Z Wang

St. Luke School of Medicine, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (32)121.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We examined ethnic difference in the association of body fat and trunk fat with bone mineral density (BMD) among Chinese, white, and black subjects. We found that, with greater body and trunk fat, both white and black subjects were more likely to have a low BMD than Chinese subjects. Ethnic differences in body fat, abdominal fat distribution, and BMD have been found in previous studies between Chinese and white subjects. However, the associations of body fat and abdominal fat distribution with BMD have not been studied, and whether the ethnic differences have an effect on these associations is unclear. We evaluated 1,147 subjects aged ≥ 18 years (805 Chinese, 193 whites, and 149 blacks). Percent body fat (%BF), percent trunk fat (%TF), and total and regional BMD including that of head, arm, leg, trunk, rib, spine, and pelvis were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Linear regression models were developed to test the association of ethnicity, %BF, and interaction between ethnicity and %BF with BMD. The models were repeated again, replacing %BF with %TF. Chinese subjects showed lower BMD in total and most regions compared with black and white subjects; however, these differences were eliminated between Chinese and whites within both sexes and between Chinese and black men when age, weight, height, and %BF were added. %BF and %TF were negatively associated with most regional body BMD. The interactions between %BF, %TF, and ethnicity were found in most regional body BMD among Chinese, white, and black subjects for both men and women. Both %BF and %TF have negative associations with BMD. With greater accumulation of %BF and %TF, both white and black subjects may experience a higher risk of low BMD than Chinese subjects.
    Osteoporosis International 01/2011; 22(12):3029-35. · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • X Fu, X Ma, H Lu, W He, Z Wang, S Zhu
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    ABSTRACT: Fat mass (FM) is closely related to bone mineral density (BMD). However, the associations of FM and fat distribution with BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women are still poorly understood. The present study showed android fat mass accumulation after menopause had a negative association with BMD. FM is closely related to BMD. However, it is unknown whether FM and central fat distribution have different associations with BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women. The study aims to investigate the associations of FM and fat distribution with BMD in pre- and postmenopausal Chinese women. Two hundred sixty premenopausal and 267 postmenopausal women aged 18 to 79 years were analyzed. Lean mass (LM), FM, percent body fat (%BF), android FM, gynoid FM, and total and regional BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fat distribution was assessed by android to gynoid FM ratio (AOI). Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the associations of BMD with FM, LM, and AOI. FM, %BF, android FM, and AOI were significantly higher, whereas total and regional BMD were significantly lower in postmenopausal women (all р < 0.01). In premenopausal women, FM was positively associated with total and regional BMD (all р < 0.05). AOI had no significant association with BMD. In postmenopausal women, FM was significantly associated with total and regional BMD even additionally adjusting for LM (all р < 0.01). AOI had significantly negative association with total, head, arm, and leg BMD (all р < 0.05). The results remained unchanged when replacing FM with %BF. There were different associations of FM and fat distribution with BMD in pre- and postmenopausal Chinese women. Increased central body fat had a negative association with BMD. Our findings may have significant implications in the prevention of menopause-related osteoporosis through reducing centralized fat deposition.
    Osteoporosis International 03/2010; 22(1):113-9. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the past two decades, a major outgrowth of efforts by our research group at St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital is the development of body composition models that include cellular level models, models based on body component ratios, total body potassium models, multi-component models, and resting energy expenditure-body composition models. This review summarizes these models with emphasis on component ratios that we believe are fundamental to understanding human body composition during growth and development and in response to disease and treatments. In-vivo measurements reveal that in healthy adults some component ratios show minimal variability and are relatively 'stable', for example total body water/fat-free mass and fat-free mass density. These ratios can be effectively applied for developing body composition methods. In contrast, other ratios, such as total body potassium/fat-free mass, are highly variable in vivo and therefore are less useful for developing body composition models. In order to understand the mechanisms governing the variability of these component ratios, we have developed eight cellular level ratio models and from them we derived simplified models that share as a major determining factor the ratio of extracellular to intracellular water ratio (E/I). The E/I value varies widely among adults. Model analysis reveals that the magnitude and variability of each body component ratio can be predicted by correlating the cellular level model with the E/I value. Our approach thus provides new insights into and improved understanding of body composition ratios in adults.
    International journal of body composition research 01/2008; 6(4):173-184.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of age, sex, ethnicity and total fatness on central obesity in four ethnic populations. Cross-sectional analysis of study subjects enrolled from 1993 to 2005. A multi-ethnic (Caucasian (CA), African-American (AA), Hispanic-American (HA) and Asian (As)) convenience sample of 604 men and 1192 women (aged 18-96 years, body mass index 15.93-45.80 kg/m(2)). Total body fat (TBF) and truncal fat were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. General linear regression models were used to test for independent associations with log(10)-transformed truncal fat. For all ethnicities, men had a lower percent body fat and more truncal fat than women. Log(10-)transformed truncal fat increased with TBF approximately as a square root function. At older ages, there was a greater amount of truncal fat in CA, HA and As men (approximately 0.20-0.25 kg/decade) with the effect more pronounced in AA men ( approximately 0.33 kg/decade). For women, the increment of truncal fat per decade was reduced in CA and AA women (approximately 0.07 kg) compared with As and HA women (approximately 0.33 kg). Adjusted for mean values of covariates in our sample, AA had less truncal fat than As. The accumulation of truncal fat is strongly related to age, ethnicity and total fatness in both men and women.
    International Journal of Obesity 10/2007; 31(9):1384-91. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity prevalence rates are increasing worldwide and one prevailing hypothesis is that physical activity levels of modern humans are markedly reduced compared to those of our Paleolithic ancestors. We examine this hypothesis by deriving relative activity energy expenditure from available doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry data in free-ranging non-human mammals. Our results, given the constraints posed by limited data availability, suggest that a low physical activity level, much less than that observed in free-ranging non-human mammals or highly active humans, is present in modern adult humans living within advanced settings. Our observations lend support to the hypothesis that low activity-related energy expenditure levels contribute to the rising worldwide prevalence of obesity.
    International Journal of Obesity 02/2005; 29(1):151-6. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) plays an important role in the study of metabolism in vivo. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies of IMCL are usually performed with clinical 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and have employed the single-voxel MRS technique. The present study reports the results of our systematic evaluation of the ability of single- and multi-voxel MRS to yield high-quality, contamination-free IMCL levels from the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. A clinical, 1.5-T, whole-body MRI scanner was used to measure IMCL with a standard knee coil, head coil, or a 3-cm receive-only surface coil with a body coil transmit. Excellent IMCL spectra were obtained in healthy males in only 8 min from multiple 0.25-cm(3) voxels using the surface coil receive/body coil transmit in conjunction with the standard PRESS spectroscopic imaging (SI) technique. This approach provided the spatial resolution and voxel placement flexibility permitting optimal separation of IMCL and extramyocellular lipid. Our findings demonstrate the potential of the SI approach.
    Acta Diabetologica 11/2003; 40 Suppl 1:S51-4. · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) (kJ/d) and body mass (M) (kg) is a cornerstone in the study of energy physiology. By expressing REE as a function of body mass observed across mammals, Kleiber formulated the now classic equation: REE = 293M(0.75). The biological processes underlying Kleiber's law have been a topic of long-standing interest and speculation. In the present report we develop a new perspective of Kleiber's law by developing an organ-tissue level REE model consisting of five components: liver, brain, kidneys, heart and remaining tissues. The resting thermal output of each component is the product of the component's specific resting metabolic rate (K) and mass (T). With increasing body size, the K values for all five components had negative exponents and were directly proportional to M(-0.08--0.27), and all component T values were directly proportional to M(0.76-1.01). The resulting exponents of the product (K x T) were M(0.60-0.86) for the five components. Although the (K x T) values of individual components do not scale equally, their combined formula (286M(0.76)) is similar to that observed by Kleiber on the whole-body level. Modeling mammalian REE at the organ-tissue level provides new insights and pathways for future mechanistic explorations of REE-body composition relationships.
    Journal of Nutrition 12/2001; 131(11):2967-70. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Potassium is an essential element of living organisms that is found almost exclusively in the intracellular fluid compartment. The assumed constant ratio of total body potassium (TBK) to fat-free mass (FFM) is a cornerstone of the TBK method of estimating total body fat. Although the TBK-to-FFM (TBK/FFM) ratio has been assumed constant, a large range of individual and group values is recognized. The purpose of the present study was to undertake a comprehensive analysis of biological factors that cause variation in the TBK/FFM ratio. A theoretical TBK/FFM model was developed on the cellular body composition level. This physiological model includes six factors that combine to produce the observed TBK/FFM ratio. The ratio magnitude and range, as well as the differences in the TBK/FFM ratio between men and women and variation with growth, were examined with the proposed model. The ratio of extracellular water to intracellular water (E/I) is the major factor leading to between-individual variation in the TBK/FFM ratio. The present study provides a conceptual framework for examining the separate TBK/FFM determinants and suggests important limitations of the TBK/FFM method used in estimating total body fat in humans and other mammals.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2001; 281(1):E1-7. · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) percent (%) fat estimates may be inaccurate in young children, who typically have high tissue hydration levels. This study was designed to provide a comprehensive analysis of pediatric tissue hydration effects on DXA %fat estimates. Phase 1 was experimental and included three in vitro studies to establish the physical basis of DXA %fat-estimation models. Phase 2 extended phase 1 models and consisted of theoretical calculations to estimate the %fat errors emanating from previously reported pediatric hydration effects. Phase 1 experiments supported the two-compartment DXA soft tissue model and established that pixel ratio of low to high energy (R values) are a predictable function of tissue elemental content. In phase 2, modeling of reference body composition values from birth to age 120 mo revealed that %fat errors will arise if a "constant" adult lean soft tissue R value is applied to the pediatric population; the maximum %fat error, approximately 0.8%, would be present at birth. High tissue hydration, as observed in infants and young children, leads to errors in DXA %fat estimates. The magnitude of these errors based on theoretical calculations is small and may not be of clinical or research significance.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 01/2001; 89(6):2365-72. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Muscularity, or the proportion of adipose tissue-free body mass (ATFM) as skeletal muscle (SM), provides valuable body composition information, especially for age-related SM loss (i.e., sarcopenia). Limited data from elderly cadavers suggest a relatively constant SM/ATFM ratio, 0.540 +/- 0.046 for men (mean +/- SD, n = 6) and 0.489 +/- 0.049 for women (n = 7). The aim of the present study was to examine the magnitude and constancy of the SM/ATFM ratio in healthy adults. Whole-body SM and ATFM were measured using multi-scan magnetic resonance imaging. The SM/ATFM ratio was 0.528 +/- 0.036 for men (n = 139) and 0.473 +/- 0.037 for women (n = 165). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the SM/ATFM ratio was significantly influenced by sex, age, body weight, and race. The four factors explained 50% of the observed between individual variation in the SM/ATFM ratio. After adjusting for age, body weight, and race, men had a larger SM/ATFM ratio than women. Both older men and women had a lower SM/ATFM ratio than younger subjects, although the relative reduction was greater in men. After adjustment for sex, age, and body weight, there were no significant differences in the SM/ATFM ratios between Asian, Caucasian, and Hispanic subjects. In contrast, African-American subjects had a significantly greater SM/ATFM ratio than subjects in the other three groups. In addition, the SM/ATFM ratio was significantly lower in AIDS patients than corresponding values in healthy subjects.
    American Journal of Human Biology 01/2001; 13(5):612-9. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and metabolically active fat-free mass (FFM) is a cornerstone in the study of physiological aspects of body weight regulation and human energy requirements. Important questions, however, remain unanswered regarding the observed linear REE-FFM association in adult humans. This led us to develop a series of REE-body composition models that provide insights into the widely used simple linear REE-FFM prediction model derived experimentally in adult humans. The new models suggest that the REE-FFM relationship in mammals as a whole is curvilinear, that a segment of this function within a FFM range characteristic of adult humans can be fit with a linear equation almost identical to that observed from a composite review of earlier human studies, and that mammals as a whole exhibit a decrease in the proportion of FFM as high metabolic rate organs with greater FFM. The present study thus provides a new approach for examining REE-FFM relationships, advances in a quantitative manner previously observed albeit incompletely formulated REE-body composition associations, and identifies areas in need of additional research.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 10/2000; 279(3):E539-45. · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can accurately measure lower limb skeletal muscle (SM) mass, this method is complex and costly. A potential practical alternative is to estimate lower limb SM with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The aim of the present study was to develop and validate DXA-SM prediction equations. Identical landmarks (i.e., inferior border of the ischial tuberosity) were selected for separating lower limb from trunk. Lower limb SM was measured by MRI, and lower limb fat-free soft tissue was measured by DXA. A total of 207 adults (104 men and 103 women) were evaluated [age 43 +/- 16 (SD) yr, body mass index (BMI) 24.6 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2)]. Strong correlations were observed between lower limb SM and lower limb fat-free soft tissue (R(2) = 0.89, P < 0.001); age and BMI were small but significant SM predictor variables. In the cross-validation sample, the differences between MRI-measured and DXA-predicted SM mass were small (-0.006 +/- 1.07 and -0.016 +/- 1.05 kg) for two different proposed prediction equations, one with fat-free soft tissue and the other with added age and BMI as predictor variables. DXA-measured lower limb fat-free soft tissue, along with other easily acquired measures, can be used to reliably predict lower limb skeletal muscle mass.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 10/2000; 89(4):1380-6. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle (SM) is a large body compartment of biological importance, but it remains difficult to quantify SM with affordable and practical methods that can be applied in clinical and field settings. The objective of this study was to develop and cross-validate anthropometric SM mass prediction models in healthy adults. SM mass, measured by using whole-body multislice magnetic resonance imaging, was set as the dependent variable in prediction models. Independent variables were organized into 2 separate formulas. One formula included mainly limb circumferences and skinfold thicknesses [model 1: height (in m) and skinfold-corrected upperarm, thigh, and calf girths (CAG, CTG, and CCG, respectively; in cm)]. The other formula included mainly body weight (in kg) and height (model 2). The models were developed and cross-validated in nonobese adults [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) < 30]. Two SM (in kg) models for nonobese subjects (n = 244) were developed as follows: SM = Ht x (0.00744 x CAG(2) + 0.00088 x CTG(2) + 0.00441 x CCG(2)) + 2.4 x sex - 0.048 x age + race + 7.8, where R:(2) = 0.91, P: < 0.0001, and SEE = 2.2 kg; sex = 0 for female and 1 for male, race = -2.0 for Asian, 1.1 for African American, and 0 for white and Hispanic, and SM = 0.244 x BW + 7.80 x Ht + 6.6 x sex - 0.098 x age + race - 3.3, where R:(2) = 0.86, P: < 0.0001, and SEE = 2.8 kg; sex = 0 for female and 1 for male, race = -1.2 for Asian, 1.4 for African American, and 0 for white and Hispanic. These 2 anthropometric prediction models, the first developed in vivo by using state-of-the-art body-composition methods, are likely to prove useful in clinical evaluations and field studies of SM mass in nonobese adults.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 09/2000; 72(3):796-803. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fat-free mass hydration, the ratio of total body water (TBW) to fat-free mass (FFM), is stable at approximately 0.73 in mammals, and this constancy provides a means of estimating total body fat in vivo. As there is no mechanistic theory to explain the magnitude and variability in TBW/FFM, the present investigation describes a cellular-level model indicating that FFM hydration is determined by four factors: body cell mass hydration, extracellular fluid hydration, ratio of extracellular solids to TBW, and ratio of extracellular water to intracellular water. According to the model, TBW/FFM can be predicted for adult humans as a mean of 0.73, and a variation range 0.69-0.77. The suggested modeling approach provides a conceptual framework for TBW-fat estimation method and identifies important areas that remain to be studied.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 06/2000; 904:306-11. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported our in vivo prediction of whole body resting energy expenditure (REE) using magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography-derived organ volumes combined with published organ tissue metabolic rates. The models, developed in young healthy persons from predicted and measured variables, were highly correlated (e.g., calculated vs. measured REE, r = 0.92, p < 0.001), with no significant differences (p = NS) between them. This study employed the same approach to determine whether possible age-related decreases in organ tissue mass may account for the lower REE commonly reported in elderly persons. Measurements of REE (REEm) were acquired by indirect calorimetry. Calculated REE (REEc) models were developed from measured tissues and organs, and energy flux rates were assigned for each of the seven tissue/organ components, as reported by Elia. Older men (n = 6) and women (n = 7) had significantly lower REEm compared to REEc (p = 0.001). The magnitude of the differences were 13% and 9.5%, respectively, for men and women. These preliminary data suggest that factors other than organ atrophy may contribute to the lower metabolic rate of older persons. Further studies are required to investigate whether there is a reduction in the oxidative capacity of individual organs and tissues.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 05/2000; 904:449-55. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are now many published methods for predicting resting energy expenditure (REE) from measured body mass and composition. Although these published reports extend back almost a century, new related studies appear on a regular basis. It remains unclear what the similarities and differences are between these many methods and what, if any, advantages the newly introduced REE prediction models offer. These issues led us to develop an organizational system for REE prediction methods with the ultimate aim of clarifying prevailing ambiguities in the field. Our classification scheme is founded on the mathematical function type (descriptive and mechanistic) and body composition level (whole body-->molecular) used in REE prediction model development. The model is applied in an exploration of the well-established empirical relationship between REE and fat-free body mass (FFM). The developed relationships indicate that REE vs. FFM is a curvilinear relationship in mammals as a whole, that the relationship can be described as a linear function in humans, and that the simple linear regression line coefficients can be reconstructed from established tissue-system level component relationships. Our classification system, the first founded on a conceptual basis, highlights similarities and differences between the many diverse REE body composition prediction methods, provides a framework for teaching REE-body composition relationships to students, and suggests important future research opportunities.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 05/2000; 904:290-7. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although there is growing interest in studying muscle distribution, regional skeletal muscle (SM) mass measurement methods remain limited. The aim of the present study was to develop a new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) model for estimating regional adipose tissue-free skeletal muscle mass (AT-free SM). Relationships were derived from Reference Man data between tissue-system- level components (i.e., AT-free SM, AT, skeleton, and skin) and molecular-level components including fat-free soft tissue, fat, and bone mineral. The proposed DEXA-SM model was evaluated by multiscan computerized axial tomography (CT). Twenty-seven male subjects [age, 36 +/- 12 (SD) yr; body mass, 73.2 +/- 12.4 kg; 20 were healthy, and 7 had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome] completed DEXA and CT studies. Identical landmarks for DEXA and CT measurements were selected in three regions, including calves, thighs, and forearms. There was a strong correlation for AT-free SM estimates between the new DEXA and CT methods (e.g., sum of three regions, r = 0.86, P < 0.001). Regional AT-free SM measured in the 27 subjects by DEXA and CT, respectively, were 3.44 +/- 0.60 and 3. 47 +/- 0.55 kg (difference 0.9%, P > 0.05) for calves, 10.49 +/- 1. 77 and 10.05 +/- 1.79 kg (difference 4.4%, P < 0.05) for thighs, 1. 36 +/- 0.49 and 1.20 +/- 0.41 kg (difference 13.3%, P < 0.01) for forearms, and 15.29 +/- 2.33 and 14.72 +/- 2.33 kg (difference 3.9%, P < 0.05) for the sum all three regions. Although the suggested DEXA-SM model needs minor refinements, this is a promising in vivo approach for measurement of regional SM, because DEXA is widely available, relatively inexpensive, and radiation exposure is low.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 09/1999; 87(3):1163-71. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Water is an essential component of living organisms, and in adult mammals the fraction of fat-free body mass (FFM) as water is remarkably stable at approximately 0.73. The stability of FFM hydration is a cornerstone of the widely used water isotope dilution method of estimating total body fat. At present, the only suggested means of studying FFM hydration is by experimental total body water (TBW) and FFM measurements. Although deviations from the classical hydration constant are recognized, it is unknown if these are explainable physiological aberrations and/or methodological errors. Moreover, many questions related to hydration stability prevail, including body mass and age effects. These unresolved questions and the importance of the TBW-fat estimation method led us to develop a cellular level FFM hydration model. This physiological model reveals that four water-related ratios combine to produce the observed TBW-to-FFM ratio. The mean and range of FFM hydration observed in adult humans can be understood with the proposed physiological model as can variation in the TBW-to-FFM ratio over the human life span. An extension of the model to the tissue-organ body composition level confirms on a theoretical basis a small but systematic decrease in hydration observed in mammals ranging in body mass by a factor of 10(5). The present study, the first to advance a physiological hydration model, provides a conceptual framework for the TBW-fat estimation method and identifies important areas that remain to be studied.
    The American journal of physiology 07/1999; 276(6 Pt 1):E995-E1003. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The assumed "constancy" of fat-free body mass hydration is a cornerstone in the body-composition research field. Hydration, the observed ratio of total body water to fat-free body mass, is stable at approximately 0.73 in mammals and this constancy provides a means of estimating total body fat in vivo. This review examines both in vitro and in vivo data that support the hydration constancy hypothesis and provides a critique of applied methodology. Biological topics of interest are then examined and critical areas in need of future research are identified. These are important issues because water dilution is the only method currently available for estimating body fat in all mammals, which range in body mass by a factor of 10(4).
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 06/1999; 69(5):833-41. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Air displacement plethysmography (ADP) may provide a partial alternative to body density (Bd) and therefore body composition measurement compared to conventional hydrodensitometry (Hd) in children. As there are no evaluation studies of ADP in children, this study had a two-fold objective: to compare Bd estimates by ADP and Hd; and to compare fat estimates by both ADP and Hd to fat estimates by another reference method, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Obesity Research Center, St. Luke's/Roosevelt Hospital, New York, USA. One hundred and twenty subjects (66 females/54 males) who ranged in age from 6-86 y and in body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) from 14.1-40.0 kg/m2 met study entry criteria. Cross-sectional study of healthy children (age < or = 19 y) and adult group for comparison to earlier studies. Each subject completed ADP, Hd, and DXA studies on the same day. Only subjects with subjectively-judged successful Hd studies were entered into the study cohort. There was a high correlation between Bd by ADP and Hd (Bd Hd = 0.11 + 0.896 x Bd ADP; r = 0.93, SEE = 0.008 g/cm3, P < 0.0001), although the regression line slope and intercept differed significantly from 1 and 0, respectively. Additional analyses localized a small-magnitude Bd bias in the child (n = 48) subgroup. Both ADP and Hd %fat estimates were highly correlated (r > 0.9, P < 0.0001) with %fat by DXA in child and adult subgroups. Bland-Altman analyses revealed no significant %fat bias by either ADP or Hd vs DXA in either children or adults, although a bias trend (P = 0.11) was detected in the child subgroup. With additional refinements, the air displacement plethysmography system has the potential of providing an accurate and practical method of quantifying body fat in children as it now does in adults.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 05/1999; 53(5):382-7. · 2.76 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
121.34 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • St. Luke School of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1997–2008
    • St. Luke's Hospital
      Cedar Rapids, Iowa, United States
  • 1998–2005
    • Columbia University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • College of Physicians and Surgeons
      New York City, NY, United States
    • Saint Luke's Hospital (NY, USA)
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2001
    • Aurora St. Luke's Medical Center
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States