocity profiles, which are Rayleigh stable, indicating their universality. This work initiates our attempt to understand the evolution of three-dimensional hydromagnetic perturbations in rotating shear flows in the presence of stochastic noise.
    Physical Review E 07/2013; 88(1-1):013010. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    Upasana Das, Banibrata Mukhopadhyay
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    ABSTRACT: Is the Chandrasekhar mass limit for white dwarfs (WDs) set in stone? Not anymore -- recent observations of over-luminous, peculiar type Ia supernovae can be explained if significantly super-Chandrasekhar WDs exist as their progenitors, thus barring them to be used as cosmic distance indicators. However, there is no estimate of a mass limit for these super-Chandrasekhar WD candidates yet. Can they be arbitrarily large? In fact, the answer is no! We arrive at this revelation by exploiting the flux freezing theorem in observed, accreting, magnetized WDs, which brings in Landau quantization of the underlying electron degenerate gas. This essay presents the calculations which pave the way for the ultimate (significantly super-Chandrasekhar) mass limit of WDs, heralding a paradigm shift 80 years after Chandrasekhar's discovery.
    International Journal of Modern Physics D 05/2013; · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    Indrani Banerjee, Banibrata Mukhopadhyay
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate nucleosynthesis inside the gamma-ray burst (GRB) accretion disks formed by the Type II collapsars. In these collapsars, the core collapse of massive stars first leads to the formation of a proto-neutron star and a mild supernova explosion is driven. However, this supernova ejecta lack momentum and falls back onto the neutron star which gets transformed to a stellar mass black hole. In order to study the hydrodynamics and nucleosynthesis of such an accretion disk formed from the fallback material of the supernova ejecta, we use the well established hydrodynamic models. In such a disk neutrino cooling becomes important in the inner disk where the temperature and density are higher. Higher the accretion rate (dot{M}), higher is the density and temperature in the disks. In this work we deal with accretion disks with relatively low accretion rates: 0.001 M_sun s^{-1} \lesssim dot{M} \lesssim 0.01 M_sun s^{-1} and hence these disks are predominantly advection dominated. We use He-rich and Si-rich abundances as the initial condition of nucleosynthesis at the outer disk, and being equipped with the disk hydrodynamics and the nuclear network code, we study the abundance evolution as matter inflows and falls into the central object. We investigate the variation in the nucleosynthesis products in the disk with the change in the initial abundance at the outer disk and also with the change in the mass accretion rate. We report the synthesis of several unusual nuclei like {31}P, {39}K, {43}Sc, {35}Cl, and various isotopes of titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese and copper. We also confirm that isotopes of iron, cobalt, nickel, argon, calcium, sulphur and silicon get synthesized in the disk, as shown by previous authors. Much of these heavy elements thus synthesized are ejected from the disk via outflows and hence they should leave their signature in observed data.
    Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2013; 13(9). · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    Upasana Das, Banibrata Mukhopadhyay
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    ABSTRACT: We clarify important physics issues related to the recently established new mass limit for magnetized white dwarfs which is significantly super-Chandrasekhar. The issues include, justification of high magnetic field and the corresponding formation of stable white dwarfs, contribution of the energy density of magnetic field, flux freezing, variation of magnetic field and related currents therein. We also attempt to address the observational connection of such highly magnetized white dwarfs.
    Modern Physics Letters A 04/2013; · 1.11 Impact Factor
  • Upasana Das, Banibrata Mukhopadhyay, A. R. Rao
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    ABSTRACT: Several recently discovered peculiar Type Ia supernovae seem to demand an altogether new formation theory that might help explain the puzzling dissimilarities between them and the standard Type Ia supernovae. The most striking aspect of the observational analysis is the necessity of invoking super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs having masses ~2.1-2.8 M ☉, M ☉ being the mass of Sun, as their most probable progenitors. Strongly magnetized white dwarfs having super-Chandrasekhar masses have already been established as potential candidates for the progenitors of peculiar Type Ia supernovae. Owing to the Landau quantization of the underlying electron degenerate gas, theoretical results yielded the observationally inferred mass range. Here, we sketch a possible evolutionary scenario by which super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs could be formed by accretion on to a commonly observed magnetized white dwarf, invoking the phenomenon of flux freezing. This opens multiple possible evolution scenarios ending in supernova explosions of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs having masses within the range stated above. We point out that our proposal has observational support, such as the recent discovery of a large number of magnetized white dwarfs by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 03/2013; 767(1):L14. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: NUPHA19373
    Monika Sinha, Banibrata Mukhopadhyay, Armen Sedrakian
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    Upasana Das, Banibrata Mukhopadhyay
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    ABSTRACT: We consider a relativistic, degenerate, electron gas under the influence of a strong magnetic field, which describes magnetized white dwarfs. Landau quantization changes the density of states available to the electrons, thus modifying the underlying equation of state. We obtain the mass-radius relations for such white dwarfs and show that it is possible to have magnetized white dwarfs with a mass significantly greater than the Chandrasekhar limit in the range 2.3 - 2.6 M_sun. Recent observations of peculiar type Ia supernovae - SN 2006gz, SN 2007if, SN 2009dc, SN 2003fg - seem to suggest super-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs with masses up to 2.4 - 2.8 M_sun, as their most likely progenitors and interestingly our results lie within the observational limits.
    02/2013;
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    Indrani Banerjee, Banibrata Mukhopadhyay
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate nucleosynthesis inside the gamma-ray burst (GRB) accretion disks formed by the Type II collapsars and outflows launched from these disks. We deal with accretion disks having relatively low accretion rates: 0.001 M_sun s^{-1} <~ Mdot <~ 0.01 M_sun s^{-1} and hence they are predominantly advection dominated. We report the synthesis of several unusual nuclei like 31P, 39K, 43Sc, 35Cl and various isotopes of titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese and copper in the disk. We also confirm that isotopes of iron, cobalt, nickel, argon, calcium, sulphur and silicon get synthesized in the disk, as shown by previous authors. Much of these heavy elements thus synthesized are ejected from the disk and survive in the outflows. Indeed, emission lines of many of these heavy elements have been observed in the X-ray afterglows of several GRBs.
    02/2013;
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    Banibrata Mukhopadhyay, Monika Sinha
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    ABSTRACT: The magnetars are believed to be highly magnetized neutron stars having surface magnetic field 10^{14} - 10^{15} G. It is believed that at the center, the magnetic field may be higher than that at the surface. We study the effect of the magnetic field on the neutron star matter. We model the nuclear matter with the relativistic mean field approach considering the possibility of appearance of hyperons at higher density. We find that the effect of magnetic field on the matter of neutron stars and hence on the mass-radius relation is important, when the central magnetic field is atleast of the order of 10^{17} G. Very importantly, the effect of strong magnetic field reveals anisotropy to the system. Moreover, if the central field approaches 10^{19} G, then the matter becomes unstable which limits the maximum magnetic field at the center of magnetars.
    02/2013;
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    Upasana Das, Banibrata Mukhopadhyay
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    ABSTRACT: Type Ia supernovae, sparked off by exploding white dwarfs of mass close to Chandrasekhar limit, play the key role to understand the expansion rate of universe. However, recent observations of several peculiar type Ia supernovae argue for its progenitor mass to be significantly super-Chandrasekhar. We show that strongly magnetized white dwarfs not only can violate the Chandrasekhar mass limit significantly, but exhibit a different mass limit. We establish from foundational level that the generic mass limit of white dwarfs is 2.58 solar mass. This explains the origin of over-luminous peculiar type Ia supernovae. Our finding further argues for a possible second standard candle, which has many far reaching implications, including a possible reconsideration of the expansion history of the universe.
    Physical Review Letters 01/2013; 110(7). · 7.94 Impact Factor
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    Banibrata Mukhopadhyay, Amit K. Chattopadhyay
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    ABSTRACT: Origin of hydrodynamic turbulence in rotating shear flows is investigated. The particular emphasis is the flows whose angular velocity decreases but specific angular momentum increases with increasing radial coordinate. Such flows are Rayleigh stable, but must be turbulent in order to explain observed data. Such a mismatch between the linear theory and observations/experiments is more severe when any hydromagnetic/magnetohydrodynamic instability and then the corresponding turbulence therein is ruled out. The present work explores the effect of stochastic noise on such hydrodynamic flows. We essentially concentrate on a small section of such a flow which is nothing but a plane shear flow supplemented by the Coriolis effect. This also mimics a small section of an astrophysical accretion disk. It is found that such stochastically driven flows exhibit large temporal and spatial correlations of perturbation velocities, and hence large energy dissipations of perturbation, which presumably generate instability. A range of angular velocity (\Omega) profiles of background flow, starting from that of constant specific angular momentum (\lambda = \Omega r^2 ; r being the radial coordinate) to that of constant circular velocity (v_\phi = \Omega r), is explored. However, all the background angular velocities exhibit identical growth and roughness exponents of perturbations, revealing a unique universality class for the stochastically forced hydrodynamics of rotating shear flows. This work, to the best of our knowledge, is the first attempt to understand origin of instability and turbulence in the three-dimensional Rayleigh stable rotating shear flows by introducing additive noise to the underlying linearized governing equations. This has important implications to resolve the turbulence problem in astrophysical hydrodynamic flows such as accretion disks.
    Journal of Physics A Mathematical and Theoretical 11/2012; 46(3). · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    Banibrata Mukhopadhyay, Debbijoy Bhattacharya, P. Sreekumar
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    ABSTRACT: Since it was theorized by Kerr in 1963, determining the spin of black holes from observed data was paid very little attention until few years back. The main reasons behind this were the unavailability of adequate data and the lack of appropriate techniques. In this article, we explore determining/predicting the spin of several black holes in X-ray binaries and in the center of galaxies, using X-ray and gamma-ray satellite data. For X-ray binaries, in order to explain observed quasi-periodic oscillations, our model predicts the spin parameter of underlying black holes. On the other hand, the nature of spin parameters of black holes in BL Lacs and Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars is predicted by studying the total luminosities of systems based on Fermi gamma-ray data. All sources considered here exhibit characteristics of spinning black holes, which verifies natural existence of the Kerr metric.
    International Journal of Modern Physics D 10/2012; 21(11). · 1.03 Impact Factor
  • Monika Sinha, Ritam Mallick, Banibrata Mukhopadhyay
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    ABSTRACT: The magnetars are believed to be neutron stars with surface magnetic field 10^{14}-10^{15} G. However, the central magnetic field may be higher than that at the surface. We study the effect of strong magnetic field on neutron star matter. We model the neutron star matter with non-linear Walecka model including hyperons. We find that the effect of magnetic field on the matter is significant when central magnetic field ≥10^{17} G. Moreover, if the central field is of the order of 10^{19} G, then the magnetized matter becomes unstable which limits the maximum central magnetic field of magnetars. We also study the effect of high magnetic field on the phase transition from neutron star to quark star. Magnetic field helps in initiation of the conversion process. The velocity of the conversion front, however, decreases due to the presence of magnetic field.
    07/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Several observational evidences and deeper theoretical insights reveal that accretion and outflow/jet are strongly correlated. We model an advective disk-outflow coupled dynamics, incorporating explicitly the vertical flux. Inter-connecting dynamics of outflow and accretion essentially upholds the conservation laws. We investigate the properties of the disk-outflow surface and its strong dependence on the rotation parameter of the black hole. The energetics of the disk-outflow strongly depend on the mass, accretion rate and spin of the black holes. The model clearly shows that the outflow power extracted from the disk increases strongly with the spin of the black hole, inferring that the power of the observed astrophysical jets has a proportional correspondence with the spin of the central object. Now blazars are characterized by large intensity and spectral variations across the electromagnetic waveband. Observationally, blazars can be divided into two classes: flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacs. BL Lacs usually exhibit lower luminosity and harder power law spectra at {γ}-ray energies than those of FSRQs. We attempt to explain the high energy properties of FSRQs and BL Lacs from Fermi {γ}-ray space telescope observations, based on our model. We propose that spin plays an important role in the luminosity distribution dichotomy of BL Lacs and FSRQs.
    07/2012;
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    Upasana Das, Banibrata Mukhopadhyay
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    ABSTRACT: We consider a relativistic, degenerate, electron gas under the influence of a strong magnetic field, which describes magnetized white dwarfs. Landau quantization changes the density of states available to the electrons, thus modifying the underlying equation of state. In the presence of very strong magnetic fields a maximum of either one, two or three Landau level(s) is/are occupied. We obtain the mass-radius relations for such white dwarfs and their detailed investigation leads us to propose the existence of white dwarfs having a mass ~2.3M_Sun, which overwhelmingly exceeds the Chandrasekhar mass limit.
    International Journal of Modern Physics D 05/2012; 21(11). · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    Banibrata Mukhopadhyay
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    ABSTRACT: String theory and gauge/gravity duality suggest the lower bound of shear viscosity (eta) to entropy density (s) for any matter to be ~ mu hbar/4pi k_B, when hbar and k_B are reduced Planck and Boltzmann constants respectively and mu <= 1. Motivated by this, we explore eta/s in black hole accretion flows, in order to understand if such exotic flows could be a natural site for the lowest eta/s. Accretion flow plays an important role in black hole physics in identifying the existence of the underlying black hole. This is a rotating shear flow with insignificant molecular viscosity, which could however have a significant turbulent viscosity, generating transport, heat and hence entropy in the flow. However, in presence of strong magnetic field, magnetic stresses can help in transporting matter independent of viscosity, via celebrated Blandford-Payne mechanism. In such cases, energy and then entropy produces via Ohmic dissipation. In addition, certain optically thin, hot, accretion flows, of temperature >~ 10^9K, may be favourable for nuclear burning which could generate/absorb huge energy, much higher than that in a star. We find that eta/s in accretion flows appears to be close to the lower bound suggested by theory, if they are embedded by strong magnetic field or producing nuclear energy, when the source of energy is not viscous effects. A lower bound on eta/s also leads to an upper bound on the Reynolds number of the flow.
    Physics Letters B 04/2012; 721(s 1–3). · 4.57 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

350 Citations
179.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2008
    • The Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Poona, Mahārāshtra, India
  • 2003–2006
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Institute for Theory and Computation
      Cambridge, MA, United States