[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nicotine is rapidly absorbed from cigarette smoke and therefore induces a number of chronic illnesses with the widespread use of tobacco products. Studies have shown a few cerebral metabolites modified by nicotine; however, endogenous metabolic profiling in brain has not been well explored.
H NMR-based on metabonomics was applied to investigate the endogenous metabolic profiling of brain hippocampus, nucleus acumens (NAc), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum. We found that nicotine significantly increased CPP in mice, and some specific cerebral metabolites differentially changed in nicotine-treated mice. These modified metabolites included glutamate, acetylcholine, tryptamine, glucose, lactate, creatine, 3-hydroxybutyrate and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD), which was closely associated with neurotransmitter and energy source. Additionally, glutathione and taurine in hippocampus and striatum, phosphocholine in PFC and glycerol in NAc were significantly modified by nicotine, implying the dysregulation of anti-oxidative stress response and membrane metabolism.
Nicotine induces significant metabonomic alterations in brain, which are involved in neurotransmitter disturbance, energy metabolism dysregulation, anti-oxidation and membrane function disruptions, as well as amino acid metabolism imbalance. These findings provide a new insight into rewarding effects of nicotine and the underlying mechanism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nicotine, one of the most commonly used drugs, has become a major concern because tobacco serves as a gateway drug and is linked to illicit drug abuse, such as cocaine and marijuana. However, previous studies mainly focused on certain genes or neurotransmitters which have already been known to participate in drug addiction, lacking endogenous metabolic profiling in a global view. To further explore the mechanism by which nicotine modifies the response to cocaine, we developed two conditioned place preference (CPP) models in mice. In threshold dose model, mice were pretreated with nicotine, followed by cocaine treatment at the dose of 2 mg/kg, a threshold dose of cocaine to induce CPP in mice. In high-dose model, mice were only treated with 20 mg/kg cocaine, which induced a significant CPP. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance based on metabonomics was used to investigate metabolic profiles of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and striatum. We found that nicotine pretreatment dramatically increased CPP induced by 2 mg/kg cocaine, which was similar to 20 mg/kg cocaine-induced CPP. Interestingly, metabolic profiles showed considerable overlap between these two models. These overlapped metabolites mainly included neurotransmitters as well as the molecules participating in energy homeostasis and cellular metabolism. Our results show that the reinforcing effect of nicotine on behavioral response to cocaine may attribute to the modification of some specific metabolites in NAc and striatum, thus creating a favorable metabolic environment for enhancing conditioned rewarding effect of cocaine. Our findings provide an insight into the effect of cigarette smoking on cocaine dependence and the underlying mechanism.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87040. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this contribution, mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCN) were used to fabricate a label-free electrochemical immunosensor for breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCAl). The detection platform was constructed by conjugation of anti-BRCA1 on glassy carbon electrodes which were modified by mesoporous carbon nanospheres-toluidine blue nanocomposite (MCN-TB)/room temperature ionic-liquid (RTIL) composited film. TB was adsorbed onto MCN and acted as a redox probe. The electroactivity of TB was greatly enhanced in the presence of MCN. The good conductivity of MCN and BMIM·BF4 could promote the electron transfer and thus enhance the detection sensitivity. Moreover, the large surface area of MCN and the protein-binding properties of BMIM·BF4 could greatly increase the antibody loading. The specific antibody-antigen immunoreaction on the electrode surface resulted in a decrease of amperometric signal of the electrode. Under optimized conditions, the amperometric signal decreased linearly with BRCAl concentration in the range of 0.01-15ngmL(-1) with a low detection limit of 3.97pgmL(-1). The immunosensor exhibits high sensitivity, good selectivity and stability.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1H NMR spectroscopy was applied to investigate the changes of cerebral metabolites in brain hippocampus, nucleus accumbens (NAC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the rats subjected to subcutaneous twice-daily injections of 2.5mg/kg methamphetamine (MAP) for 7 days. The results indicated that MAP exposure induced significant behavioral sensitization and altered cerebral metabolites in rats. The neurotransmitters glutamate, glutamine and GABA significantly decreased in hippocampus, NAC and PFC. Specifically, increased succinic acid semialdehyde, a metabolism product of GABA, was observed in hippocampus. Additionally, decreased serotonin was observed in both NAC and PFC, whereas decreased dopamine was only observed in NAC after repeated MAP treatment. Glutathione obviously decreased in above brain regions, whereas acetylcysteine declined in hippocampus and NAC, and taurine declined in NAC and PFC. Homocysteic acid was elevated in hippocampus and NAC by repeated MAP administration. Membrane ingredients like phosphocholine elevated in response to MAP administration in NAC and PFC. N-Acetyl-aspartate, a marker of neuronal viability, decreased in the three regions; however, myo-inositol, a glial cell marker, increased in hippocampus and PFC. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate products, such as α-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate and the methionine significantly decreased in above three brain regions after MAP administration; however, ADP decreased in hippocampus. These results indicate that repeated MAP treatment causes neurotransmitters disturbance, imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidants, and gliosis in hippocampus, NAC and PFC. Profound metabolic changes detected across brain regions provide the first evidence of metabonomic changes in MAP-induced sensitized rats.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine (METH), a commonly abused psychostimulant, has been shown to induce neuronal damage by causing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, apoptosis and autophagy. Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is involved in several physiological actions in the brain, including neuroprotection, osmoregulation and neurotransmission. In this study, we investigate the protective effect of taurine against METH-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells and the underlying mechanism. The results showed that taurine significantly increased the cell viability inhibited by METH. LC3-II expression was elevated by METH treatment, whereas such increase was obviously attenuated by taurine. Co-treatment of taurine strongly reversed the decline of antioxidase activities induced by METH. Moreover, phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) was significantly inhibited by METH, whereas complementation of taurine markedly increased the expression of p-mTOR in PC12 cells, rather than phosphorylated Erk. Interestingly, taurine-induced decreasing expression of LC3-II was partially blocked by pretreatment of RAD001, an mTOR inhibitor. These results indicated that taurine inhibits METH-induced autophagic process through activating mTOR rather than Erk signaling. Collectively, our study shows that taurine protects METH-induced PC12 cells damage by attenuating ROS production, apoptosis and autophagy, at least in part, via mTOR signaling pathway.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cocaine dependence involves in the brain's reward circuit as well as nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key region of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. Many studies have documented altered expression of genes and identified transcription factor networks and epigenetic processes that are fundamental to cocaine addiction. However, all these investigations have focused on mRNA of encoding genes, which may not always reflect the involvement of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which has been implied in a broad range of biological processes and complex diseases including brain development and neuropathological process. To explore the potential involvement of lncRNAs in drug addiction, which is viewed as a form of aberrant neuroplasticity, we used a custom-designed microarray to examine the expression profiles of mRNAs and lncRNAs in brain NAc of cocaine-conditioned mice and identified 764 mRNAs, and 603 lncRNAs were differentially expressed. Candidate lncRNAs were identified for further genomic context characterization as sense-overlap, antisense-overlap, intergenic, bidirection, and ultra-conserved region encoding lncRNAs. We found that 410 candidate lncRNAs which have been reported to act in cis or trans to their targeted loci, providing 48 pair mRNA-lncRNAs. These results suggest that the modification of mRNAs expression by cocaine may be associated with the actions of lncRNAs. Taken together, our results show that cocaine can cause the genome-wide alterations of lncRNAs expressed in NAc, and some of these modified RNA transcripts may to play a role in cocaine-induced neural plasticity and addiction.
Journal of Neurochemistry 09/2012; · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigations have characterized addictive drug-induced developmental cardiovascular malformation in human, non-human primate and rodent. However, the underlying mechanism of malformation caused by drugs during pregnancy is still largely unknown, and preventive and therapeutic measures have been lacking. Using 1H NMR spectroscopy, we profiled the metabolites from human embryo endothelial cells exposed to methamphetamine (METH) and quantified a total of 226 peaks. We identified 11 metabolites modified robustly and found that taurine markedly increased. We then validated the hypothesis that this dramatic increase in taurine could attribute to its effect in inhibiting METH-induced developmental angiogenesis defect. Taurine supplement showed a more significant potential than other metabolites in protecting against METH-induced injury in endothelial cells. Taurine strongly attenuated METH-induced inhibition of proliferation and migration in endothelial cells. Furthermore, death rate and vessel abnormality of zebrafish embryos treated with METH were greatly reversed by taurine. In addition, taurine supplement caused a rapid decrease in reactive oxygen species generation and strongly attenuated the excitable arise of antioxidase activities in the beginning of METH exposure prophase. Dysregulations of NF-κB, p-ERK as well as Bax, which reflect apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and oxidative stress in vascular endothelium, were blocked by taurine. Our results provide the first evidence that taurine prevents METH-caused developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism. Taurine could serve as a potential therapeutic or preventive intervention of developmental vascular malformation for the pregnant women with drug use.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 03/2012; 260(3):260-70. · 3.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For the specificity of prostate cancer markers, prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been widely used in prostate cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment after monitoring. In normal male serum, PSA can only be detected in traces of 0-4 ng mL(-1). In this paper, we constructed an electrochemical immunosensor for PSA detection using a nanocomposite film of graphene sheets-methylene blue-chitosan (GS-MB-CS) as electrode material. The nanocomposite film showed high binding affinity to the electrode and was used to immobilize the antibody of PSA. The modification procedure was monitored by cyclic voltammetry (CV). An amperometric biosensor was easily developed based on the response of peak current to the capture of PSA induced by specific antigen-antibody reactions. Under optimum conditions, the amperometric signal decreased linearly with PSA concentration (0.05-5.00 ng mL(-1)). A low limit of detection (13 pg mL(-1)) and a high selectivity are obtained. Moreover, the prepared immunosensor was applied for the analysis of PSA in serum samples with satisfactory results. The proposed method may have a promising future in biochemical assays for high selectivity, good reproducibility, and stability.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic consequences of morphine dependence and withdrawal intervention have not been well explored. In the present study, the metabolic changes in brain hippocampus, nucleus accumbens (NAc), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum of rats with morphine dependence and withdrawal intervention were explored by using ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance coupled with principal component analysis, partial least squares and orthogonal signal correction analysis. We found that the concentrations of neurotransmitters including glutamate, glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid changed differentially in hippocampus, NAc, PFC and striatum after repeated morphine treatment. Significant changes were also found in a number of cerebral metabolites including N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), lactic acid, creatine, myo-inositol and taurine. These findings indicate the profound disturbances of energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism and neurotransmitters caused by chronic morphine treatment. Interestingly, morphine-induced changes in lactic acid, creatine and NAA were clearly reversed by intervention of methadone or clonidine. Our study provides a comprehensive understanding of the metabolic alteration associated with morphine addiction and withdrawal therapy, which may help to develop new pharmacotherapies.
Behavioural brain research 02/2012; 231(1):11-9. · 3.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA), which could disrupt endocrine system and cause cancer, has been considered as an endocrine disruptor. Therefore, it is very important and necessary to develop a sensitive and selective method for detection of BPA. Herein, nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (N-GS) and chitosan (CS) were used to prepare electrochemical BPA sensor. Compared with graphene, N-GS has favorable electron transfer ability and electrocatalytic property, which could enhance the response signal towards BPA. CS also exhibits excellent film forming ability and improves the electrochemical behavior of N-GS modified electrode. The sensor exhibits a sensitive response to BPA in the range of 1.0×10(-8)-1.3×10(-6) mol L(-1) with a low detection limit of 5.0×10(-9) mol L(-1) under the optimal conditions. Finally, this proposed sensor was successfully employed to determine BPA in water samples with satisfactory results.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The unexpected discovery of graphene and especially the follow-up explosion of interest in its properties and applications marked the beginning of a new carbon era. Graphene is a real two-dimensional crystal (one-atom-thick) with high crystal quality and quite unusual electronic properties, and has shown great promise in a variety of applications, such as field-effect transistors, photovoltaic devices and biosensors. Besides the properties that make graphene as excellent transducer materials in biosensors, such as high electron transfer ability and specific surface area, several advantages of graphene over carbon nanotubes, one of its well-studied allotropes, are becoming apparent. Graphene shows super-quenching capability towards various organic dyes and quantum dots due to the long-range nanoscale resonance energy transfer. Graphene-based hybrid materials, especially nanoparticle-decorated graphene nanocomposites, have been widely used as electrode materials for the development of electrochemical biosensors. In this review, we outline the recent advances about the application of graphene-based materials in biosensors, with focus on fluorescence and electrochemical biosensors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been known that the reinforcing effects and long-term consequences of morphine are closely associated with nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the brain, a key region of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. However, the proteins involved in neuroadaptive processes and withdrawal symptom in primates of morphine dependence have not been well explored. In the present study, we performed proteomes in the NAc of rhesus monkeys of morphine dependence and withdrawal intervention with clonidine or methadone. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to compare changes in cytosolic protein abundance in the NAc. We found a total of 46 proteins differentially expressed, which were further identified by mass spectrometry analysis. The identified proteins can be classified into 6 classes: metabolism and mitochondrial function, synaptic transmission, cytoskeletal proteins, oxidative stress, signal transduction and protein synthesis and degradation. Importantly, we discovered 14 proteins were significantly but similarly altered after withdrawal therapy with clonidine or methadone, revealing potential pharmacological strategies or targets for the treatment of morphine addiction. Our study provides a comprehensive understanding of the neuropathophysiology associated with morphine addiction and withdrawal therapy in primate, which is helpful for the development of opiate withdrawal pharmacotherapies.
Journal of proteomics 11/2011; 75(4):1330-42. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to investigate the protective role of taurine (2-aminoethanesulphonicacid) against morphine-induced neurotoxicity in C6 cells. It was found that taurine significantly increased the viability of C6 cells treated by morphine, showing the neuroprotective role against morphine-induced neurotoxicity. However, such neuroprotective effect of taurine could not be blocked by bicuculline, an antagonist of gamma-amino butyrate (GABA) receptor. To determine the oxidative damage induced by morphine, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in C6 cells. The decreased activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in C6 cells were observed after morphine treatment for 48 h. However, taurine administration effectively ameliorated morphine-induced oxidative insult. To estimate anti-apoptosis effect of taurine, flow cytometry analysis as well as detection for caspase-3 and Bcl-2 expressions was performed after morphine exposure for 48 h. It was found that Bcl-2 expression was down regulated by morphine, whereas taurine could reverse morphine-induced decrease in Bcl-2 expression. Taurine showed no effect on caspase-3 expression. Collectively, the results show that taurine possesses the capability to ameliorate morphine-induced oxidative insult and apoptosis in C6 cells, probably due to its antioxidant activity rather than activation of GABA receptors.
Neurotoxicity Research 05/2011; 20(4):334-42. · 2.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new method of simultaneous determination of Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ is proposed here by using the second-derivative spectrophotometry method. In pH=10.35 Borax-NaOH buffer, using meso-tetra (3-methoxyl-4-hydroxylphenyl) porphyrin ([T-(3-MO-4-HP)P]) as chromomeric reagent, micelle solution was formed after Tween-80 surfactant was added into the solution containing Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ ions. The original absorption spectrum of the above complexes was obtained after heating in the boiling water for 25 min. The second-derivative absorption peaks of five metal-porphyrin complexes can be separated from the original absorption spectrum by using chemometric tool. In this way, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ ions can be determined simultaneously. Under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges of the calibration curve were 0-0.60, 0-0.60, 0-0.40, 0-0.80 and 0-0.48 μg mL(-1) for Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+, respectively. The molar absorptivity of these color systems were 1.38×10(5), 1.01×10(5), 3.24×10(5), 1.07×10(5) and 1.29×10(5)Lmol(-1)cm(-1). The method developed in this paper has advantages in selectivity, sensitivity, operation and can effectively resolve spectra overlapping problem. This method has been applied to determine the real samples with satisfactory results.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 05/2011; 79(5):1546-51. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BRCAl is an anti-oncogene in women, who are genetically predisposed to breast and ovary cancer. The detection of BRCA1 can offer an opportunity to characterize the function of genetic features in breast and ovarian cancer and to screen breast or ovarian cancer patients. In this study, we designed a new label and fabricated a novel sandwich-type electrochemical immunoassay for the ultrasensitive detection of BRCAl. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was entrapped in the pores of amino-group functionalized SBA-15 and the secondary antibody (Ab₂) combined with SBA-15 by covalent bond. Ionic liquid (IL) was added into the mixed solution of SBA-15/HRP/Ab₂ and application of IL increased the electrochemical activity of HRP and promoted electron transport. The synergistic effect between IL, SBA-15, Ab₂ and HRP could retain the bioactivity of HRP and Ab₂. The sensitivity of the sandwich-type immunosensor using SBA-15/HRP/Ab₂/BMIM·BF₄ as labels for BRCA1 detection was much higher than that using either SBA-15/HRP/Ab₂ or SBA-15/Ab₂ as labels. Under optimal conditions, the electrochemical immunoassay exhibited a wide working range from 0.01 to 15 ng/mL with a detection limit of 4.86 pg/mL BRCA1. The precision, reproducibility, and stability of the immunoassay were acceptable.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most deadly diseases; metastasis and recurrence are the most important factors that affect the therapy of HCC chronically. Until now, the prognosis for the metastasis of HCC had not improved. Recently, several proteins that are related to metastasis and invasion of HCC were identified, but the effective markers still remain to be elucidated.
In this study, comparative proteomics was used to study the differentially expressed proteins in two HCC cell lines MHCC97L and HCCLM9, which have low and high metastatic potentials, respectively.
Our findings indicated that filamin A (FLNA) and phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) were two significantly differentially expressed proteins, with high expression in HCCLM9 cells, and may influence the metastasis of HCC cells.
Taken together with the confirmation of expression on the mRNA level, we propose the use of FLNA and PGK1 as potential markers for the progression of HCC.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2011; 27(3-4):207-16. · 3.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interest in the interaction between cationic porphyrins, particularly derivatives of meso-tetra(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrin(TMPyP), and DNA abounds because they are versatile DNA-binding agents that could find application in photodynamic therapy, cancer detection, artificial nucleases, virus inhibition and so on. The interaction of two water-soluble cationic porphyrins, meso-tetrakis(4-N, N, N-trimethylanilinium) porphyrin (TMAP) and 5-phenyl-10,15,20-tris[4-(N-methyl) pyridinium]porphyrin (TriMPyP), with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was studied by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and resonance light scattering technique. TriMPyP forms aggregate in water due to the molecular asymmetry while TMAP exists as monomers. At lower concentrations of ctDNA (R > 1, R = c(TMAP)/c(DNA) base pair), the interaction of TMAP with DNA leads to significant hypochromicity and bathochromic shift of absorption spectra. And the fluorescence of TMAP was quenched while it showed enhanced resonance light scattering signals. But the extent of enhancement of resonance light scattering signals is very small, so the aggregate of TMAP is not very high. These observations indicate the self-stacking of TMAP along the DNA surface. At higher concentrations of ctDNA (R < 1), TMAP association with DNA is via outside binding which is accompanied with hyperchromic effect and fluorescence enhancement while the resonance light scattering signals is reduced. DNA addition decreases the fluorescence intensity of TriMPyP and it shifts the peak to the higher wavelengths (red shift). The interaction with DNA promotes the aggregation of TriMPyP and no simple outside binding is observed even at higher concentrations of ctDNA. The steric effect of molecular distortion constrains the intercalation or further binding to DNA. The effect of ionic strength on the interaction was investigated at two DNA concentrations, 1.2 and 24.0 micromol x L(-1), for TMAP. The Interactions of both porphyrins with DNA show high sensitivity to ionic strength. By addition of NaCl, electrostatic attraction is decreased, resulting in the change of binding mode.
Guang pu xue yu guang pu fen xi = Guang pu 03/2009; 29(2):423-7. · 0.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, the binding characteristics of human serum albumin (HSA) and m-nitrophenylfluorone (m-NPF)-molybdenum (Mo(VI)) complex have been studied by fluorophotometry. The binding constants are measured at different temperature. Based on the theory of Forster energy transfer, the binding distance and the energy transfer efficiency between m-nitrophenylfluorone-Mo(VI) complex and protein are obtained. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the main sort of binding force can be judged. The results indicate that HSA and m-NPF-Mo(VI) complex have strong interactions. The mechanism of quenching belongs to static quenching and the main sort of binding force is electrostatic gravitation.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 04/2006; 63(3):532-5. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple and sensitive method was conducted for the determination of trace amounts of proteins with benzeneazo-8-acetylamino-1-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid sodium salt (azophloxine, AP) using a Rayleigh light-scattering (RLS) technique. At pH 2.60 and in the presence of an emulsifier OP microemulsion, the RLS of AP can be greatly enhanced by proteins, owing to the interaction between AP and protein. The enhanced intensity is proportional to the concentration of proteins. Four proteins, including bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA), lysozyme (Lys) and gamma globulin (gamma-G) have been tested. For example, the linear range of BSA was 0 - 0.06 microg mL(-1) with detection limits of 2.38 ng mL(-1). The method was applied to the analysis of protein in human urine and penicillin samples with satisfactory results. The relative standard deviation was in all instances less than 4.0%, and the recovery was in the range of 97.5 - 104%.