S Chao

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States

Are you S Chao?

Claim your profile

Publications (9)34.19 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Activation of the kallikrein-kinin system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vasogenic brain edema and posttraumatic vascular injury. We determined the levels of kininogen and kinin in an experimental spinal cord injury model in the rat. Kininogen content in traumatized cord segments increased in a time-dependent manner. Western blot analysis showed that the kininogen in traumatized cord comigrates with 68K low-molecular-weight kininogen or T- kininogen. Trypsin treatment of the kininogen in traumatized cord released both bradykinin and T-kinin, which were separated by HPLC and quantified with a kinin radioimmu- noassay. Endogenous kinin levels in the frozen spinal cord also increased up to 40-fold 2 h after injury as compared with controls. The results demonstrate an increased accumulation of kininogen and its conversion to vasoactive kinins in experimental spinal cord injury.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2006; 57(3):975 - 980. · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Kininogens which have multifunctional domains, serve as the precursors of potent vasoactive kinin peptides and also function as cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Given its potential role in blood pressure homeostasis and inflammation, we have examined the regulation of rat kininogen gene expression by sex hormones in vivo. Our studies indicate a differential regulation of kininogen gene expression in rat liver by estrogen and progesterone. Northern and dot blot analysis using a rat low molecular weight kininogen cDNA probe show that kininogen mRNA levels in the liver of female rats are 4-fold higher than those in male rats. Ovariectomy results in a reduction of kininogen transcripts in the liver, while estradiol replacement of the ovariectomized rats increases kininogen mRNA levels. Similarly, Northern blot analysis using a kallikrein cDNA probe shows that estradiol treatment induces an increase of kallikrein gene expression in the kidney of the same animals. In contrast, progesterone treatment of the ovariectomized rats results in an increase in renal kallikrein mRNA levels while it reduces kininogen gene expression as compared to vehicle-treated ovariectomized animals. Immunoreactive kininogen levels in the serum, analyzed by a direct radioimmunoassay and Western blot, are increased by estradiol but slightly decreased by progesterone treatment. Western blot of serum proteins on a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel reveals that in estradiol-treated ovariectomized rats, the levels of several 68,000 Da kininogens varying in charge are markedly higher than those in ovariectomized rats. The results indicate that estrogen is one of the determinants in regulating low molecular weight kininogen gene expression in vivo. The impact of estrogen-regulated kininogen expression on cardiovascular function awaits further investigation.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/1992; 1131(2):145-51. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Activation of the kallikrein-kinin system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vasogenic brain edema and posttraumatic vascular injury. We determined the levels of kininogen and kinin in an experimental spinal cord injury model in the rat. Kininogen content in traumatized cord segments increased in a time-dependent manner. Western blot analysis showed that the kininogen in traumatized cord comigrates with 68K low-molecular-weight kininogen or T-kininogen. Trypsin treatment of the kininogen in traumatized cord released both bradykinin and T-kinin, which were separated by HPLC and quantified with a kinin radioimmunoassay. Endogenous kinin levels in the frozen spinal cord also increased up to 40-fold 2 h after injury as compared with controls. The results demonstrate an increased accumulation of kininogen and its conversion to vasoactive kinins in experimental spinal cord injury.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 10/1991; 57(3):975-80. · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Kallikrein-binding protein was purified to apparent homogeneity from rat serum by Affi-Gel Blue, DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, Sephacryl S-200 chromatography, and preparative gel electrophoresis or high performance liquid chromatography. The purified protein migrates as a single band of 60 kDa in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel under reducing conditions. It is an acidic protein with isoelectric points ranging from 4.2 to 4.6. The amino terminus of the binding protein is an Asp residue as determined by sequence analysis. It forms a 92-kDa sodium dodecyl sulfatestable complex with kallikrein with a t1/2 of 18 min. Western blot and radioimmunoassay showed a distribution of the kallikrein-binding protein in serum, urine, and various tissues with a 5-10-fold lower amount in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) than in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). A full length cDNA clone encoding the kallikrein-binding protein was isolated from a rat liver cDNA library by immunoscreening and the translated amino acid sequence matches the amino-terminal 29-amino acid sequence of the binding protein. The cDNA sequence shares 68.8% identity with human alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and is identical to that of a rat hepatic protein. Dot blot analysis shows that kallikrein-binding protein is expressed at high levels in the liver and at low levels in the lung, salivary gland, and kidney. Its mRNA level in the liver decreases by 2-fold after acute phase inflammation and is higher in male than in female rats. Genomic Southern blot analyses reveal restriction fragment length polymorphisms between SHR and WKY rats in the binding protein locus. The results indicate that rat kallikrein-binding protein belongs to the serpin superfamily and its level is significantly reduced in the spontaneously hypertensive rats.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/1990; 265(27):16394-401. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • S Chao, K X Chai, L Chao, J Chao
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A cDNA clone encoding rat alpha 1-antitrypsin has been isolated from a lambda gt-11 rat liver cDNA library using an antigen-overlay immunoscreening method. The nucleotide sequence of this cDNA clone is 1306 base pairs in length and has a coding region of 1224 base pairs which can be translated into an alpha 1-antitrypsin precursor protein consisting of 408 amino acid residues. The cDNA sequence contains a termination codon, TAA, at position 1162 and a polyadenylation signal sequence, AATAAT, at position 1212. The calculated molecular weight of the translated mature protein is 43,700 with 387 amino acid residues; this differs from purified rat alpha 1-antitrypsin's apparent molecular weight of 54,000 because of glycosylation. Five potential glycosylation sites were identified on the basis of the cDNA sequence. The translated mature protein sequence from the cDNA clone matches completely with the N-terminal 33 amino acids of purified rat alpha 1-antitrypsin, which has an N-terminal Glu. The cDNA encoding rat alpha 1-antitrypsin shares 70% and 80% sequence identity with its human and mouse counterparts, respectively. The reactive center sequence of rat alpha 1-antitrypsin is highly conserved with respect to human alpha 1-antitrypsin, both having Met-Ser at the P1 and P1' residues. Genomic Southern blot analysis yielded a simple banding pattern, suggesting that the rat alpha 1-antitrypsin gene is single-copy. Northern blot analysis using the cDNA probe showed that rat alpha 1-antitrypsin is expressed at high levels in the liver and at low levels in the submandibular gland and the lung.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Biochemistry 02/1990; 29(2):323-9. · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • S Chao, L Chao, J Chao
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies were carried out in order to better understand hormonal and inflammatory regulation of the T-kininogen and T-kininogenase system. T-kininogen from rat serum and T-kininogenase from rat submandibular gland were purified to homogeneity, and specific antisera to the purified proteins were generated. Simple, sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays were developed for measuring both T-kininogen and T-kininogenase. The assays incorporated a modified poly(ethylene glycol) technique for separating free from antibody-bound forms. Optimal combinations of poly(ethylene glycol) and gamma-globulin were found, yielding low background and high specific binding. The assays can detect a minimum of 160 pg of T-kininogen and 80 pg of T-kininogenase per tube. Serial dilutions of sera from normal and turpentine-treated rats showed complete parallelism with the T-kininogen standard curve. T-kininogen levels in rat serum and rat tissues increased more than 10-fold following turpentine treatment, while T-kininogenase levels in the submandibular gland and other tissues remained unchanged. Through use of a kinin-directed kininogen monoclonal antibody, Western blots of two-dimensional gels of serum following acute inflammation showed increased levels of several kininogens which vary in both molecular weight and isoelectric point. Analysis of serum kininogen levels shows sexual dimorphism, with female rats having 3.9-fold higher levels than males. Contrarily, T-kininogenase levels in the submandibular gland of male rats are 2.4-fold higher than those in females. The studies also showed that the T-kininogen and T-kininogenase system is regulated by sex hormones. T-kininogen is an acute-phase protein whose rapid increase and mobilization following inflammation may provide a primary defense against proteolytic damage during trauma.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/1989; 991(3):477-83. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Advances in experimental medicine and biology 02/1989; 247B:297-303. · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • S Chao, L Chao, J Chao
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A highly sensitive and specific method has been developed for immunoscreening clones from an expression cDNA library. The procedures utilize a radiolabeled antigen detection method described originally for the immunoblotting of plasma proteins (5). Screening of rat alpha 1-antitrypsin clones was used. Comparison between Western blots of alpha 1-antitrypsin using both labeled antigen and protein A detection methods showed that the former yielded lower background and greater sensitivity than the latter. Further, this technique was shown to have a lower detection limit of less than 20 ng through Western blot analysis of varying concentrations of alpha 1-antitrypsin. The procedures are based on the expression of the protein by cDNA clones containing the DNA inserts in the correct reading frame. Following the transfer of phage proteins to nitrocellulose membranes, the bivalent antibodies bind monovalently to both nitrocellulose-bound-antigen in the phage lysates and radiolabeled antigen. The radiolabeled antigen overlay method is superior to the protein A detection method in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. This improved method can be applied in general for screening expression cDNA libraries, provided that the specific antiserum and radiolabeled antigen are available.
    BioTechniques 02/1989; 7(1):68-72. · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A kinin-directed monoclonal antibody to kininogens has been developed by the fusion of murine myeloma cells with mouse splenocytes immunized with bradykinin-conjugated hemocyanin. The hybrid cells were screened by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the secretion of antibodies to bradykinin. Ascitic fluids were produced and purified by a bradykinin-agarose affinity column. The monoclonal antibody (IgG1) bound to bradykinin, Lys-bradykinin, Met-Lys-bradykinin, and kininogens in ELISA. Further, this target-directed monoclonal antibody recognized purified low and high molecular weight bovine, human, or rat kininogens and T-kininogen in Western blotting. After turpentine-induced acute inflammation, rat kininogen levels increased dramatically in liver and serum as well as in the perfused pituitary, heart, lung, kidney, thymus, and other tissues, as identified by the kinin-directed kininogen antibody in Western blot analyses. The results were confirmed by measuring kinin equivalents of kininogens with a kinin RIA. During an induced inflammatory response, rat kininogens were localized immunohistochemically with the kinin-directed monoclonal antibody in parenchymal cells of liver, in acinar cells and some granular convoluted tubules of submandibular gland, and in the collecting tubules of kidney. Northern and cytoplasmic dot blot analyses using a kinin oligonucleotide probe showed that kininogen mRNA levels in liver but not in other tissues increase after turpentine-induced inflammation. The results indicated that rat kininogens are distributed in various tissues in addition to liver and only liver kininogen is induced by acute inflammation. The target-directed kininogen monoclonal antibody is a useful reagent for studying the structure, localization, and function of kininogens or any protein molecule containing the kinin moiety.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/1988; 964(3):329-39. · 4.66 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

154 Citations
34.19 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1988–1992
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (College of Medicine)
      • • Division of Neuroradiology
      Charleston, SC, United States