Z Wang

St. Luke School of Medicine, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (13)40.95 Total impact

  • H Lu · X Fu · X Ma · Z Wu · W He · Z Wang · D B Allison · S B Heymsfield · S Zhu ·
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    ABSTRACT: We examined ethnic difference in the association of body fat and trunk fat with bone mineral density (BMD) among Chinese, white, and black subjects. We found that, with greater body and trunk fat, both white and black subjects were more likely to have a low BMD than Chinese subjects. Ethnic differences in body fat, abdominal fat distribution, and BMD have been found in previous studies between Chinese and white subjects. However, the associations of body fat and abdominal fat distribution with BMD have not been studied, and whether the ethnic differences have an effect on these associations is unclear. We evaluated 1,147 subjects aged ≥ 18 years (805 Chinese, 193 whites, and 149 blacks). Percent body fat (%BF), percent trunk fat (%TF), and total and regional BMD including that of head, arm, leg, trunk, rib, spine, and pelvis were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Linear regression models were developed to test the association of ethnicity, %BF, and interaction between ethnicity and %BF with BMD. The models were repeated again, replacing %BF with %TF. Chinese subjects showed lower BMD in total and most regions compared with black and white subjects; however, these differences were eliminated between Chinese and whites within both sexes and between Chinese and black men when age, weight, height, and %BF were added. %BF and %TF were negatively associated with most regional body BMD. The interactions between %BF, %TF, and ethnicity were found in most regional body BMD among Chinese, white, and black subjects for both men and women. Both %BF and %TF have negative associations with BMD. With greater accumulation of %BF and %TF, both white and black subjects may experience a higher risk of low BMD than Chinese subjects.
    Osteoporosis International 12/2011; 22(12):3029-35. DOI:10.1007/s00198-010-1522-9 · 4.17 Impact Factor
  • X Fu · X Ma · H Lu · W He · Z Wang · S Zhu ·
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    ABSTRACT: Fat mass (FM) is closely related to bone mineral density (BMD). However, the associations of FM and fat distribution with BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women are still poorly understood. The present study showed android fat mass accumulation after menopause had a negative association with BMD. FM is closely related to BMD. However, it is unknown whether FM and central fat distribution have different associations with BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women. The study aims to investigate the associations of FM and fat distribution with BMD in pre- and postmenopausal Chinese women. Two hundred sixty premenopausal and 267 postmenopausal women aged 18 to 79 years were analyzed. Lean mass (LM), FM, percent body fat (%BF), android FM, gynoid FM, and total and regional BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fat distribution was assessed by android to gynoid FM ratio (AOI). Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the associations of BMD with FM, LM, and AOI. FM, %BF, android FM, and AOI were significantly higher, whereas total and regional BMD were significantly lower in postmenopausal women (all р < 0.01). In premenopausal women, FM was positively associated with total and regional BMD (all р < 0.05). AOI had no significant association with BMD. In postmenopausal women, FM was significantly associated with total and regional BMD even additionally adjusting for LM (all р < 0.01). AOI had significantly negative association with total, head, arm, and leg BMD (all р < 0.05). The results remained unchanged when replacing FM with %BF. There were different associations of FM and fat distribution with BMD in pre- and postmenopausal Chinese women. Increased central body fat had a negative association with BMD. Our findings may have significant implications in the prevention of menopause-related osteoporosis through reducing centralized fat deposition.
    Osteoporosis International 03/2010; 22(1):113-9. DOI:10.1007/s00198-010-1210-9 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the past two decades, a major outgrowth of efforts by our research group at St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital is the development of body composition models that include cellular level models, models based on body component ratios, total body potassium models, multi-component models, and resting energy expenditure-body composition models. This review summarizes these models with emphasis on component ratios that we believe are fundamental to understanding human body composition during growth and development and in response to disease and treatments. In-vivo measurements reveal that in healthy adults some component ratios show minimal variability and are relatively 'stable', for example total body water/fat-free mass and fat-free mass density. These ratios can be effectively applied for developing body composition methods. In contrast, other ratios, such as total body potassium/fat-free mass, are highly variable in vivo and therefore are less useful for developing body composition models. In order to understand the mechanisms governing the variability of these component ratios, we have developed eight cellular level ratio models and from them we derived simplified models that share as a major determining factor the ratio of extracellular to intracellular water ratio (E/I). The E/I value varies widely among adults. Model analysis reveals that the magnitude and variability of each body component ratio can be predicted by correlating the cellular level model with the E/I value. Our approach thus provides new insights into and improved understanding of body composition ratios in adults.
    International journal of body composition research 01/2008; 6(4):173-184.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of age, sex, ethnicity and total fatness on central obesity in four ethnic populations. Cross-sectional analysis of study subjects enrolled from 1993 to 2005. A multi-ethnic (Caucasian (CA), African-American (AA), Hispanic-American (HA) and Asian (As)) convenience sample of 604 men and 1192 women (aged 18-96 years, body mass index 15.93-45.80 kg/m(2)). Total body fat (TBF) and truncal fat were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. General linear regression models were used to test for independent associations with log(10)-transformed truncal fat. For all ethnicities, men had a lower percent body fat and more truncal fat than women. Log(10-)transformed truncal fat increased with TBF approximately as a square root function. At older ages, there was a greater amount of truncal fat in CA, HA and As men (approximately 0.20-0.25 kg/decade) with the effect more pronounced in AA men ( approximately 0.33 kg/decade). For women, the increment of truncal fat per decade was reduced in CA and AA women (approximately 0.07 kg) compared with As and HA women (approximately 0.33 kg). Adjusted for mean values of covariates in our sample, AA had less truncal fat than As. The accumulation of truncal fat is strongly related to age, ethnicity and total fatness in both men and women.
    International Journal of Obesity 10/2007; 31(9):1384-91. DOI:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803624 · 5.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity prevalence rates are increasing worldwide and one prevailing hypothesis is that physical activity levels of modern humans are markedly reduced compared to those of our Paleolithic ancestors. We examine this hypothesis by deriving relative activity energy expenditure from available doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry data in free-ranging non-human mammals. Our results, given the constraints posed by limited data availability, suggest that a low physical activity level, much less than that observed in free-ranging non-human mammals or highly active humans, is present in modern adult humans living within advanced settings. Our observations lend support to the hypothesis that low activity-related energy expenditure levels contribute to the rising worldwide prevalence of obesity.
    International Journal of Obesity 02/2005; 29(1):151-6. DOI:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802842 · 5.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) plays an important role in the study of metabolism in vivo. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies of IMCL are usually performed with clinical 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and have employed the single-voxel MRS technique. The present study reports the results of our systematic evaluation of the ability of single- and multi-voxel MRS to yield high-quality, contamination-free IMCL levels from the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. A clinical, 1.5-T, whole-body MRI scanner was used to measure IMCL with a standard knee coil, head coil, or a 3-cm receive-only surface coil with a body coil transmit. Excellent IMCL spectra were obtained in healthy males in only 8 min from multiple 0.25-cm(3) voxels using the surface coil receive/body coil transmit in conjunction with the standard PRESS spectroscopic imaging (SI) technique. This approach provided the spatial resolution and voxel placement flexibility permitting optimal separation of IMCL and extramyocellular lipid. Our findings demonstrate the potential of the SI approach.
    Acta Diabetologica 11/2003; 40 Suppl 1:S51-4. DOI:10.1007/s00592-003-0026-x · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) percent (%) fat estimates may be inaccurate in young children, who typically have high tissue hydration levels. This study was designed to provide a comprehensive analysis of pediatric tissue hydration effects on DXA %fat estimates. Phase 1 was experimental and included three in vitro studies to establish the physical basis of DXA %fat-estimation models. Phase 2 extended phase 1 models and consisted of theoretical calculations to estimate the %fat errors emanating from previously reported pediatric hydration effects. Phase 1 experiments supported the two-compartment DXA soft tissue model and established that pixel ratio of low to high energy (R values) are a predictable function of tissue elemental content. In phase 2, modeling of reference body composition values from birth to age 120 mo revealed that %fat errors will arise if a "constant" adult lean soft tissue R value is applied to the pediatric population; the maximum %fat error, approximately 0.8%, would be present at birth. High tissue hydration, as observed in infants and young children, leads to errors in DXA %fat estimates. The magnitude of these errors based on theoretical calculations is small and may not be of clinical or research significance.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 01/2001; 89(6):2365-72. · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • R Shih · Z Wang · M Heo · W Wang · S B Heymsfield ·
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    ABSTRACT: Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can accurately measure lower limb skeletal muscle (SM) mass, this method is complex and costly. A potential practical alternative is to estimate lower limb SM with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The aim of the present study was to develop and validate DXA-SM prediction equations. Identical landmarks (i.e., inferior border of the ischial tuberosity) were selected for separating lower limb from trunk. Lower limb SM was measured by MRI, and lower limb fat-free soft tissue was measured by DXA. A total of 207 adults (104 men and 103 women) were evaluated [age 43 +/- 16 (SD) yr, body mass index (BMI) 24.6 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2)]. Strong correlations were observed between lower limb SM and lower limb fat-free soft tissue (R(2) = 0.89, P < 0.001); age and BMI were small but significant SM predictor variables. In the cross-validation sample, the differences between MRI-measured and DXA-predicted SM mass were small (-0.006 +/- 1.07 and -0.016 +/- 1.05 kg) for two different proposed prediction equations, one with fat-free soft tissue and the other with added age and BMI as predictor variables. DXA-measured lower limb fat-free soft tissue, along with other easily acquired measures, can be used to reliably predict lower limb skeletal muscle mass.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 10/2000; 89(4):1380-6. · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • W Wang · Z Wang · M S Faith · Kotler DP · R Shih · S B Heymsfield ·
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    ABSTRACT: Although there is growing interest in studying muscle distribution, regional skeletal muscle (SM) mass measurement methods remain limited. The aim of the present study was to develop a new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) model for estimating regional adipose tissue-free skeletal muscle mass (AT-free SM). Relationships were derived from Reference Man data between tissue-system- level components (i.e., AT-free SM, AT, skeleton, and skin) and molecular-level components including fat-free soft tissue, fat, and bone mineral. The proposed DEXA-SM model was evaluated by multiscan computerized axial tomography (CT). Twenty-seven male subjects [age, 36 +/- 12 (SD) yr; body mass, 73.2 +/- 12.4 kg; 20 were healthy, and 7 had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome] completed DEXA and CT studies. Identical landmarks for DEXA and CT measurements were selected in three regions, including calves, thighs, and forearms. There was a strong correlation for AT-free SM estimates between the new DEXA and CT methods (e.g., sum of three regions, r = 0.86, P < 0.001). Regional AT-free SM measured in the 27 subjects by DEXA and CT, respectively, were 3.44 +/- 0.60 and 3. 47 +/- 0.55 kg (difference 0.9%, P > 0.05) for calves, 10.49 +/- 1. 77 and 10.05 +/- 1.79 kg (difference 4.4%, P < 0.05) for thighs, 1. 36 +/- 0.49 and 1.20 +/- 0.41 kg (difference 13.3%, P < 0.01) for forearms, and 15.29 +/- 2.33 and 14.72 +/- 2.33 kg (difference 3.9%, P < 0.05) for the sum all three regions. Although the suggested DEXA-SM model needs minor refinements, this is a promising in vivo approach for measurement of regional SM, because DEXA is widely available, relatively inexpensive, and radiation exposure is low.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 09/1999; 87(3):1163-71. · 3.06 Impact Factor

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    ABSTRACT: Although elements are the foundation of the human body, information concerning the atomic level of body composition is still limited. The aim of this study was to explore potentially constant relationships among elements found in vivo. Based on the known stoichiometries of relevant chemical components, a theoretical model was derived, suggesting the existence of a relatively constant ratio of total body oxygen to carbon-free body mass (TBO/CFM) in men. Eight elements (C, H, N, Ca, P, K, Na and Cl ) were measured in 22 healthy male subjects by using in vivo neutron activation-40K whole-body counting, and TBO was calculated as the difference between body mass and the sum of the eight measured elements. TBO (in kg) was significantly correlated with CFM (in kg): TBO = 0.829 x CFM - 1.8; r = 0.998, P < 0.001, standard error of estimate = 0.4 kg. The ratio of TBO to CFM was relatively constant, mean +/- SD at 0. 800 +/- 0.009 with a CV of 1.1%. Oxygen and carbon are the two most abundant elements in the human body. The discovery of a constant relationship between oxygen and carbon is not only helpful for understanding the atomic level of body composition, but also provides the possibility of estimating the content of specific elements in vivo.
    Journal of Nutrition 07/1998; 128(6):1008-10. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the study of human body composition is advancing rapidly, confusion still prevails regarding the molecular-level lipid component. Most molecular-level body composition models are presently based on the overall hypothesis that nontriglyceride lipids constitute an insignificant proportion of total body lipid. A single lipid or "fat" component consisting of triglycerides is thus assumed in most molecular-level body composition models. To test this hypothesis, the present study, carried out in adult rats, was designed to examine two questions: 1) What is the proportion of total lipids as triglycerides? and 2) Is this proportion constant or does it change with negative energy balance and weight loss produced by calorie restriction and increased exercise? Results indicated that with negative energy balance and weight loss there were progressive losses of total body triglyceride and lipid. The proportion of total lipids as triglyceride was 0.83 +/- 0.08 (SD) in control animals, with reductions at 2 and 9 wk of energy restriction [0.82 +/- 0.04 (P = NS vs. control) and 0.70 +/- 0.15 (P = 0.05)] and at 9 wk for energy restriction plus exercise [0.67 +/- 0.09 (P = 0.003)]. Nontriglyceride lipids comprised 2.8% of carcass weight at baseline and decreased to 2.2% by 9 wk of energy restriction and exercise (P = NS). Substantial differences were observed between body composition ratios expressed as percentages of the lipid-free body mass (LFM) and triglyceride-free body mass (TGFM); (e.g., total body water/LFM and TGFM in controls = 72.7 +/- 0.7 and 70.4 +/- 2.2, respectively; P = 0.02). These observations strongly support the existence and importance of nontriglyceride lipids as a body composition component that responds independently from storage triglycerides, with negative energy balance produced by food restriction and exercise.
    The American journal of physiology 06/1998; 274(5 Pt 1):E860-6. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human body composition can be organized into five levels; atomic, molecular, cellular, tissue-system and whole body. Six elements (carbon, nitrogen, calcium, potassium, sodium and chlorine) can be directly measured in vivo at the atomic level using three neutron-activation systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory. When combined with an estimate of total body water, the six elements can be used to quantify the major chemical components at molecular level. In the present report, we first describe the neutron-activation approach to evaluating chemical compartments in vivo. Then, we present an example of how in vivo estimates of human chemical composition can be used to study the validity of two-compartment indirect methods of quantifying total body fat in the elderly. Our studies and the work of other investigators at Brookhaven National Laboratory suggest that neutron activation analysis provides an important opportunity to study the relation between aging and changes in elemental and chemical composition of humans in vivo.
    Journal of Nutrition 03/1993; 123(2 Suppl):432-7. · 3.88 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

357 Citations
40.95 Total Impact Points


  • 2011
    • St. Luke School of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1999-2010
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Medicine
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2000-2008
    • St. Luke's Hospital
      Cedar Rapids, Iowa, United States
  • 1998-2007
    • Saint Luke's Hospital (NY, USA)
      New York City, New York, United States