Publications (2)0 Total impact
Article: Isolation of chloroform-resistant mutants of filamentous phage: localization in models of phage structure[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interaction of fd or M13 filamentous phage with a chloroform/water interface induces morphological change, contracting the filaments sequentially into shortened rods (I-forms), and then into spheroidal particles (S-forms). To further investigate this phage contraction, 34 and 26 chloroform-resistant isolates of fd and M13, respectively, were selected after chloroform treatment of wild-type phages at pH 8.2 and 4°C. DNA sequencing of gene VIII of the 34 fd isolates revealed five different mutants: these were D5H, M28L, V31L, I37T, and S50T. All 26 M13 isolates were I37T. These mutants exhibited variable sensitivity to chloroform, but all contracted much more slowly than wild-type phage during treatment at 4°C. They all contracted like wild-type phage at 37°C. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the indicated single mutations carried the chloroform resistance. In structural models of the phage, the D5H locus is on the outside and the S50T locus is on the inside. The M28L and I37T loci are buried in a mostly hydrophobic region in the middle. Although these four mutants are spread out radially, they are localized in the axial direction into a thin disk in the model. The last mutant locus, V31L, is out of this disk, but this locus is proximal to the M28L and I37T loci and also in contact with the surface via a deep hydrophobic hole or depression. These five mutants, their locations, and their variable affects on contraction suggest that chloroform-induced contraction involves a specific mechanism rather than a generalized solvent-induced denaturation and that the critical structural changes occur in a localized level in the phage. These results add weight to suggestions that the sequential contraction of filaments → I-forms → S-forms mimic corresponding steps in phage penetration, and, in the reverse order, for phage assembly.Journal of Molecular Biology.
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ABSTRACT: The number of intrinsically disordered proteins known to be involved in cell-signaling and regulation is growing rapidly. To test for a generalized involvement of intrinsic disorder in signaling and cancer, we applied a neural network predictor of natural disordered regions (PONDR VL-XT) to four protein datasets: human cancer-associated proteins (HCAP), signaling proteins (AfCS), eukaryotic proteins from SWISS-PROT (EU_SW) and non-homologous protein segments with well-defined (ordered) 3D structure (O_PDB_S25). PONDR VL-XT predicts ≥30 consecutive disordered residues for 79(±5)%, 66(±6)%, 47(±4)% and 13(±4)% of the proteins from HCAP, AfCS, EU_SW, and O_PDB_S25, respectively, indicating significantly more intrinsic disorder in cancer-associated and signaling proteins as compared to the two control sets. The disorder analysis was extended to 11 additional functionally diverse categories of human proteins from SWISS-PROT. The proteins involved in metabolism, biosynthesis, and degradation together with kinases, inhibitors, transport, G-protein coupled receptors, and membrane proteins are predicted to have at least twofold less disorder than regulatory, cancer-associated and cytoskeletal proteins. In contrast to 44.5% of the proteins from representative non-membrane categories, just 17.3% of the cancer-associated proteins had sequence alignments with structures in the Protein Data Bank covering at least 75% of their lengths. This relative lack of structural information correlated with the greater amount of predicted disorder in the HCAP dataset. A comparison of disorder predictions with the experimental structural data for a subset of the HCAP proteins indicated good agreement between prediction and observation. Our data suggest that intrinsically unstructured proteins play key roles in cell-signaling, regulation and cancer, where coupled folding and binding is a common mechanism.Journal of Molecular Biology.