[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polypoid endometriosis is a rare type of endometriosis. We report a case of polypoid endometriosis of the ovary mimicking ovarian carcinoma with peritoneal dissemination. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a left ovarian endometriotic cyst containing several nodules in the cystic wall that displayed enhancement, and pelvic nodules on the right ovary. A preoperative or intraoperative diagnosis to avoid the unnecessary extended operation is important for such disease. Retrospective magnetic resonance imaging analysis identified a peculiar finding for polypoid endometriosis: all solid nodules had a round and smooth shape and displayed a low-signal-intense marginal edge on T2-weighted images, suggesting that this is an important finding for differentiating polypoid endometriosis from ovarian carcinoma arising from endometriosis.
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 05/2014; · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The invasion of extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) to the decidua and spiral arteries in early pregnancy is a crucial step for a successful pregnancy; however, its mechanisms are not fully understood. Lipocalin2 (LCN2), a multifunctional secretory protein known as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), reportedly enhanced invasiveness via the activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in several cancer cells. In this study, the expression and function of LCN2 in early placenta were analyzed.
Early placental tissues between 7 and 10 weeks of gestation were obtained from normal pregnant women who underwent elective termination. The expression of LCN2 was examined using immunostaining and RT-PCR. EVTs isolated from these placental tissues and a choriocarcinoma cell line (JAR) were used to investigate the effects of LCN2 on proliferation, invasion potential, and MMP-9 activity under hypoxia using a WST-1 assay, Matrigel invasion assay, and gelatin gel zymography, respectively.
The immunohistochemical expression of LCN2 was observed in the cytoplasm of EVTs, cytotrophoblasts and the decidua, but not in syncytiotrophoblasts. The addition of recombinant LCN2 did not affect proliferation, but enhanced the invasiveness (500 ng/mL, p < 0.01) and MMP-9 activity of primary cultured EVTs and JAR in a dose-dependent manner. Silencing LCN2 using shRNA reduced the invasiveness (p < 0.01) and MMP-9 activity of JAR. In addition, the hypoxic condition (2% O2) increased LCN2 expression (p < 0.01), MMP-9 activity, and invasive ability (p < 0.01).
LCN2 was involved in the invasiveness of EVTs, especially under hypoxia, via increased MMP-9 activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) is a benign proliferative disease of cervical glands. Although histological resemblance of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) to LEGH and frequent association of LEGH with MDA have been reported, it still remains unclear whether LEGH is a precancerous lesion of MDA. The present study was undertaken to examine the pathogenetic relationship between LEGH and MDA using a clonality analysis and mutational analyses of the STK11 gene, of which mutations have been reported in MDA. Of nine cases of LEGH only, four were polyclonal and five were monoclonal in composition. Of six LEGH lesions associated with MDA or adenocarcinoma, two were polyclonal and four were monoclonal. In cases of MDA or adenocarcinoma coexisting with LEGH, the patterns of X chromosome inactivation in malignant lesions were identical to those in coexisting LEGH lesions. A mutation of STK11 was only identified in one MDA, but not in LEGH. These results indicate that a subset of LEGH may be a precursor to malignant tumors including MDA and that a mutation of STK11 may be involved in progression of LEGH to MDA.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 05/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is characterized by multiple hypoechoic vesicles which are similar to molar changes in the placenta; however, the process of such morphological changes of PMD during pregnancy has not been fully understood. We performed a review of all PMD cases published in English and identified 49 articles including 110 cases. With regard to the gestational age at which the multicystic pattern was seen, approximately 70% of cases were diagnosed at 13-20 weeks of gestation. Another characteristic feature of PMD is varicose dilation of fetal chorionic vessels. As many as 90% of cases were diagnosed as placenta with dilated fetal chorionic vessels in the third trimester. We also report a case of PMD which was found at 10 weeks of gestation according to ultrasonic molar patterns. Serial observations of the placenta using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed that multicystic lesions became smaller after 23 weeks. In contrast, dilated placental vessels on the fetal side became apparent at 38 weeks. The present review highlights that placental vesicular lesions of PMD may precede dilation of fetal chorionic vessels during pregnancy. It also indicates the potential of a gradual reduction in size of PMD's placental vesicular lesions by serial study of placental images.
Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 04/2013; · 1.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To test for an association between DNA fragmentation and head shape at high magnification in fresh motile spermatozoa. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Academic tertiary care center. PATIENT(S): A total of 60 men in our assisted reproductive program. INTERVENTION(S): Quantifying sperm head shape using elliptic Fourier analysis, and detecting DNA fragmentation by use of a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Correlation between percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal head shape and percentage of DNA fragmentation. RESULT(S): Elliptic Fourier analysis decomposed sperm head shapes into four quantitative parameters: ellipticity, anteroposterior (AP) symmetry, lateral symmetry, and angularity. The DNA fragmentation was statistically significantly correlated with abnormal angularity, and moderately with abnormal ellipticity but not with abnormal AP symmetry or lateral symmetry. Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significantly higher percentage of DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa with abnormal ellipticity and abnormal angularity than in spermatozoa with normal-shaped head (6.1% and 5.4% vs. 2.8%). Spermatozoa with large nuclear vacuoles also correlated with sperm DNA fragmentation, and had a statistically significantly higher percentage of DNA fragmentation (4.7%). CONCLUSION(S): Among the morphologic features of the sperm head, abnormal ellipticity, angularity, and large nuclear vacuoles are associated with DNA fragmentation.
Fertility and sterility 03/2013; · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS: It has been reported that the expression of core 2 β1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase 1 (C2GnT1), which synthesizes the core 2 branching structure on O-glycans, may be associated with the biological aggressiveness of tumour cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the expression of C2GnT1 and clinicopathological parameters of patients with endometrial carcinoma. METHODS AND RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of C2GnT1 was examined in 84 cases of endometrioid-type endometrial carcinoma, 15 cases of endometrial hyperplasia, and 30 normal endometria. The staining intensity was reported according to a positivity index (PI, full score 100), calculated from the percentage of positive cells. The expression of C2GnT1 was significantly higher in endometrial carcinoma (PI = 8.31 ± 15.29) than in normal endometrium (PI = 0.52 ± 1.24) (P < 0.0005). In carcinomas, the PI was higher in high-grade or advanced-stage tumours, but not significantly. Topologically, C2GnT1 was strongly expressed at sites of deep myometrial invasion. In addition, patients with C2GnT1 overexpression (PI ≥ 10) had significantly shorter survival (P < 0.0005). Multivariable analysis also indicated that C2GnT1 overexpression was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: C2GnT1 appears to be involved in the biological aggressiveness of endometrial carcinoma. C2GnT1 might become a novel prognostic factor for endometrial carcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The clinical management of atypical polypoid adenomyoma (APAM) of the uterus remains to be established. We collected APAM cases, reviewed the clinicopathological features, and discussed the clinical management. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with APAM were identified by searching the tumor registry of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG). Clinical information and histological specimens were obtained from 13 institutional members of the JCOG, and a central pathological review was performed. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 38 years (range, 22-58). Squamous metaplasia was present in 19 cases (65.5%), and well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma coexisted in 5 cases (17.2%). Primary treatment consisted of dilatation and curettage in 9 patients (31.0%), vaginal resection in 2 patients (6.9%), hysteroscopic transcervical resection (TCR) using hysteroscopy in 10 patients (34.5%), and hysterectomy in 8 patients (27.6%). There were recurrences in 5 (23.8%) of the 21 cases in which fertility was preserved, and the recurrent rate was 10% (1/10) in patients those were treated with TCR and 36.4% (4/11) in those the other treatment options were selected. All patients were alive after primary treatment (a mean follow-up period was 39.6 months; range, 1-202). CONCLUSION: The clinical outcome of APAM is benign. However, differential diagnosis should be performed because of its histological similarity to invasive endometrial carcinoma and the possibility of coexistence with other endometrial neoplasms. TCR is a recommended diagnostic and treatment option for patients who desire to preserve fertility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a highly metastatic smooth muscle neoplasm for which calponin h1 is suspected to have a biological role as a tumor-suppressor. We earlier reported that LMP2-null mice spontaneously develop uterine LMS through malignant transformation of the myometrium, thus implicating this protein as an anti-tumorigenic candidate as well. In the present study, we show that LMP2 may negatively regulate LMS independently of its role in the proteasome. Moreover, several lines of evidence indicate that although calponin h1 does not directly influence tumorigenesis, it clearly affects LMP2-induced cellular morphological changes. Modulation of LMP2 may lead to new therapeutic approaches in human uterine LMS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation in the ovary, including ovulation and pelvic inflammatory disease, has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. Endometriotic lesions trigger a local inflammatory reaction and have been reported to be associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of ovarian cancer arising from endometriosis are still to be elucidated. To clarify the involvement of mismatch repair (MMR) abnormalities in the inflammation-associated malignant transformation of endometriosis, the immunohistochemical expression of mismatch repair proteins (human mutL homolog 1 [hMLH1] and human mutS homolog 2 [hMSH2]) was examined in 27 cases of ovarian endometriosis, 25 cases of ovarian carcinoma accompanied by endometriosis, and 39 cases of solitary ovarian carcinoma. In addition, the relationship between mismatch repair abnormalities including the microsatellite instability, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) mutation, and clinicopathologic parameters was analyzed. The expression of mismatch repair proteins was stepwisely decreased in endometriosis, ovarian carcinoma accompanied by endometriosis, and ovarian carcinoma. Tumors harboring multiple microsatellite instability (high-frequency microsatellite instability [MSI-H]) were detected in 4 (14.8%) of 27 cases of endometriosis and 7 (30.4%) of 23 cases of ovarian carcinomas. The frequency of PTEN mutations was higher in MSI-H cases than in microsatellite instability-stable (MSI-S) cases. In 2 cases of ovarian carcinoma accompanied by endometriosis, the decreased expression of mismatch repair proteins and MSI-H was observed in both the endometriosis and carcinoma lesions. Clinicopathologically, the MSI-H cases were associated with elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein and higher white blood cell counts. These findings suggest that mismatch repair abnormalities might be involved in the malignant transformation of ovarian endometriosis and that inflammation induces mismatch repair abnormalities during ovarian carcinogenesis arising from endometriosis.
Human pathology 05/2012; 43(11):1964-72. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the significance of placental migration and the presence of a placental marginal sinus to predict the eventual route of delivery in low-lying placenta.
49 women with a low-lying placenta after 30 weeks' gestation were studied. The distance between the internal os and leading edge of the placenta was measured weekly using transvaginal ultrasonography until 37 weeks' gestation. The relationship between the rate of placental migration, the presence of a placental marginal sinus and the eventual mode of delivery was investigated.
Although the cesarean section rate was 56.3% (9/16) in the 'slow' migration (0-2.0 mm/week) group, no patient (0/33) in the 'fast' (>2.0 mm/week) migration group underwent a cesarean section (p < 0.01). The cesarean section rate was 71.4% (5/7) in patients with a placental marginal sinus, significantly greater than the rate of 9.5% (4/42) in patients without a marginal sinus (p < 0.01).
A decreased rate of placental migration until 37 weeks' gestation and the presence of a placental marginal sinus were associated with subsequent cesarean delivery because of antepartum vaginal bleeding. These parameters may be useful for predicting the route of delivery in women with a low-lying placenta.
Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 03/2012; 73(3):217-22. · 1.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of the expression of Notch-related molecules in endometrial carcinoma.
The expression of Notch receptors (Notch1 and 3) and Notch ligands [Jagged (JAG) 1 and Delta-like (DLL) 4] was examined immunohistochemically in 37 normal and 76 malignant endometrial tissue samples. For each section, immunohistochemical staining was scored using a positivity index (PI, full score; 200). The effects of a Notch inhibitor, DAPT, on cell proliferation, invasion and motility were investigated using endometrial carcinoma cell lines. The PIs for Notch1 (mean±SD 90.4±15.3), Notch3 (95.6 ± 20.4), JAG1 (95.5±10.0) and DLL4 (88.2±9.6), were significantly higher in endometrial carcinoma than normal endometrium. The PI for Notch1 was associated significantly with advanced International Federation of Gynecologists & Obstetricians (FIGO) stage. In addition, patients with tumours showing high expression of both Notch1 and JAG1 had a poor prognosis compared with those having double-negative carcinomas (P=0.015). DAPT suppressed invasiveness of cells derived from the endometrial carcinoma cell line KLE.
The Notch1-JAG1 axis may enhance the invasive properties of endometrial carcinomas, which suggests the Notch pathway may be a promising target for the treatment of this malignancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia is known to play important roles in the development and progression of tumors. We previously demonstrated that S100A4, a critical molecule for metastasis, was upregulated in ovarian cancer cells. Therefore, we examined the mechanisms of the upregulation of S100A4 expression in ovarian carcinoma cells, with particular attention paid to the effects of hypoxia. The expression levels of S100A4 were found to be correlated with the invasiveness of ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo, and the upregulation of S100A4 expression was associated with hypomethylation of CpG sites in the first intron of S100A4 in ovarian carcinoma cell lines and tissues. The expression of S100A4 was increased under hypoxia and was associated with elevated invasiveness, which was inhibited by S100A4 small interfering RNA (siRNA). In addition, exposure to hypoxia reduced the methylation of hypoxia-response elements (HRE) of the S100A4 gene in a time-dependent fashion, in association with the increased binding of HIF-1α to a methylation-free HRE in ovarian carcinoma cells. These results indicate that hypoxia-induced hypomethylation plays an essential role in S100A4 overexpression and the epigenetic transformation of ovarian carcinoma cells into the "metastatic phenotype."
International Journal of Cancer 01/2012; 131(8):1755-67. · 6.20 Impact Factor