[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 858 cattle (371 recruited from Bako Agricultural Research Center, BARC and 487 from Bako municipal abattoir) from October 2009 to April 2010 to isolate and characterize Mycobacterial species from Skin positive reactors and pathological lesion positive cattle. To this effect, comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT) test, post mortem examination, bacteriological culturing, and genus typing using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were applied. On the basis of CIDT, prevalence of positive reactors was 1.3% (95% CI: 0.15; 2.45) at the cut-off point of ≥4 mm following the recommendation of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), and 9.0% (95% CI: 6.0; 12.0) following the recently suggested cut-off of >2 mm. Apart from sex (P=0.047), there was no association between host related risk factors and positive reactors upon univariate analysis. However, animals in the age category of 2 to 5 years, those with medium body condition score and cattle born on farm were at high relative risk of infection than the other categories. Lesion positivity in slaughtered cattle was 9.3% (95% CI: 6.3; 11.8). Lesions were more frequent and severe in the mesenteric (60.9%), retropharyngeal (17.4%), and bronchial (17.4%) lymph nodes of slaughtered cattle. Culture positivity in suspicious tissues was 32.6% (29/89) out of which 69% (20 of 29) was confirmed to be acid-fast bacilli (AFB) on Ziehl Neelsen staining. Further characterisation of these isolates using genus typing (multiplex polymerase chain reaction) revealed that all of the isolates were members of the non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The isolation of NTM from tubercle lesions underlines their roles in causing lesions, which are similar with lesions caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Therefore, further investigations to identify the specific species, the source of infections, transmission route and the pathogencity of NTM in specific host is recommended.
African journal of microbiology research 05/2013; 7(20):2190-2197. · 0.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. METHODS: A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer's instruction.Result: A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 +/- 2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117--2076, n = 80) and 610 IU/ml (143--1833, n = 20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z = -0.198, P > 0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this population. In addition, there was no significant association between the prevalence of allergy and their nutritional status, and parasite infection. Further research prospective observational and intervention studies are required to address the question of causality between nutritional factors, parasites, and allergy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. RESULTS: The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42+/-0.32 (mg/dl), 15.31+/-2.14 (mg/dl), 328.19+/-148.91 (mug/dl), 191.30+/-50.17 (mug/dl), 86.40+/-42.40 (mug/dl), 6.32+/-2.59 (mug/dl), and 0.23+/-0.15 (mug/dl), respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01) and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that appropriate and beneficial strategies for micronutrient supplementation and interventions on nutritional deficiencies can be planned.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A survey qualitative survey was conducted to assess the awareness on food borne zoonosis and its relation with Veterinary Public Health Services in Addis Ababa and its surrounding districts from November 2008 to May 2009. Structured questionnaire was used in the study. Questionnaires were distributed to 384 individuals, of which 196 were elementary and high school students, and 196 were Graduates. Factors like education level, information source and profession were considered for possible explanation of the results. The use of inspected animal products is found statistically different (P<0.05) among health and non health professionals while no difference is seen between students and graduates. The majority (85.42%) of the students get their information from other information sources like their families in the form of advice and 67.71% of health professionals get their information from their medical schools. The most frequently mentioned zoonotic diseases were Rabies 384(100 %), followed by Anthrax 362(94.27%), Teniasis 342 (89.06%), Tuberculosis 340 (88.54%) and Brucellosis 190(49.48%) and 120(31.25%) mentioned other infectious diseases of zoonotic importance. The importance of veterinary public health in the overall public health institutions was assessed by looking at the responses to questions and shown that yet the public health institutions don't see the need of having veterinarians in the public health. In conclusion this study demonstrated that the awareness and use of inspected and packed animal products is relatively low that expose the people to risk of food borne pathogens and the awareness of health institutes on the importance of veterinary public health service is relatively low. The authors would like to recommend to the government and concerned bodies to raise the awareness of the public using the appropriate communication media, and to strengthen the contribution of public health veterinarians in the public health services for better community health.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common health problem among pregnant women. Proper investigation and prompt treatment are needed to prevent serious life threatening condition and morbidity due to urinary tract infection that can occur in pregnant women. Recent report in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicated the prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 11.6 % and Gram negative bacteria was the predominant isolates and showed multi drug resistance. This study aimed to assess bacterial profile that causes urinary tract infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.
A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital from March 22 to April 30, 2011. Mid stream urine samples were collected and inoculated into Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient medium (CLED). Colony counts yielding bacterial growth of 105/ml of urine or more of pure isolates were regarded as significant bacteriuria for infection. Colony from CLED was sub cultured onto MacConkey agar and blood agar plates. Identification was done using cultural characteristics and a series of biochemical tests. A standard method of agar disc diffusion susceptibility testing method was used to determine susceptibility patterns of the isolates.
The overall prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 10.4 %. The predominant bacterial pathogens were Escherichia coli 47.5 % followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci 22.5 %, Staphylococcus aureus 10 %, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 10 %. Gram negative isolates were resulted low susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (51.9 %) and tetracycline (40.7 %) whereas Gram positive showed susceptibility to ceftriaxon (84.6 %) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (92.3 %). Multiple drug resistance (resistance to two or more drugs) was observed in 95 % of the isolates.
Significant bacteriuria was observed in asymptomatic pregnant women. Periodic studies are recommended to check the outcome of asymptomatic bacteriuria and also monitor any changes in the susceptibility patterns of urinary tract pathogens in pregnant women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: HIV/AIDS remains a major health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. Co-infection with intestinal parasites has been suggested to worsen the outcome of infection by polarizing the immune response towards Th2. This study investigated the IgE profile in patients with diarrhea and with or without HIV and/or intestinal parasites co-infection at the time of diagnosis.
Methods and Materials: A cross-sectional study was conducted among diarrheic patients with and without HIV/AIDS attending at the outpatient Department of the University of Gondar teaching hospital, in Gondar, Ethiopia. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The presence of HIV antibodies was determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay following the manufacturer’s instruction.
Results: Among tested diarrheic patients, 109 (52.9%) of them were seropositive for HIV. Chronic and acute diarrheas were diagnosed in 114(55.3%) and 92(44.7%) of the patients, respectively. Intestinal parasites were detected in 30(27.5%) among HIV seropositive and 36(37.1%) of HIV seronegative diarrheic patients. Diarrhea and marked weight loss were found to be significantly associated with HIV infection (P<0.05). Median IgE concentration found in HIV positive diarrheic patients (618 IU/ml, IQR 107.25-971.25 IU/ml) was not significantly (P>0.05) higher than in HIV negative diarrheic patients (618 IU/ml, IQR 304.50-739 IU/ml). Significantly higher association of median total IgE level was obtained in diarrheic male patients (624 IU/ml, IQR 325.50-857.25 IU/ml) than diarrheic female patients (490 IU/ml, IQR 39-835 IU/ml), P<0.001. Adjusted estimates of the effects of HIV, age, and helminth infection on IgE concentration, estimated using linear regression did not showed significant associations.
Conclusion: There was a remarkably elevated IgE response in diarrheic patients irrespective of HIV and/or intestinal parasitic infection. The correlation of IgE levels with parasitic infection with or without HIV co-infection as well the immunological and molecular mechanisms of IgE overproduction and its role in HIV infection needs further investigation.
J AIDS Clinic Res. 01/2012; Amare B, Belyhun Y, Moges B, Mulu A, Fusao Ota, et al. (2012) Serum IgE Levels of Diarrheic Patients in Northwest Ethiopia with High Prevalence of HIV and Intestinal Parasitoses. J AIDS Clinic Res 3:136..
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Zinc and copper are essential for normal human development and functioning of the body. They have been implicated to play important roles in immuno-physiologic functions. Studies assessing the interactions between diarrheal diseases, HIV/AIDS and micronutrient status are too little in Ethiopia, as in other sub-Saharan Africa where morbidities from diarrheal diseases and HIV/AIDS are serious health problems. Hence, the present study was undertaken to investigate the level of zinc and copper as well as zinc/copper ratio among HIV positive diarrheic patients with sex and age matched HIV negative diarrheic patients.
Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted amongst 206 diarrheic patients (109 HIV seropositive and 97 HIV seronegative) patients. Concentration of serum level of zinc and copper was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. Reference intervals were defined according to recommended guidelines.
Results: Mean serum zinc level were not significantly different between diarrheic patients with (68.13 44.53g/dL) and without (62.39 43.64) HIV co-infection. Deficiency of zinc was seen in 69.7% and 80.4%% of diarrheic patients with and without HIV co-infection, respectively. HIV infected diarrheic patients with shigellosis (100%) and with intestinal parasites (63.3%) were deficient in serum zinc level. Unlike zinc, no diarrheic patients with or without HIV co-infection were found significantly deficient in serum copper levels.
Conclusion: Zinc deficiency is a severe public health problem in Gondar, Ethiopia, among diarrheic patients irrespective of HIV co-infection. Further studies are required to establish the role of these low concentrations in host defense against diarrheic patients with or without HIV, so that appropriate and beneficial strategies for micronutrient supplementation can be planned. In addition, the changes in micronutrients such as copper and zinc during anti-diarrhoea chemotherapy might be used as a valuable parameter in assessing response to therapy.
Vitamins & Trace Elements. 12/2011; Amare B, Tafess K, Moges F, Moges B, Yabutani T, et al. (2011) Levels of Serum Zinc, Copper and Copper/Zinc Ratio in Patients with Diarrhea and HIV Infection in Ethiopia. Vitamin Trace Element 1:101. doi:10.4172/vte.1000101.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study on bovine cysticercosis was conducted at Zeway municipal abattoir from November 2010 to March 2011 with the main objectives of determining the prevalence of cysticercosis in animals, taeniasis in human and estimates the worth of taeniasis treatment in Zeway/Batu town. Active abattoir and questionnaire survey and inventory of pharmaceutical shops were performed to accomplish the study. Out of the total 400 inspected animals,
12 animals had variable number of Cysticercus bovis giving an overall prevalence of 12 (3%). Anatomical distribution of the cyst showed that the highest proportions of C.bovis cyst were observed in tongue 33 (34.4%) followed by heart 27 (28.1%), triceps 21 (21.9%) and masseter muscle 15(15.6%). A total of 96 C. bovis were collected during the inspection; out of these, 32 (33.3%) were found to be live cysts while 64 (66.7%) were degenerative cysts. Of the total 120 interviewed respondents, 68 (56.7%) had contracted T. saginata infection at least once in their life time. Human taeniasis prevalence showed significant difference (p<0.05) with habit of raw meat consumption, sex and use of latrine. Accordingly frequent raw meat consumers (OR=10.71, 95%CI [1.54-74.42], male individuals (OR=2.15, 95% CI [0.95-4.88] and non latrine users (OR=4.40, 95% CI [1.58-12.45] had higher odds for acquiring taeniasis than occasional meat consumer, female and latrine users, respectively. An inventory of taeniacidal drugs from private pharmacies, rural drug venders, clinics and public health centers indicate that drugs worth of 110,560 Ethiopian birr was sold in the past one year (2009/10). Therefore, attention should be given for awareness creation for people not to consume raw meat and to use latrine to decrease the contamination of grazing areas.
Veterinary Science & Technology. 09/2011; Bedu H, Tafess K, Shelima B, Woldeyohannes D, Amare B, et al. (2011) Bovine Cysticercosis in Cattle Slaughtered at Zeway Municipal Abattoir: Prevalence and its Public Health Importance. J Veterinar Sci Technol 2:108. doi:10.4172/2157-7579.1000108.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Selenium deficiency is known to be a major public health problem, associated with increased risk of mortality with AIDS and AIDS-related complex, diarrhea included compared to those of healthy controls. In Ethiopia, there are no studies conducted on serum selenium status diarrheic patients with and without HIV infection. Therefore, the present study was aimed at determining the level of serum selenium in HIV infected and sex and aged matched HIV negative diarrheic patients..
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 206 (97 HIV seronegative and 109 HIV seropositive) diarrheic patients of both genders seen at University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer.
Results: The mean and standard deviation of serum selenium levels in HIV seropositives was 5.90 ± 2.78 μg/dl and in HIV seronegatives was 6.99 ± 4.26 μg/dl. Deficiency of selenium was seen in 95.9% and 71.56% of diarrheic patients with and without HIV co-infection, respectively. The overall selenium deficiency was observed in 83.0% of patients included in the study irrespective of their HIV serostatus while 85.3%of the patients infected with HIV and
80.4% of patients without HIV infection had serum selenium level below 7μg/dl. The low serum selenium level was not associated with presence or absence of intestinal parasites neither with sociodemographic variables such as age, residence, marital status, occupation, monthly income. The mean serum selenium level of all male cases was statistically significantly lower than that of the females (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Our results show high prevalence of selenium deficiencies in HIV seropositive and seronegative diarrheic patients in Gondar, Ethiopia. Although this is a small group of study subjects, the findings may be used as a tool to suggest further in-depth prospective clinical trials to determine whether selenium supplements may be of public health benefit among HIV-infected populations as a stand-alone therapeutic approach and potentially as an adjuvant to antiretroviral therapy.
AIDS & Clinical Research. 05/2011; Amare B, Tafess K, Ota F, Moges F, Moges B, et al. (2011) Serum Concentration of Selenium in Diarrheic Patients with and without HIV/AIDS in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. J AIDS Clinic Res 2:128. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000128.