K. Krisciunas

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, United States

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Publications (134)273.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present photospheric-phase observations of LSQ12gdj, a slowly-declining, UV-bright Type Ia supernova. Classified well before maximum light, LSQ12gdj has extinction-corrected absolute magnitude $M_B = -19.8$, and pre-maximum spectroscopic evolution similar to SN 1991T and the super-Chandrasekhar-mass SN 2007if. We use ultraviolet photometry from Swift, ground-based optical photometry, and corrections from a near-infrared photometric template to construct the bolometric (1600-23800 \AA) light curve out to 45 days past $B$-band maximum light. We estimate that LSQ12gdj produced $0.96 \pm 0.07$ $M_\odot$ of $^{56}$Ni, with an ejected mass near or slightly above the Chandrasekhar mass. As much as 27% of the flux at the earliest observed phases, and 17% at maximum light, is emitted bluewards of 3300 \AA. The absence of excess luminosity at late times, the cutoff of the spectral energy distribution bluewards of 3000 \AA, and the absence of narrow line emission and strong Na I D absorption all argue against a significant contribution from ongoing shock interaction. However, up to 10% of LSQ12gdj's luminosity near maximum light could be produced by the release of trapped radiation, including kinetic energy thermalized during a brief interaction with a compact, hydrogen-poor envelope (radius $< 10^{13}$ cm) shortly after explosion; such an envelope arises generically in double-degenerate merger scenarios.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first analysis of Type Ia supernovae found by the La Silla-QUEST (LSQ) survey and followed-up by the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) using the 1m SWOPE telescope. LSQ uses the 1m ESO Schmidt telescope on La Silla with a wide-band filter (4000-7000 Angstrom) to search for transient events with the aim of discovering and obtaining lightcurves for 500 low-redshift (z<0.1) supernovae over the 5-year lifetime of the project. The supernovae we present here are followed in a number of different filters, selected from BVugri, and will contribute towards the goal of a well-studied local sample for cosmology.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the spectroscopic classification of LSQ13dsm using a near-infrared spectrum (range 800-2500 nm) obtained on Jan 1.21 UT with the FoldedPort Infrared Echellette (FIRE) spectrograph on the 6.5-m Magellan Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. The near-infrared spectrum shows that LSQ13dsm is a young type Ia supernova at approximately z=0.04.
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report that an optical spectrum (range 359-960 nm) of J09063070-7549015 obtained on January 7.17 UT with the Las Campanas 2.5-m du Pont telescope (+WFCCD) shows that it is a type Ia supernova approximately a week before maximum brightness. Cross correlation with a library of supernova spectra via the Supernova Identification tool (Blondin and Tonry 2007, ApJ 1024, 666) yields very good matches with many normal type Ia supernovae at 6 to 11 days prior to maximum.
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: CBET 3385 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.
    Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams. 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a new astrophysical version of a cell-based adaptive mesh refinement code ALLA for reactive flow fluid dynamic simulations, including a new implementation of α-network nuclear kinetics, and present preliminary results of first three-dimensional simulations of incomplete carbon-oxygen detonation in Type Ia Supernovae.
    07/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of the peculiar Type Ia supernova 2001ay (SN 2001ay). The defining features of its peculiarity are: high velocity, broad lines, and a fast rising light curve, combined with the slowest known rate of decline. It is one magnitude dimmer than would be predicted from its observed value of Delta-m15, and shows broad spectral features. We base our analysis on detailed calculations for the explosion, light curves, and spectra. We demonstrate that consistency is key for both validating the models and probing the underlying physics. We show that this SN can be understood within the physics underlying the Delta-m15 relation, and in the framework of pulsating delayed detonation models originating from a Chandrasekhar mass, white dwarf, but with a progenitor core composed of 80% carbon. We suggest a possible scenario for stellar evolution which leads to such a progenitor. We show that the unusual light curve decline can be understood with the same physics as has been used to understand the Delta-m15 relation for normal SNe Ia. The decline relation can be explained by a combination of the temperature dependence of the opacity and excess or deficit of the peak luminosity, alpha, measured relative to the instantaneous rate of radiative decay energy generation. What differentiates SN 2001ay from normal SNe Ia is a higher explosion energy which leads to a shift of the Ni56 distribution towards higher velocity and alpha < 1. This result is responsible for the fast rise and slow decline. We define a class of SN 2001ay-like SNe Ia, which will show an anti-Phillips relation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2012; 753(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery and orbital determination of 14 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) from the ESSENCE Supernova Survey difference imaging data set. Two additional objects discovered in a similar search of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey database were recovered in this effort. ESSENCE repeatedly observed fields far from the solar system ecliptic (-21{sup o} < {beta} < -5{sup o}), reaching limiting magnitudes per observation of I {approx} 23.1 and R {approx} 23.7. We examine several of the newly detected objects in detail, including 2003 UC{sub 414}, which orbits entirely between Uranus and Neptune and lies very close to a dynamical region that would make it stable for the lifetime of the solar system. 2003 SS{sub 422} and 2007 TA{sub 418} have high eccentricities and large perihelia, making them candidate members of an outer class of TNOs. We also report a new member of the 'extended' or 'detached' scattered disk, 2004 VN{sub 112}, and verify the stability of its orbit using numerical simulations. This object would have been visible to ESSENCE for only {approx}2% of its orbit, suggesting a vast number of similar objects across the sky. We emphasize that off-ecliptic surveys are optimal for uncovering the diversity of such objects, which in turn will constrain the history of gravitational influences that shaped our early solar system.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2011; 682(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of high precision V light curves (LC) for 18 local Type Ia Supernovae, SNe Ia, as obtained with the same telescope and setup at the Las Campanas Observatory (LCO). This homogeneity provides an intrinsic accuracy a few hundreds of a magnitude both with respect to individual LCs and between different objects. Based on the Single Degenerate Scenario, SD, we identify patterns which have been predicted by model calculations as signatures of the progenitor and accretion rate which change the explosion energy and the amount of electron capture, respectively. Using these templates as principle components and the overdetermined system of SN pairs, we reconstruct the properties of progenitors and progenitor systems. All LCO SNe Ia follow the brightness decline relation but 2001ay. After subtraction of the two components, the remaining scatter is reduced to 0.01-0.03m. Type SNe Ia seem to originate from progenitors with Main Sequence masses of 3Mo with the exception of two subluminous SNe Ia with < 2Mo. The component analysis indicates a wide range of accretion rates in the progenitor systems closing the gap to accretion induced collapses (AIC). SN1991t-like objects show differences in $dm15$ but no tracers of our secondary parameters. This may point to a different origin such as DD-Scenario or the Pulsating Delayed Detonations. SN2001ay does not follow the decline relation. It can be understood in the framework of C-rich WDs, and this group may produce an anti-Phillips relation. We suggest that this may be a result of a common envelope phase and mixing during central He burning as in SN1987A.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 09/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We observed SN 2011dh with the IRTF 3.5m and the SpeX instrument on June 8, 12, & 16. No helium was detected on June 8. Weak evidence for helium was present on June 12 and He I is unambiguously detected from the 1.0830 & 2.0581 micron lines in the spectrum obtained June 16. The He I velocities on June 16 are about 8000 km/s while H velocities remain above 11000 km/s. O I & Fe II are also clearly detected.
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 06/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We present observational data for Comet 9P/Tempel 1 taken from 1997 through 2010 in an international collaboration in support of the Deep Impact and Stardust-NExT missions. The data were obtained to characterize the nucleus prior to the Deep Impact 2005 encounter, and to enable us to understand the rotation state in order to make a time of arrival adjustment in February 2010 that would allow us to image at least 25% of the nucleus seen by the Deep Impact spacecraft to better than 80m/pixel, and to image the crater made during the encounter, if possible. In total, ∼500 whole or partial nights were allocated to this project at 14 observatories worldwide, utilizing 25 telescopes. Seventy percent of these nights yielded useful data. The data were used to determine the linear phase coefficient for the comet in the R-band to be 0.045±0.001magdeg−1 from 1° to 16°. Cometary activity was observed to begin inbound near r∼4.0 AU and the activity ended near r∼4.6 AU as seen from the heliocentric secular light curves, water-sublimation models and from dust dynamical modeling. The light curve exhibits a significant pre- and post-perihelion brightness and activity asymmetry. There was a secular decrease in activity between the 2000 and 2005 perihelion passages of ∼20%. The post-perihelion light curve cannot be easily explained by a simple decrease in solar insolation or observing geometry. CN emission was detected in the comet at 2.43 AU pre-perihelion, and by r=2.24 AU emission from C2 and C3 were evident. In December 2004 the production rate of CN increased from 1.8×1023mols−1 to QCN=2.75×1023mols−1 in early January 2005 and 9.3×1024mols−1 on June 6, 2005 at r=1.53 AU.
    Icarus 05/2011; 213:323-344. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of the spin rate of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 through two perihelion passages (in 2000 and 2005) is determined from 1922 Earth-based observations taken over a period of 13year as part of a World-Wide observing campaign and from 2888 observations taken over a period of 50 days from the Deep Impact spacecraft. We determine the following sidereal spin rates (periods): 209.023±0.025°/dy (41.335±0.005h) prior to the 2000 perihelion passage, 210.448±0.016°/dy (41.055±0.003h) for the interval between the 2000 and 2005 perihelion passages, 211.856±0.030°/dy (40.783±0.006h) from Deep Impact photometry just prior to the 2005 perihelion passage, and 211.625±0.012°/dy (40.827±0.002h) in the interval 2006–2010 following the 2005 perihelion passage. The period decreased by 16.8±0.3min during the 2000 passage and by 13.7±0.2min during the 2005 passage suggesting a secular decrease in the net torque. The change in spin rate is asymmetric with respect to perihelion with the maximum net torque being applied on approach to perihelion. The Deep Impact data alone show that the spin rate was increasing at a rate of 0.024±0.003°/dy/dy at JD2453530.60510 (i.e., 25.134 dy before impact), which provides independent confirmation of the change seen in the Earth-based observations.The rotational phase of the nucleus at times before and after each perihelion and at the Deep Impact encounter is estimated based on the Thomas et al. (Thomas et al. [2007]. Icarus 187, 4–15) pole and longitude system. The possibility of a 180° error in the rotational phase is assessed and found to be significant. Analytical and physical modeling of the behavior of the spin rate through of each perihelion is presented and used as a basis to predict the rotational state of the nucleus at the time of the nominal (i.e., prior to February 2010) Stardust-NExT encounter on 2011 February 14 at 20:42.We find that a net torque in the range of 0.3–2.5×107kgm2s−2 acts on the nucleus during perihelion passage. The spin rate initially slows down on approach to perihelion and then passes through a minimum. It then accelerates rapidly as it passes through perihelion eventually reaching a maximum post-perihelion. It then decreases to a stable value as the nucleus moves away from the Sun. We find that the pole direction is unlikely to precess by more than ∼1° per perihelion passage. The trend of the period with time and the fact that the modeled peak torque occurs before perihelion are in agreement with published accounts of trends in water production rate and suggests that widespread H2O out-gassing from the surface is largely responsible for the observed spin-up.
    Icarus 05/2011; 213:345-368. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-quality observations of $B$ and $V$ light curves obtained at Las Campanas Observatory for local Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) show clear evidence that SNe Ia with the same brightness decline or stretch may have systematic and independent deviations at times < 5 days before and at times > 30 days after maximum light. This suggests the existence of two independent secondary parameters which control the shape of SN Ia light curves in addition to the brightness decline relation. stretch. The differences are consistent in morphology of the time dependence and size with predictions by models within the delayed detonation scenario. The secondary parameters may reflect two independent physical effects caused by variations in the progenitor and accretion rates, and link the LC variations in shape with the intrinsic, absolute brightness. Comment: 32 pages, 9 Figures, ApJ accepted
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2009; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use a combination of near-infrared and optical data to study the diversity in intrinsic brightness of Type Ia supernovae and to learn how better to correct for the systematic errors involved in using them as standard candles. Our sample includes light curves of 29 nearby Type Ia SNe from the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) at Las Campanas observatory in Chile, which observes in both optical (uBVgri) and near-IR (YJHK) filters, and other well observed nearby Type Ia SNe having light curves with both optical and near-IR data published in the literature. We also use more than forty near-IR spectra from the Marion/IRTF data set plus eleven near-IR spectra of SN 1999ee from Hamuy et al. (2002). The combined set of near-IR spectra consists of many different SNe and covers the epoch range from -13 days to +76 days with respect to V-band maximum. We are working on deriving a set of near-IR, K-corrected, and extinction-corrected YJHK light curve templates and new methods for fitting future YJHK light curve data. From observations of 20 Type Ia supernovae obtained by the CSP collaboration, along with previously published results, I will present near-IR Hubble diagrams and derived absolute magnitudes at maximum brightness for the objects that have well observed near-IR light curves. Type Ia supernovae appear to be standard candles in the near-IR to ±0.15 mag or better and there is much less extinction by dust in the near-IR compared to the optical. A better understanding of the Standard Candle nature of SNe will enable us to improve their usefulness as precise distance indicators and enter deeper into the era of precision cosmology.
    12/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: An extensive dataset for SN 2003hv that covers the flux evolution from maximum light to day +786 is presented. The data are combined with published nebular-phase infrared spectra, and the observations are compared to model light curves and synthetic nebular spectra. SN 2003hv is a normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) with photometric and spectroscopic properties consistent with its rarely observed B-band decline-rate parameter, Delta m_15 = 1.61 +- 0.02. The blueshift of the most isolated [Fe II] lines in the nebular-phase optical spectrum appears consistent with those observed in the infrared at similar epochs. At late times there is a prevalent color evolution from the optical toward the near-infrared bands. We present the latest-ever detection of a SN Ia in the near-infrared in Hubble Space Telescope images. The study of the ultraviolet/optical/infrared (UVOIR) light curve reveals that a substantial fraction of the flux is "missing" at late times. Between 300-700 days past maximum brightness, the UVOIR light curve declines linearly following the decay of radioactive Co56, assuming full and instantaneous positron trapping. At 700 days we detect a possible slowdown of the decline in optical bands, mainly in the V band. The data are incompatible with a dramatic infrared catastrophe. However, the idea that an infrared catastrophe occurred in the densest regions before 350 days can explain the missing flux from the UVOIR wavelengths and the flat-topped profiles in the near-infrared. We argue that such a scenario is possible if the ejecta are clumpy. The observations suggest that positrons are most likely trapped in the ejecta. Comment: 20 pages, 9 figures. Fixed typos found during proofs to match published version
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2009; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present extensive photometry at ultraviolet (UV), optical, and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, as well as dense sampling of optical spectra, for the normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2005cf. The optical photometry, performed at eight different telescopes, shows a 1σ scatter of 0.03 mag after proper corrections for the instrument responses. From the well-sampled light curves, we find that SN 2005cf reached a B-band maximum at 13.63 ± 0.02 mag, with an observed luminosity decline rate Δm 15(B) = 1.05 ± 0.03 mag. The correlations between the decline rate and various color indexes, recalibrated on the basis of an expanded SN Ia sample, yield a consistent estimate for the host-galaxy reddening of SN 2005cf, E(B – V)host = 0.10 ± 0.03 mag. The UV photometry was obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope, and the results match each other to within 0.1-0.2 mag. The UV light curves show similar evolution to the broadband U, with an exception in the 2000-2500 Å spectral range (corresponding to the F220W/uvm2 filters), where the light curve appears broader and much fainter than that on either side (likely owing to the intrinsic spectral evolution). Combining the UV data with the ground-based optical and NIR data, we establish the generic UV-optical-NIR bolometric light curve for SN 2005cf and derive the bolometric corrections in the absence of UV and/or NIR data. The overall spectral evolution of SN 2005cf is similar to that of a normal SN Ia, but with variety in the strength and profile of the main feature lines. The spectra at early times displayed strong, high-velocity (HV) features in the Ca II H&K doublet and NIR triplet, which were distinctly detached from the photosphere (v 10,000 km s–1) at a velocity ranging from 20,000 to 25,000 km s–1. One interesting feature is the flat-bottomed absorption observed near 6000 Å in the earliest spectrum, which rapidly evolved into a triangular shape and then became a normal Si II λ6355 absorption profile at about one week before maximum brightness. This premaximum spectral evolution is perhaps due to the blending of the Si IIλ6355 at photospheric velocity and another HV absorption component (e.g., an Si II shell at a velocity ~18,000 km s–1) in the outer ejecta, and may be common in other normal SNe Ia. The possible origin of the HV absorption features is briefly discussed.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2009; 697(1):380. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the next decade Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) will be used to test theories predicting changes in the Dark Energy equation of state with time. Ultimately this requires a dedicated space mission like JDEM. SNe Ia are mature cosmological probes --- their limitations are well characterized, and a path to improvement is clear. Dominant systematic errors include photometric calibration, selection effects, reddening, and population-dependent differences. Building on past lessons, well-controlled new surveys are poised to make strides in these areas: the Palomar Transient Factory, Skymapper, La Silla QUEST, Pan-STARRS, the Dark Energy Survey, LSST, and JDEM. They will obviate historical calibrations and selection biases, and allow comparisons via large subsamples. Some systematics follow from our ignorance of SN Ia progenitors, which there is hope of determining with SN Ia rate studies from 0<z<4. Aside from cosmology, SNe Ia regulate galactic and cluster chemical evolution, inform stellar evolution, and are laboratories for extreme physics. Essential probes of SNe Ia in these contexts include spectroscopy from the UV to the IR, X-ray cluster and SN remnant observations, spectropolarimetry, and advanced theoretical studies. While there are an abundance of discovery facilities planned, there is a deficit of follow-up resources. Living in the systematics era demands deep understanding rather than larger statistics. NOAO ReSTAR initiative to build 2-4m telescopes would provide necessary follow-up capability. Finally, to fully exploit LSST, well-matched wide-field spectroscopic capabilities are desirable.
    04/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of spectroscopic observations from the ESSENCE high-redshift supernova (SN) survey during its first four years of operation. This sample includes spectra of all SNe Ia whose light curves were presented by Miknaitis et al. and used in the cosmological analyses of Davis et al. and Wood-Vasey et al. The sample represents 273 hr of spectroscopic observations with 6.5-10 m class telescopes of objects detected and selected for spectroscopy by the ESSENCE team. We present 184 spectra of 156 objects. Combining this sample with that of Matheson et al., we have a total sample of 329 spectra of 274 objects. From this, we are able to spectroscopically classify 118 Type Ia SNe. As the survey has matured, the efficiency of classifying SNe Ia has remained constant while we have observed both higher-redshift SNe Ia and SNe Ia farther from maximum brightness. Examining the subsample of SNe Ia with host-galaxy redshifts shows that redshifts derived from only the SN Ia spectra are consistent with redshifts found from host-galaxy spectra. Moreover, the phases derived from only the SN Ia spectra are consistent with those derived from light-curve fits. By comparing our spectra to local templates, we find that the rate of objects similar to the overluminous SN 1991T and the underluminous SN 1991bg in our sample are consistent with that of the local sample. We do note, however, that we detect no object spectroscopically or photometrically similar to SN 1991bg. Although systematic effects could reduce the high-redshift rate we expect based on the low-redshift surveys, it is possible that SN 1991bg-like SNe Ia are less prevalent at high redshift.
    The Astronomical Journal 03/2009; 137(4):3731. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present multiepoch spectra of 13 high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) drawn from the literature, the ESSENCE and SNLS projects, and our own separate dedicated program on the ESO Very Large Telescope. We use the Supernova Identification (SNID) code of Blondin and Tonry to determine the spectral ages in the supernova rest frame. Comparison with the observed elapsed time yields an apparent aging rate consistent with the 1/(1 + z) factor (where z is the redshift) expected in a homogeneous, isotropic, expanding universe. These measurements thus confirm the expansion hypothesis, while unambiguously excluding models that predict no time dilation, such as Zwicky's "tired light" hypothesis. We also test for power-law dependencies of the aging rate on redshift. The best-fit exponent for these models is consistent with the expected 1/(1 + z) factor.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 682(2):724. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present extensive optical and infrared photometry of the afterglow of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 030329 and its associated supernova (SN) 2003dh over the first two months after detection (2003 March 30-May 29 UT). Optical spectroscopy from a variety of telescopes is shown and, when combined with the photometry, allows an unambiguous separation between the afterglow and SN contributions. The optical afterglow of the GRB is initially a power-law continuum but shows significant color variations during the first week that are unrelated to the presence of an SN. The early afterglow light curve also shows deviations from the typical power-law decay. An SN spectrum is first detectable ~7 days after the burst and dominates the light after ~11 days. The spectral evolution and the light curve are shown to closely resemble those of SN 1998bw, a peculiar Type Ic SN associated with GRB 980425, and the time of the SN explosion is close to the observed time of the GRB. It is now clear that at least some GRBs arise from core-collapse SNe.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 599(1):394. · 6.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
273.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      • Computational Research Division (CRD)
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • Texas A&M University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      College Station, Texas, United States
    • The Fesenkov Astrophysical Institute
      Almaty, Almaty Qalasy, Kazakhstan
  • 2008
    • Carnegie Institution for Science
      • Department of Terrestrial Magnetism
      Washington, WV, United States
  • 2002–2007
    • National Optical Astronomy Observatory
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2004
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1999–2000
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Astronomy
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1989–1992
    • Joint Astronomy Centre
      Hilo, Hawaii, United States