W E Bechtold

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States

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Publications (89)267.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Mainstream cigarette smoke generated using different puffing profiles and delivered under different exposure modes was characterized for particle size distribution, vaporlgas concentration, and chemical composition. Three exposure modes were compared: (1) nose-only, intermittent (NO-I), which simulated a periodic exposure; (2) nose-only, continuous (NO-C), in which a constant smoke concentration was maintained for several hours; and (3) whole-body, continuous (WB-C), which was similar to the NO-C mode except that the smoke was routed to a whole-body instead of to a nose-only exposure chamber. Three different puffing profiles were compared: (1) a standard (SP), 2-s, 35-ml puff once per minute; (2) a puff of double the standard volume (70 ml) once per minute (OP); and (3) a double puff twice per minute (2-DP). Results from multijet Mercer impactor samples indicated that the mass median aerodynamic diameter of smoke particles increased with mass concentration and decreased with puff volume. Gas samples showed no substantive differences between exposure modes with or without rats in the exposure chambers, except for CO2 concentrations in the WE-C chambers, NO2 concentrations in the NO-I chambers, and NO concentrations in the NO-C chambers. Linear relationships were observed between the concentration of total particulate matter and that of CO, NO, and volatile organic hydrocarbons under all exposure and puffing modes. Concentrations of six different organic vapors (acetone, 2-methylfuran, benzene, meta- and para-xylene, ortho-xylene, and limonene) were measured using Tenax trapping technique. The results showed no substantive differences among the three exposure modes or three puffing profiles, except that the concentrations of toluene, orthoxylene, and limonene were higher in smoke from the WE-C than from the NO-C (or NO-I) modes. The amounts of four particulate-phase constituents (nicotine, glycerol, hydroquinone, and palmitic acid) were analyzed chemically; good agreement was found in the amounts resulting from all of the puffing profiles and most of the exposure modes, except that nicotine was found to be slightly lower in the WE-C mode than in the other exposure modes. Sampling results indicated that there were few substantive differences in smoke composition among the different exposure and puffing modes used in this study We concluded that WB-C exposures to the cigarette smoke generated under 2-DP profiles might produce biological effects similar to those produced under SP profiles by nose-only exposures, and might be useful for chronic animal exposures.
    09/2008; 1(4):331-347.
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    ABSTRACT: An animal model of lung carcinogenicity induced by chronic inhalation of mainstream cigarette smoke would be useful for research on carcinogenic mechanisms, smoke composition-response relationships, co-carcinogenicity, and chemoprevention. A study was conducted to determine if chronic whole-body exposures of rats would significantly increase lung tumor incidence. Male and female F344 rats (n = 81 to 178/gender) were exposed whole-body 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 30 months to smoke from 1R3 research cigarettes diluted to 100 (LS) or 250 (HS) mg total particulate matter/m(3), or sham-exposed to clean air (C). Gross respiratory tract lesions and standard lung and nasal sections were evaluated by light microscopy. A slight reduction of survival suggested that the HS level was at the maximum tolerated dose as commonly defined. Cigarette smoke exposure significantly increased the incidences of non-neoplastic and neoplastic proliferative lung lesions in females, while nonsignificant increases were observed in males. The combined incidence of bronchioloalveolar adenomas and carcinomas in females were: HS = 14%; LS = 6%; and C = 0%. These incidences represented minima because only standard lung sections and gross lesions were evaluated. Mutations in codon 12 of the K-ras gene occurred in 4 of 23 (17%) tumors. Three mutations were G to A transitions and one was a G to T transversion. The incidence of neoplasia of the nasal cavity was significantly increased at the HS, but not the LS level in both males and females (HS = 6%, LS = 0.3%, C = 0.4% for combined genders). These results demonstrate that chronic whole-body exposure of rats to cigarette smoke can induce lung cancer.
    Toxicological Sciences 11/2004; 81(2):280-92. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a monomer produced in petrochemical production facilities and from several combustion sources. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has defined BD as a probable human carcinogen. Methods for assessing exposure and internal dose are therefore of critical interest, and one technique is the measurement of urinary metabolites. Here we describe methods for measuring two urinary metabolites, N-acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine (referred to as MI) and an isomeric mixture of the regio- and stereoisomers (R)/(S)-N-acetyl-S-(1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-propen-yl)-L-cysteine and (R)/(S)-N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxy-3-butenyl)-L-cysteine (referred to as MII). The method is based on isolation of the metabolites by solid-phase extraction and measurement using liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS(3)). The LC-MS(3) allowed good selectivity with minimal sample preparation. Assay accuracy was within 10% or better, with substantial improvement in accuracy accompanying the commercial availability of deuterated internal standards for both compounds. Assay precision and linearity passed rigorous validation criteria, and precision-based limits of quantitation values were 12 and 1 ng/mL for MI and MII, respectively. Data are shown from analysis of human urine from occupationally exposed individuals and rat urine from BD exposures conducted to investigate rodent metabolic profiles. Both of these data sets clearly show that this assay can discern previously described relationships between BD exposure and the production of MI/MII.
    Journal of analytical toxicology 05/2004; 28(3):168-73. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1,3-Butadiene (BD), which is used to make styrene-butadiene rubber, is a potent carcinogen in mice and a probable carcinogen, associated with leukemia, in humans. We have previously used HPRT mutation as a biomarker to evaluate exposures to BD in a monomer production plant. We now report on a study of 49 workers in a styrene-butadiene rubber plant in which we used the concentration of the BD metabolite 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl-S)-butane (M1) in urine as a biomarker of exposure and the frequency of HPRT variant (mutant) lymphocytes (Vf) as a biomarker of effect. Workers were assigned to high- and low-exposure groups based on historical information about work areas and jobs. Personal exposure to BD for one work shift was measured using a passive badge dosimeter. Each participant provided a urine specimen and blood sample at the end of the work shift and completed a questionnaire providing information on lifestyle, health, and work activities. The average BD exposures in the high- and low-exposure groups were significantly different, even after excluding two extreme values, (high 1.48 ppm; low 0.15 ppm, p < 0.002). This study was done in 1994 and 1995 before the establishment, in 1996, of the new permissible exposure limit of 1 ppm. Both the mean M1 and the HPRT Vf were more than three times greater in the high-exposure group than in the low-exposure group (p < 0.0005). The three end points correlated with each other, with sample correlation coefficients between 0.4 and 0.6. The correlations among BD exposure and the biomarkers of internal exposure and genotoxicity suggest that occupational exposure to BD, in the range of 1-3 ppm, may be associated with adverse biological effects.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 01/2002; 109(12):1249-55. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin (Alb) adducts of the benzene metabolites benzene oxide (BO) and 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 43 exposed workers and 44 unexposed controls from Shanghai, China, as part of a larger cross-sectional study of benzene biomarkers. When subjects were divided into controls (n = 44) and workers exposed to </=31 ppm (n = 21) and >31 ppm (n = 22) of benzene, median 1,4-BQ-Alb adducts were 2110, 5850, and 13,800 pmol/g Alb, respectively (correlation with exposure: Spearman r = 0.762; P < 0.0001); median BO-Alb adducts were 106, 417, and 2400 pmol/g Alb, respectively (Spearman r = 0.877; P < 0.0001); and median BO-Hb adducts were 37.1, 50.5, and 136 pmol/g Hb, respectively (Spearman r = 0.757; P < 0.0001). To our knowledge, this is the first observation that adducts of 1,4-BQ are significantly correlated with benzene exposure. When compared on an individual basis, Alb adducts of 1,4-BQ and BO and Hb adducts of BO were highly correlated with each other and with urinary phenol and hydroquinone (P < 0.0001 for all of the comparisons). Although detectable in the assays, Hb adducts of 1,4-BQ and both Hb and Alb adducts of 1,2-BQ produced erratic results and are not reported. Interestingly, cigarette smoking increased Alb adducts of 1,4-BQ but not of BO, suggesting that benzene from cigarette smoke was not the primary contributor to the 1,4-BQ adducts.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 08/2001; 10(8):831-8. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined a spectrum of genotoxic and other outcomes in 41 butadiene-polymer production workers and 38 nonexposed controls, in China, to explore the role of butadiene in human carcinogenesis. Among butadiene-exposed workers, median air exposure was 2 ppm (6-h TWA), due largely to intermittent high-level exposures. Compared to unexposed subjects, butadiene-exposed workers had greater levels of hemoglobin N-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutyl)valine (THBVal) adducts (P<0.0001), and adduct levels tended to correlate, among butadiene-exposed workers, with air measures (P=0.03). Butadiene-exposed workers did not differ, however, from unexposed workers with respect to frequency of uninduced or diepoxybutane-induced sister chromatid exchanges, aneuploidy as measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization of chromosomes 1, 7, 8 and 12, glycophorin A variants or lymphocyte hprt somatic mutation. Also among the exposed, greater THBVal levels were not associated with increases in uninduced sister chromatid exchanges, aneuploidy, glycophorin A, or hprt mutations. Butadiene-exposed workers had greater lymphocyte (P=0.002) and platelet counts (P=0.07) and lymphocytes as a percent of white blood cells were moderately correlated with greater THBVal levels (Spearman's rho=0.32, P=0.07). Among butadiene-exposed workers, several serum cytokines correlated with THBVal adduct levels. Overall, the study demonstrated exposure to butadiene in these workers, by a variety of short-term and long-term measures, but did not show specific genotoxic effects, at the chromosomal or gene levels, related to that exposure.
    Chemico-Biological Interactions 06/2001; 135-136:455-64. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene (BD) varies greatly in the rodent species in which 2-year bioassay studies were completed. This raises the question of whether the risk of BD exposure in humans is more like that of the sensitive species, the mouse, or more like that of the resistant species, the rat. Numerous studies have indicated that one reason for the species differences in response to BD is that the blood and tissues of BD-exposed mice contain high levels of both the mono- and the diepoxide metabolite, while the tissue and blood of exposed rats contain very little of the diepoxide. The diepoxide is far more mutagenic than the monoepoxide, and so it is reasonable that the diepoxide plays a major role in tumor induction in the mouse. If the diepoxide is the primary carcinogen, the presence of the diepoxide in the blood of exposed individuals should be an indicator of risk from BD exposure. In this study, we report that the diepoxide is sufficiently stable to be excreted into the urine of exposed rodents and that the urinary levels of the diepoxide reflect the relative levels of the compound in the blood of the two species. The conclusion is that urinary diepoxide should be investigated as a potential biomarker of the formation of the diepoxide in humans exposed to BD.
    Toxicology 04/2001; 160(1-3):81-6. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary benzene (UB) was investigated as a biomarker of exposure among benzene-exposed workers and unexposed subjects in Shanghai, China. Measurements were performed via headspace solid phase microextraction of 0.5 ml of urine specimens followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This assay is simple and more sensitive than other methods (detection limit 0.016 microg benzene/l urine). The median daily benzene exposure was 31 p.p.m. (range 1.65-329 p.p.m.). When subjects were divided into controls (n = 41), those exposed to < or =31 p.p.m. benzene (n = 22) and >31 p.p.m. benzene (n = 20), the median UB levels were 0.069, 4.95 and 46.1 microg/l, respectively (Spearman r = 0.879, P < 0.0001). A linear relationship was observed between the logarithm of UB and the logarithm of benzene exposure in exposed subjects according to the following equation: ln(UB, microg/l) = 0.196 + 0.709 ln (exposure, p.p.m.) (r = 0.717, P < 0.0001). Considering all subjects, linear relationships were also observed between the logarithm of UB and the corresponding logarithms of four urinary metabolites of benzene, namely t,t-muconic acid (r = 0.938, P < 0.0001), phenol (r = 0.826, P < 0.0001), catechol (r = 0.812, P < 0.0001) and hydroquinone (r = 0.898, P: < 0.0001). Ratios of individual metabolite levels to total metabolites versus UB provide evidence of competitive inhibition of CYP450 enzymes leading to increased production of phenol and catechol at the expense of hydroquinone and muconic acid. Among control subjects UB was readily detected with a mean level of 0.145 microg/l (range 0.027-2.06 microg/l), compared with 5.63 microg/l (range 0.837-26.38 microg/l) in workers exposed to benzene below 10 p.p.m. (P < 0.0001). This suggests that UB is a good biomarker for exposure to low levels of benzene.
    Carcinogenesis 02/2001; 22(2):279-86. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While 1,3-butadiene is carcinogenic in rodents, cancer causation in humans is less certain. We examined a spectrum of genotoxic outcomes in 41 butadiene polymer production workers and 38 non-exposed controls, in China, to explore the role of butadiene in human carcinogenesis. Because in vitro studies suggest that genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase enzymes influence genotoxic effects of butadiene, we also related genotoxicity to genetic polymorphisms in GSTT1 and GSTM1. Among butadiene-exposed workers, median air exposure was 2 p.p.m. (6 h time-weighted average), due largely to intermittent high level exposures. Compared with unexposed subjects, butadiene-exposed workers had greater levels of hemoglobin N-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutyl)valine (THBVal) adducts (P < 0.0001) and adduct levels tended to correlate, among butadiene-exposed workers, with air measures (P = 0.03). Butadiene-exposed workers did not differ, however, from unexposed workers with respect to frequency of uninduced or diepoxybutane-induced sister chromatid exchanges, aneuploidy as measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization of chromosomes 1, 7, 8 and 12, glycophorin A variants or lymphocyte hprt somatic mutation. Also among the exposed, greater THBVal levels were not associated with increases in uninduced sister chromatid exchanges, aneuploidy, glycophorin A or hprt mutations. Butadiene-exposed workers had greater lymphocyte (P = 0.002) and platelet counts (P = 0.07) and lymphocytes as a percentage of white blood cells were moderately correlated with greater THBVal levels (Spearman's phi = 0.32, P = 0.07). Among butadiene-exposed workers, neither GSTM1 nor GSTT1 genotype status predicted urinary mercapturic acid butanediol formation, THBVal adducts, uninduced sister chromatid exchanges, aneuploidy or mutations in the glycophorin A or hprt genes. Overall, the study demonstrated exposure to butadiene in these workers, by a variety of short-term and long-term measures, but did not show specific genotoxic effects, at the chromosomal or gene levels, related to that exposure.
    Carcinogenesis 01/2000; 21(1):55-62. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Butadiene diepoxide (BDO2), a metabolite of 1,3-butadiene (BD) and potent mutagen, is suspected to be a proximate carcinogen in the multisite tumorigenesis in B6C3F1 mice exposed to BD. Rats, in contrast to mice, do not form much BDO2 when exposed to BD, and they do not form cancers after exposure to the low levels of BD at which mice develop lung and heart tumors. Tests were planned to determine the direct carcinogenic potential of BDO2 in similarly exposed rats and mice, to see if they would develop tumors of the lung (the most sensitive target organ in BD-exposed mice) or other target tissues. The objective of the current series of studies was to assess the acute toxicity and dosimetry to blood and lung of BDO2 administered by various routes to B6C3F1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. The studies were needed to aid in the design of the carcinogenesis study. Initial studies using intraperitoneal injection of BDO2 were designed to determine the rate at which each of the species cleared the compound from the body; the clearance was equally fast in both species. A second study was designed to determine if the highly reactive BDO2, when deposited in the lung, would enter the bloodstream from the lung; intratracheally instilled BDO2 did enter the bloodstream, indicating that exposure via the lungs would result in BDO2 reaching other organs of the body. In a third study, rats and mice were exposed by inhalation for 6 h to 12 ppm BDO2 to determine blood and lung levels of the compound. Concentrations of BDO2 in the lung immediately after the exposure were 2 to 3 times higher than in the blood in both species (approximately 500 and 1000 pmol/g blood in the rat and mouse, respectively). As expected, mice received a higher dose/g tissue than did rats, consistent with the higher minute volume/kg body weight of the mice. The inhalation dosimetry study was followed by a histopathology study to determine the acute toxicity to rodents following a single, 6-h exposure to 18 ppm BDO2. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed; lesions were confined to the olfactory epithelium where areas of necrosis were observed. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid did not indicate pulmonary inflammation. Based on these findings, an attempt was made to expose rats and mice repeatedly (for 7 days) to 10 and 20 ppm BDO2, but these exposure concentrations proved too toxic, due to inflammation of the nasal mucosa and occlusion of the nasal airway, a lesion that cannot be tolerated by obligate nose breathers. Finally, the toxicity of rats and mice exposed 6 h/day for 5 days to 0, 2.5, or 5.0 ppm BDO2 was determined. The repeated exposures caused no clinical signs of toxicity, nor were any lesions observed in the respiratory tract or other major organs. Therefore, the final design selected for the carcinogenesis study comprised exposing the rats and mice for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks to 0, 2.5, or 5.0 ppm BDO2.
    Toxicological Sciences 10/1999; 51(1):146-52. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Animal inhalation studies and theoretical models suggest that the pattern of formation of benzene metabolites changes as exposure to benzene increases. To determine if this occurs in humans, benzene metabolites in urine samples collected as part of a cross sectional study of occupationally exposed workers in Shanghai, China were measured. With organic vapour monitoring badges, 38 subjects were monitored during their full workshift for inhalation exposure to benzene. The benzene urinary metabolites phenol, catechol, hydroquinone, and muconic acid were measured with an isotope dilution gas chromatography mass spectroscopy assay and strongly correlated with concentrations of benzene air. For the subgroup of workers (n = 27) with urinary phenol > 50 ng/g creatinine (above which phenol is considered to be a specific indicator of exposure to benzene), concentrations of each of the four metabolites were calculated as a ratio of the sum of the concentrations of all four metabolites (total metabolites) and were compared in workers exposed to > 25 ppm v < or = 25 ppm. The median, 8 hour time weighted average exposure to benzene was 25 ppm. Relative to the lower exposed workers, the ratio of phenol and catechol to total metabolites increased by 6.0% (p = 0.04) and 22.2% (p = 0.007), respectively, in the more highly exposed workers. By contrast, the ratio of hydroquinone and muconic acid to total metabolites decreased by 18.8% (p = 0.04) and 26.7% (p = 0.006), respectively. Similar patterns were found when metabolite ratios were analysed as a function of internal benzene dose (defined as total urinary benzene metabolites), although catechol showed a more complex, quadratic relation with increasing dose. These results, which are consistent with previous animal studies, show that the relative production of benzene metabolites is a function of exposure level. If the toxic benzene metabolites are assumed to be derived from hydroquinone, ring opened products, or both, these results suggests that the risk for adverse health outcomes due to exposure to benzene may have a supralinear relation with external dose, and that linear extrapolation of the toxic effects of benzene in highly exposed workers to lower levels of exposure may underestimate risk.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine 11/1998; 55(10):705-11. · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1,3-Butadiene (BD), a compound used extensively in the rubber industry, is weakly carcinogenic in Sprague-Dawley rats after chronic exposures to concentrations of 1000 and 8000 ppm. Conversely, in B6C3F1 mice, tumors occur after chronic exposures to concentrations as low as 6.25 ppm. Previously, we have shown that tissue concentrations of the mutagenic BD metabolites, butadiene monoepoxide (BDO) and butadiene diepoxide (BDO2), are present in greater concentrations in mice than in rats following acute exposures to low levels (100 ppm or less). This disparity was particularly significant for the diepoxide. We hypothesized that if these epoxides are involved in the carcinogenic response of BD, then they will also be present in rat tissues at relatively high concentrations following exposures to 8000 ppm BD. In the present study, concentrations of the BD epoxides, BDO and BDO2, were determined in blood of female Sprague-Dawley rats following a single 6-h exposure and 10 repeated exposures to a target concentration of 8000 ppm BD. Concentrations of these epoxides were also determined in a number of other tissues, including the primary rat target organ-mammary gland-following 10 repeated exposures. Blood concentrations of BDO were 4030 pmol/g +/- 191 following a 6-h exposure and were 18% lower following the 10-day exposure. Blood concentrations of BDO2, following the 8000 ppm exposures, were very similar to those previously observed after exposures to 62.5 ppm BD (11 +/- 1 and 17 +/- 1 pmol/g following exposures of 6h and 6h/day for 10 days, respectively.) Concentrations of BDO ranged from 740 +/- 110 (femur) to 8990 +/- 1150 (fat) pmol/g tissue. Concentrations of BDO2 were similar among eight tissues analyzed, ranging from 5 +/- 1 (femur) to 17 +/- 3 (heart) pmol/g tissue. Tissue concentrations of butadiene monoepoxide were increased by 17- to 50-fold in tissues from rats exposed by inhalation to 8000 ppm BD as compared to tissues from rats exposed to 62.5 ppm BD. Based on earlier studies at our institute the internal dose of BD increases approximately 14-fold in the 8000 ppm-exposed rats compared to rats exposed to 62.5 ppm BD. Concentrations of butadiene diepoxide in rat tissues following an exposure to 8000 ppm BD were similar to those observed in rat tissues following exposures to 62.5 ppm BD. This study shows that pathways responsible for the accumulation of BDO2 in rats are saturated following low-level BD exposures. This suggests that the primary determinant of BD tumorigenicity in rats is not butadiene diepoxide. The high levels of BDO observed in rat mammary tissue suggest that this metabolite may be a more important determinant of BD carcinogenesis in the rat.
    Toxicological Sciences 02/1998; 41(2):167-73. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1,3-Butadiene (BD), a compound used extensively in the rubber industry, is a potent carcinogen in mice and a weak carcinogen in rats in chronic carcinogenicity bioassays. While many chemicals are known to alter their own metabolism after repeated exposures, the effect of exposure prior to BD on its in vivo metabolism has not been reported. The purpose of the present research was to examine the effect of repeated exposure to BD on tissue concentrations of two mutagenic BD metabolites, butadiene monoepoxide (BDO) and butadiene diepoxide (BDO2). Concentrations of BD epoxides were compared in several tissues of rats and mice following a single exposure or ten repeated exposures to a target concentration of 62.5 ppm BD. Female Sprague–Dawley rats and female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to BD for 6 h or 6 h×10 days. BDO and BDO2 were quantified in blood and several other tissues following preparation by cryogenic vacuum distillation and analysis by multidimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Blood and lung BDO concentrations did not differ significantly (P≤0.05) between the two exposure regimens in either species. Following multiple exposures to BD, BDO levels were 5- and 1.6-fold higher (P≤0.05) in mammary tissue and 2- and 1.4-fold higher in fat tissue of rats and mice, respectively, as compared with single exposures. BDO2 levels also increased in rat fat tissue following multiple exposures to BD. However, in mice, levels of this metabolite decreased by 15% in fat, by 28% in mammary tissue and by 34% in lung tissue following repeated exposures to BD. The finding that the mutagenic epoxide BDO, which is the precursor to the highly mutagenic BDO2, accumulates in rodent fat may be important in assessing the potential risk to humans from inhalation of BD.
    Toxicology 11/1997; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that is known to cause hematotoxicity and leukemia in humans. The initial oxidative metabolite of benzene has long been suspected to be benzene oxide (3,5-cyclohexadiene-1,2-oxide). During in vitro experiments designed to characterize the oxidative metabolism of [14C]benzene, a metabolite was detected by HPLC-radioactivity analysis that did not elute with other known oxidative metabolites. The purpose of our investigation was to prove the hypothesis that this metabolite was benzene oxide. Benzene (1 mM) was incubated with liver microsomes from human donors, male B6C3F1 mice, or male Fischer-344 rats, NADH (1 mM), and NADPH (1 mM) in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and then extracted with methylene chloride. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of incubation extracts for mice, rats, and humans detected a metabolite whose elution time and mass spectrum matched that of synthetic benzene oxide. The elution time of the benzene oxide peak was approximately 4.1 min, while phenol eluted at approximately 8 min. Benzene oxide also coeluted with the HPLC peak of the previously unidentified metabolite. Based on the 14C activity of this peak, the concentration of benzene oxide was determined to be approximately 18 microM, or 7% of total benzene metabolites, after 18 min of incubation of mouse microsomes with 1 mM benzene. The metabolite was not observed in incubations using heat-inactivated microsomes. This is the first demonstration that benzene oxide is a product of hepatic benzene metabolism in vitro. The level of benzene oxide detected suggests that benzene oxide is sufficiently stable to reach significant levels in the blood of mice, rats, and humans and may be translocated to the bone marrow. Therefore benzene oxide should not be excluded as a possible metabolite involved in benzene-induced leukemogenesis.
    Carcinogenesis 10/1997; 18(9):1695-700. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method using isotope dilution was developed to measure trace levels of xylene metabolites in brain tissues. The primary metabolites of xylene are dimethylphenol (DMP), methylbenzyl alcohol (MBA), toluic acid (TA), and methylhippuric acid (MHA). The internal standard was a mixture of deuterated DMP-d3, TA-d7, and MHA-d7. DMP-d3 was commercially available and was used as the internal standard for both DMP and MBA. TA-d7 and MHA-d7 were biosynthesized by administering xylene-d10 to rats and collecting their urine. Based on the noise peaks in 10 blank samples, the on-column limits of quantitation (mean +10 SD of noise peaks) were approximately 305, 1220, 545, and 386 pg for DMP, MBA, TA, and MHA, respectively. Analyte detection and recovery tests from brain tissues of control rats were conducted by spiking the tissues with 32 nmol/g of each analyte, together with the deuterated metabolites. The tissues were homogenized, extracted with ethyl acetate, and derivatized by trimethylsilylation. One microliter of the sample was injected into the GC-MS. The recoveries of the analytes were 104 +/- 8%, 80 +/- 9%, 93 +/- 10%, and 92 +/- 11% (mean +/- SD, n = 7) for DMP, MBA, TA, and MHA, respectively. The tissue preparation efficiency, which was indicated by absolute recoveries of internal standards, was approximately 33% for DMP, MBA, and TA and approximately 80% for MHA. No metabolites were detected in untreated control tissues. This simple and sensitive method to simultaneously detect major xylene metabolites in brain tissues could also be used for the analysis of blood and urine samples from workers to monitor p-xylene exposure.
    Journal of analytical toxicology 10/1997; 21(5):363-8. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to high concentrations of butadiene has been shown to cause cancer among exposed workers. We have conducted a biomarker study to elucidate whether current butadiene exposure conditions are hazardous to workers. Twenty-four workers exposed consistently to butadiene were matched with 19 co-workers who had much less contact with butadiene and who served as our controls. In the standard cytogenetic assay, there was no difference in chromosome aberration frequencies between the exposed and control groups. In the challenge assay, the exposed group shows a consistent, but non-significant, increase in chromosome aberrations indicating some abnormality in DNA repair response. The observed dicentric frequency in the challenge assay (indicative of abnormal repair of damaged chromosomes) is significantly correlated with a butadiene metabolite, 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl)butane, in urine (r = 0.52; p = 0.04). Furthermore, cigarette smokers had consistently abnormal repair response compared with non-smokers for both the control and exposed groups. A small subset of the studied workers were evaluated for toxicant-induced DNA repair deficiency using an independent cat-host cell reactivation (CAT-HCR) assay. When cigarette smokers and non-smokers were combined in our analysis, we observed that the exposed group (n = 9) had a significant reduction of DNA repair activities (p = 0.009) compared with the control group (n = 6). Cigarette smoking contributed significantly to the effect as exposed smokers (n = 4) had a significant reduction in DNA repair activities (p = 0.04) compared with exposed non-smokers. The results from the two independently conducted assays support each other and confirm the previously reported abnormal DNA repair response in another group of butadiene workers. In conclusion, our data indicates that exposure to environmental toxicants, such as butadiene, can cause DNA repair defects. Therefore, the current butadiene exposure conditions are still hazardous to workers. However, our data indicates that butadiene is not a potent genotoxic agent. Furthermore, the butadiene-induced effect is significantly enhanced by the cigarette smoking habit.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 06/1997; 383(3):213-21. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1,3-Butadiene (BD), a compound used extensively in the rubber industry, is a potent carcinogen in mice and a weak carcinogen in rats in chronic carcinogenicity bioassays. While many chemicals are known to alter their own metabolism after repeated exposures, the effect of exposure prior to BD on its in vivo metabolism has not been reported. The purpose of the present research was to examine the effect of repeated exposure to BD on tissue concentrations of two mutagenic BD metabolites, butadiene monoepoxide (BDO) and butadiene diepoxide (BDO2). Concentrations of BD epoxides were compared in several tissues of rats and mice following a single exposure or ten repeated exposures to a target concentration of 62.5 ppm BD. Female Sprague–Dawley rats and female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to BD for 6 h or 6 h×10 days. BDO and BDO2 were quantified in blood and several other tissues following preparation by cryogenic vacuum distillation and analysis by multidimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Blood and lung BDO concentrations did not differ significantly (P≤0.05) between the two exposure regimens in either species. Following multiple exposures to BD, BDO levels were 5- and 1.6-fold higher (P≤0.05) in mammary tissue and 2- and 1.4-fold higher in fat tissue of rats and mice, respectively, as compared with single exposures. BDO2 levels also increased in rat fat tissue following multiple exposures to BD. However, in mice, levels of this metabolite decreased by 15% in fat, by 28% in mammary tissue and by 34% in lung tissue following repeated exposures to BD. The finding that the mutagenic epoxide BDO, which is the precursor to the highly mutagenic BDO2, accumulates in rodent fat may be important in assessing the potential risk to humans from inhalation of BD.
    Toxicology. 01/1997; 123(1):125-134.
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    ABSTRACT: Benzene is a recognized hematotoxin and leukemogen, but its mechanisms of action in humans are still uncertain. To provide insight into these processes, we carried out a cross-sectional study of 44 healthy workers currently exposed to benzene (median 8-hr time-weighted average; 31 ppm), and unexposed controls in Shanghai, China. Here we provide an overview of the study results on peripheral blood cells levels and somatic cell mutation frequency measured by the glycophorin A (GPA) gene loss assay and report on peripheral cytokine levels. All peripheral blood cells levels (i.e., total white blood cells, absolute lymphocyte count, platelets, red blood cells, and hemoglobin) were decreased among exposed workers compared to controls, with the exception of the red blood cell mean corpuscular volume, which was higher among exposed subjects. In contrast, peripheral cytokine levels (interleukin-3, interleukin-6, erythropoietin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, tissue necrosis factor-alpha) in a subset of the most highly exposed workers (n = 11) were similar to values in controls (n = 11), suggesting that benzene does not affect these growth factor levels in peripheral blood. The GPA assay measures stem cell or precursor erythroid cell mutations expressed in peripheral red blood cells of MN heterozygous subjects, identifying NN variants, which result from loss of the GPA M allele and duplication of the N allele, and N phi variants, which arise from gene inactivation. The NN (but not N phi) GPA variant cell frequency was elevated in the exposed workers compared with controls (mean +/- SD, 13.9 +/- 8.4 mutants per million cells versus 7.4 +/- 5.2 per million cells, (respectively; p = 0.0002), suggesting that benzene produces gene-duplicating but not gene-inactivating mutations at the GPA locus in bone marrow cells of exposed humans. These findings, combined with ongoing analyses of benzene macromolecular adducts and chromosomal aberrations, will provide an opportunity to comprehensively evaluate a wide range of early biologic effects associated with benzene exposure in humans.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 01/1997; 104 Suppl 6:1365-70. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    W E Bechtold, M R Strunk
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    ABSTRACT: Biological markers of internal dose are useful for improving the extrapolation of health effects from exposures to high levels of toxic air pollutants in animals to low, ambient exposures in humans. Previous results from our laboratory have shown that benzene is metabolized by humans to form the adduct S-phenylcysteine (SPC). Levels of SPC measured in humans occupationally exposed to benzene were increased linearly relative to exposure concentrations ranging from 0 to 23.1 ppm for 8 hr/day, 5 days/week. However, the method of measurement used was laborious, prone to imprecision and interferences, and insufficiently sensitive for the low-dose exposures anticipated in the United States (100 ppb >). An improved chemical method was necessary before SPC adducts in albumin could be used as a benzene biomarker. A simple, sensitive method to measure SPC adducts is being developed and is based on the cleavage of the cysteine sulfhydryl from blood proteins treated with Raney nickel (RN) in deuterium oxide. The product of the reaction with SPC is monodeuterobenzene. SPC treated with RN released monodeuterobenzene in a concentration-dependent fashion. SPC was measured by RN treatment of globin from rats repeatedly exposed by inhalation to 600 ppm benzene. SPC levels measured using the RN approach were 690 +/- 390 pmol SPC/mg Hb (mean +/- % difference, n = 2), as opposed to 290 +/- 45 pmol SPC/mg Hb (mean +/- SEM, n = 3) as measured by our previous method. This method may facilitate the cost-effective, routine analysis of SPC in large populations of people exposed to ambient levels of benzene.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 12/1996; 104 Suppl 6:1147-9. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful new technique that allows numerical chromosome aberrations (aneuploidy) to be detected in interphase cells. In previous studies, FISH has been used to demonstrate that the benzene metabolites hydroquinone and 1,2,4-benzenetriol induce aneuploidy of chromosomes 7 and 9 in cultures of human cells. In the present study, we used an interphase FISH procedure to perform cytogenetic analyses on the blood cells of 43 workers exposed to benzene (median = 31 ppm, 8-hr time-weighted average) and 44 matched controls from Shanghai, China. High benzene exposure (> 31 ppm, n = 22) increased the hyperdiploid frequency of chromosome 9 (p < 0.01), but lower exposure (< or = 31 ppm, n = 21) did not. Trisomy 9 was the major form of benzene-induced hyperdiploidy. The level of hyperploidy in exposed workers correlated with their urinary phenol level (r = 0.58, p < 0.0001), a measure of internal benzene dose. A significant correlation was also found between hyperdiploidy and decreased absolute lymphocyte count, an indicator of benzene hematotoxicity, in the exposed group (r = -0.44, p = 0.003) but not in controls (r = -0.09, p = 0.58). These results show that high benzene exposure induces aneuploidy of chromosome 9 in nondiseased individuals, with trisomy being the most prevalent form. They further highlight the usefulness of interphase cytogenetics and FISH for the rapid and sensitive detection of aneuploidy in exposed human populations.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 12/1996; 104 Suppl 6:1325-9. · 7.26 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
267.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Branch of Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 1983–2001
    • Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute
      • Respiratory Immunology and Asthma Program
      Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
  • 2000
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 1996
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • School of Public Health
      Berkeley, CA, United States
  • 1994–1996
    • University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
      • • Department of Preventive Medicine & Community Health
      • • Center in Environmental Toxicology
      Galveston, TX, United States
    • Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
  • 1988–1991
    • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States