[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an inhibitory neuromodulator expressed abundantly in the central nervous system that is suspected of being an endogenous antiepileptic agent that can control propagation of limbic seizures. Electrophysiological and pharmacological data suggest that these actions of NPY are mediated by G protein-coupled NPY Y2 and NPY Y5 receptors. To determine whether the NPY Y5 receptor (Y5R) is required for normal control of limbic seizures, we examined hippocampal function and responsiveness to kainic acid-induced seizures in Y5R-deficient (Y5R-/-) mice. We report that Y5R-/- mice do not exhibit spontaneous seizure-like activity; however, they are more sensitive to kainic acid-induced seizures. Electrophysiological examination of hippocampal slices from mutant mice revealed normal function, but the antiepileptic effects of exogenously applied NPY were absent. These data demonstrate that Y5R has an important role in mediating NPY's inhibitory actions in the mouse hippocampus and suggest a role for Y5R in the control of limbic seizures.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/1999; 96(23):13518-23. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations reducing the functional activity of leptin, the leptin receptor, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormones (alpha-MSH) and the melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r) all lead to obesity in mammals. Moreover, mutant mice that ectopically express either agouti (Ay/a mice) or agouti-related protein (Agrp), antagonists of melanocortin signalling, become obese. These data suggest that alpha-MSH signalling transduced by Mc4r tonically inhibits feeding; however, it is not known to what extent this pathway mediates leptin signalling. We show here that Mc4r-deficient (Mc4r-/-) mice do not respond to the anorectic actions of MTII, an MSH-like agonist, suggesting that alpha-MSH inhibits feeding primarily by activating Mc4r. Obese Mc4r-/-mice do not respond significantly to the inhibitory effects of leptin on feeding, whereas non-obese Mc4r-/- mice do. These data demonstrate that melanocortin signalling transduced by Mc4r is not an exclusive target of leptin action and that factors resulting from obesity contribute to leptin resistance. Leptin resistance of obese Mc4r-/- mice does not prevent their response to the anorectic actions of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), or urocortin; or the orexigenic actions of neuropeptide Y (NPY) or peptide YY (PYY), indicating that these neuromodulators act independently or downstream of Mc4r signalling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is thought to be an important central regulator of feeding behavior and body weight. However, mice lacking NPY due to targeted genetic deletion do not display abnormalities in food intake or body weight with ad libitum access to food or in response to fasting. In this study, we investigate the response of NPY-deficient (NPY-/-) mice to anorexic and orexigenic treatments. The dose-dependent stimulation of food intake by central NPY administration was unaltered in NPY-/- mice. Peripheral administration of various doses of leptin for 2 days elicited a two-fold greater inhibition of food intake in NPY-/- mice than in wildtype (NPY+/+) mice. In addition, lateral ventricular administration of leptin (1 microg) suppressed refeeding in NPY-/- mice after a 24 h fast, but had little effect in NPY+/+ mice. However, the response to other feeding inhibitors such as corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), dexfenfluramine, and a melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) agonist, MTII, was unaltered in NPY-/- mice. These results indicate that the appetite-suppressant action of exogenous leptin is uniquely amplified in NPY-/- mice, and suggest that NPY may tonically antagonize leptin action.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36-amino-acid neuromodulator abundantly expressed in the brain, has been implicated in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Pharmacological data suggest that NPY's stimulatory effect on appetite is transduced by the G-protein-coupled NPY Y5 receptor (Y5R). We have inactivated the Y5R gene in mice and report that younger Y5R-null mice feed and grow normally; however, they develop mild late-onset obesity characterized by increased body weight, food intake and adiposity. Fasting-induced refeeding is unchanged in younger Y5R-null mice and they exhibit normal sensitivity to leptin. Their response to intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of NPY and related peptides is either reduced or absent. NPY deficiency attenuates the obesity syndrome of mice deficient for leptin (ob/ob), but these effects are not mediated by NPY signaling through the Y5R because Y5R-null ob/ob mice are equally obese. These results demonstrate that the Y5R contributes to feeding induced by centrally administered NPY and its analogs, but is not a critical physiological feeding receptor in mice.
Nature Medicine 07/1998; 4(6):718-21. · 22.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to ascertain whether neuropeptide Y (NPY) is required in mice for the development of obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD), chemical lesions of the hypothalamus caused by monosodium glutamate (MSG) or gold thioglucose (GTG), impaired brown adipose tissue (BAT) due to a diphtheria toxin transgene driven by the uncoupling protein 1 promoter (UCP-DTA) or the lethal yellow agouti mutation (Ay).
The obesity syndrome of the leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mouse can be partially reversed by the genetic removal of NPY. In the murine models of obesity examined in this study, the animals become obese despite increased serum leptin levels, indicating that they are resistant to the weight-limiting actions of leptin. The role of NPY in these obesity models with elevated leptin levels is unknown.
Mice lacking NPY due to genetic disruption of the gene and wildtype littermates were made obese by allowing them access to a highly palatable HFD, by treatment with MSG, or GTG, or by inheriting the dominant UCP-DTA or Ay alleles. Food consumption, body weight and dissectable fat pad weights were measured and compared to values obtained from non-obese littermates.
In each model of obesity tested, NPY-deficient mice achieved the same food intake, body weight and fat content as wildtype littermates.
NPY is not necessary for the progressive development of obesity exhibited by multiple murine models with leptin resistance.
International Journal of Obesity 07/1998; 22(6):506-12. · 5.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36 amino acid neuromodulator that is secreted by neurons throughout the peripheral and central nervous system, has been implicated in the control of many physiological processes. We have begun to examine its role in regulation of appetite, behavior, and excitotoxicity by examining mice that are unable to produce NPY as a consequence of gene inactivation. These mutant mice are remarkably normal when reared under standard vivarium conditions. Despite considerable evidence that NPY plays a central role in stimulating appetite, NPY-deficient mice eat normally, grow normally, and refeed after a fast normally. Furthermore, all of their endocrine responses to fasting are normal. The response of NPY-null mice to diet-induced obesity, chemically induced obesity (monosodium glutamate and gold thioglucose), and genetic-based obesity (lethal yellow agouti, Ay; uncoupling protein-diphtheria toxin transgenics, UCP-DT) were all normal. However, NPY deficiency does partially ameliorate the obesity and all of the adverse endocrine effects of leptin deficiency in ob/ob mice. NPY-null mice as well as mice deficient in both NPY and leptin are more sensitive to leptin, suggesting that NPY may normally have a tonic inhibitory action on leptin-mediated satiety signals. NPY-null mice display the normal voracious feeding response to injected NPY. Thus, the only condition where we have observed a role for NPY in body-weight regulation is in the context of complete leptin deficiency--where absence of NPY is beneficial. The activity and general behavior of NPY-null mice are normal. They appear to have normal spatial and contextual learning ability; however, they manifest more anxiety under some conditions. NPY-null mice occasionally display spontaneous, seizure-like events. They also are less able to terminate seizures induced by GABA receptor antagonists or glutamate receptor agonists. These observations are consistent with previous data suggesting that NPY plays an important role in dampening excitotoxicity.
Recent Progress in Hormone Research 02/1998; 53:163-99.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) inhibits excitatory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus and is implicated in control of limbic seizures. In the present study, we examined hippocampal function and the response to pharmacologically induced seizures in mutant mice lacking this peptide. In slice electrophysiology studies, no change in normal hippocampal function was observed in NPY-deficient mice compared with normal wild-type littermates. Kainic acid (KA) produced limbic seizures at a comparable latency and concentration in NPY-deficient mice compared with littermates. However, KA-induced seizures progressed uncontrollably and ultimately produced death in 93% of NPY-deficient mice, whereas death was rarely observed in wild-type littermates. Intracerebroventricular NPY infusion, before KA administration, prevented death in NPY-deficient mice. These results suggest a critical role for endogenous NPY in seizure control.
Journal of Neuroscience 01/1998; 17(23):8927-36. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among its many proposed functions, neuropeptide Y (NPY) is thought to modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Specifically, increased hypothalamic NPY signaling may be critical in mediating the neuroendocrine response to fasting. To determine the consequences of NPY deficiency on endocrine physiology, multiple hormones were quantitated in wildtype and NPY-knockout mice under fed and fasted conditions. Serum concentrations of leptin, corticosterone, thyroxine, and testosterone were normal in NPY-knockout males fed ad libitum. A 48-hour fast resulted in a 50% reduction in leptin, a 60% reduction in thyroxine, a 75% reduction in testosterone, and a 12-fold increase in corticosterone in both wildtype and NPY-knockout mice. Fasting also increased the estrous cycle length by 3 days in both wildtype and NPY-deficient female mice. We conclude that NPY is not essential for appropriate function of the gonadotropic, thyrotropic, or corticotropic axes under ad lib fed conditions or in response to acute fasting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metallothionein-III (MT-III), a brain-specific member of the metallothionein family of metal-binding proteins, is abundant in glutamatergic neurons that release zinc from their synaptic terminals, such as hippocampal pyramidal neurons and dentate granule cells. MT-III may be an important regulator of zinc in the nervous system, and its absence has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease. However, the roles of MT-III in brain physiology and pathophysiology have not been elucidated. Mice lacking MT-III because of targeted gene inactivation were generated to evaluate the neurobiological significance of MT-III. MT-III-deficient mice had decreased concentrations of zinc in several brain regions, including hippocampus, but the pool of histochemically reactive zinc was not disturbed. Mutant mice exhibited normal spatial learning in the Morris water maze and were not sensitive to systemic zinc or cadmium exposure. No neuropathology or behavioral deficits were detected in 2-year-old MT-III-deficient mice, but the age-related increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein expression was more pronounced in mutant brain. MT-III-deficient mice were more susceptible to seizures induced by kainic acid and subsequently exhibited greater neuron injury in the CA3 field of hippocampus. Conversely, transgenic mice containing elevated levels of MT-III were more resistant to CA3 neuron injury induced by seizures. These observations suggest a potential role for MT-III in zinc regulation during neural stimulation.
Journal of Neuroscience 03/1997; 17(4):1271-81. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The obesity syndrome of ob/ob mice results from lack of leptin, a hormone released by fat cells that acts in the brain to suppress feeding and stimulate metabolism. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neuromodulator implicated in the control of energy balance and is overproduced in the hypothalamus of ob/ob mice. To determine the role of NPY in the response to leptin deficiency, ob/ob mice deficient for NPY were generated. In the absence of NPY, ob/ob mice are less obese because of reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure, and are less severely affected by diabetes, sterility, and somatotropic defects. These results suggest that NPY is a central effector of leptin deficiency.