G. Liang

Chinese Academy of Sciences, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (92)256.45 Total impact

  • Wei Zhang · Gaodao Liang · Laiyan Wu · Xun Tuo · Wenjing Wang · Jun Chen · Ping Xie
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    ABSTRACT: To elucidate the interspecies variation of susceptibility to microcystins (MCs), fresh plasma and purified albumin from six kinds of mammals and fish were used in toxins-substances binding test. Protein contents in the test plasma were analyzed and the binding characteristics to MCs were compared. Two kinds of widely observed MCs, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and microcystin-RR (MC-RR) were tested and data were collected through the method of equilibrium dialysis. It was found that total plasma protein and albumin content in mammals were nearly two times and four times higher than that in fish, respectively. In the test range of 0-100 μg/mL, binding rates of fish plasma to MCs were considered significant lower (p < 0.01) than that of mammals. And human plasma demonstrated the highest binding rate in mammals. In all the test species, plasma protein binding rates of MC-RR were significantly higher than MC-LR (p < 0.01). Besides, binding profiles of albumin were acquired under the protein content of 0.67 mg/mL. Human serum albumin demonstrated the highest affinity to MCs throughout the six species and differences among the other five species were considered not significant (p > 0.05). From the view of protein binding, it is concluded that both the variation of plasma protein composition and albumin binding characteristic could influence the existing form of MCs in circulation, change MCs utilization, alter MCs half-life and further contribute to the difference of susceptibility between mammals and fish.
    Ecotoxicology 05/2013; 22(6). DOI:10.1007/s10646-013-1086-5 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Zhang L. · G Liang · G Peng · Y Huang · L Wang · L Qie · M Croft · A Ignatov · J Goodenough
    Journal of The Electrochemical Society 08/2012; · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • G.liang · M.li · J. T.markert · L. V.wang
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    ABSTRACT: Single crystals Nd2-xCexCuO4-δ with x=0.0 and 0.2 are studied by polarized X-ray absorption measurements at Cu K-edge. The positions and intensities of the 1s→ 4pσ transition features in the K-edge spectra are analyzed with a modified cluster model and functional curve fitting procedure. All of the experimental results including the energies of the spectral features, the energy separations between features and the variation of feature intensities, can be well explained by the cluster model parameters obtained from the curve fitting. Particularly, it is found that the charge transfer energy gap Δ in the Nd2-xCexCuO4-δ system decreases from about 1.4 eV at x=0 to 0.5 eV at x = 0.2. Our analysis in this paper provides a method for quantitative X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) study of the charge transfer gap for electron-doped cuprate superconductors and related materials.
    International Journal of Modern Physics B 01/2012; 12(29n31). DOI:10.1142/S0217979298002519 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    G.liang · Y.yi · R. F.jardim · L. V.wang
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    ABSTRACT: To further study the charge carrier concentration in electron doped cuprate superconductors. a systematic x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurement has been carried out on Th-doped superconductor system R2-xThxCuO4-δ (R=Nd, Sm, and Gd). The XANES results show that, similar to the Ce-doped compounds, while the intensity of the Cu1+4pπ feature increase with the increase of the Th doping level x, the intensities of the Cu2+4pπ and 4pσ features decreases. This clearly indicates that the electrons doped by the Th atoms are injected into the local Cu 3d-orbitals. The normalized Cu1+4pπ intensity data show that the Cu1+ concentration in the Th-doped compound series with different R-elements is linearly proportional to the Th doping-level x. The data suggest that both Ce and Th donate the same fraction of electrons into the Cu sites.
    International Journal of Modern Physics B 01/2012; 13(29n31). DOI:10.1142/S0217979299003854 · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • G.liang · R. S.liu · L. V.wang
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    ABSTRACT: Near-edge x-ray-absorption spectra at the Cu K-edge has been measured for (Tl0.5Pb0.5)Sr2Ca1-xYxCu2O7-δ compound series. It is found that both the intensity of the quadruple 1s → 3d transition feature and the edge-energy decrease with increasing x. Our results show that the Cu valence decreases slightly with the substitution of Ca+2 by Y+3. This result, together with recent O K-edge result the O-2p holes are reduced by the substitution, indicates that electronic charge is transferred into the entire CuO2 layers by the Y+3 for Ca+2 substitution.
    International Journal of Modern Physics B 01/2012; 12(29n31). DOI:10.1142/S0217979298002507 · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • G.liang · R. S.liu · L. V.wang
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    ABSTRACT: Near edge x-ray-absorption spectra at Pb L3-edges have been measured for (Tl0.5Pb0.5)Sr2Ca1-xYxCu2O7-δ compound series. It is found that the intensity of the 2p→6s transition feature decreases with the substitution of Ca+2 by Y+3. This result indicates that some electronic charges have been transferred into the Pb(Tl)-O layers by this substitution. Detailed analysis suggests that the valence value of Pb in this compound series is close to +4 and it decreases with the increase of the Y-doping level x.
    International Journal of Modern Physics B 01/2012; 13(29n31). · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Xuwei Deng · Ping Xie · Min Qi · Gaodao Liang · Jun Chen · Zhimei Ma · Yan Jiang
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    ABSTRACT: Off-flavors are among the most troublesome compounds in the environment worldwide. The lack of a viable theory for studying the sources, distribution, and effect of odors has necessitated the accurate measurement of odors from environmental compartments. A rapid and flexible microwave-assisted purge-and-trap extraction device for simultaneously determining five predominant odors, namely, dimethyltrisulfide, 2-methylisoborneol, geosmin, β-cyclocitral and β-ionone, from the primary sources and sinks is demonstrated. This instrument facilitates the extraction and concentration of odors from quite different matrices simultaneously. This device is a solvent-free automated system that does not require cleaning and is timesaving. The calibration curves of the five odor compounds showed good linearity in the range of 1-500 ng/L, with correlation coefficients above 0.999 (levels=7) and with residuals ranging from approximately 77% to 104%. The limits of detection (S/N=3) were below 0.15 ng/L in algae sample and 0.07 ng/g in sediment and fish tissue samples. The relative standard deviations were between 2.65% and 7.29% (n=6). Thus the proposed design is ready for rapid translation into a standard analytical tool and is useful for multiple applications in the analysis of off-flavors.
    Journal of Chromatography A 11/2011; 1219:75-82. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2011.11.031 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    G. Liang · H. Fang · Z.P. Luo · S. Keith · C. Hoyt
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of the grain size of the doped SiC nanoparticles on the critical current density ( J <sub>c</sub>) of the Ti-sheathed MgB<sub>2</sub> superconducting wires were studied. The concentration of the SiC dopant was 10% and the sizes of the SiC particles were 20 nm, 45 nm, and 123 nm. Contrary to the J <sub>c</sub> results reported on the SiC-doped Fe-sheathed MgB<sub>2</sub> wires, we found that the J <sub>c</sub> for the Ti-sheathed MgB<sub>2</sub> wires decreased with the size of the SiC particles. We also found that the J <sub>c</sub> is greater than that of the undoped MgB<sub>2</sub> wires only for the wires with 123 nm SiC size. This unusual dependence of J <sub>c</sub> on the size of the SiC dopant is discussed in association with the results from the magnetization, electrical resistivity, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy measurements.
    IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 07/2011; 21(3-21):2672 - 2675. DOI:10.1109/TASC.2010.2091616 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    Xuwei Deng · Gaodao Liang · Jun Chen · Min Qi · Ping Xie
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    ABSTRACT: Production and fate of taste and odor (T&O) compounds in natural waters are a pressing environmental issue. Simultaneous determination of these complex compounds (covering a wide range of boiling points) has been difficult. A simple and sensitive method for the determination of eight malodors products of cyanobacterial blooms was developed using automatic purge and trap (P&T) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This extraction and concentration technique is solvent-free. Dimethylsulfide (DMS), dimethyltrisulfide (DMTS), 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), β-cyclocitral, geosmin (GSM) and β-ionone were separated within 15.3 min. P&T uses trap #07 and high-purity nitrogen purge gas. The calibration curves of the eight odors show good linearity in the range of 1-500 ng/L with a correlation coefficient above 0.999 (levels=8) and with residuals ranging from approximately 83% to 124%. The limits of detection (LOD) (S/N=3) are all below 1.5 ng/L that of GSM is even lower at 0.08 ng/L. The relative standard deviations (RSD) are between 3.38% and 8.59% (n=5) and recoveries of the analytes from water samples of a eutrophic lake are between 80.54% and 114.91%. This method could be widely employed for monitoring these eight odors in natural waters.
    Journal of Chromatography A 06/2011; 1218(24):3791-8. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2011.04.041 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    Gaodao Liang · Ping Xie · Jun Chen · Ting Yu
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    ABSTRACT: Microcystins (MCs) are well known worldwide as hepatotoxins produced by cyanobacteria, but little is known about the physicochemical properties of these compounds. The dependence of the n-octanol/water distribution ratio (DOW) of MC-RR and -LR to pH was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). There was a remarkable difference in such relationships between MC-RR and -LR. The log DOW of MC-LR decreased from 1.63 at pH 1.0 to -1.26 at pH 6.5, and stabilized between -1.04 and -1.56 at a pH of 6.5~12.0; log DOW of MC-RR varied between -1.24 and -0.67 at a pH of 1.00~4.00, and stabilized between -1.20 and -1.54 at a pH of 4.00~12.00. The difference of hydrophobicity in acidic condition between MC-RR and -LR is important, not only for the analytical method of both toxins, but perhaps also for understanding the difference of toxicity to animals between the two toxins.
    The Scientific World Journal 01/2011; 11:20-6. DOI:10.1100/tsw.2011.17 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    G. Liang · H. Fang · S. Guchhait · C. Hoyt · J. T. Markert
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of sintering temperature on the superconducting properties of Ti-sheathed MgB2 wires have been studied. The wires were fabricated by in situ powder-in-tube (PIT) method and characterized by x-ray diffraction, magnetization, scanning electron microscopy and transport measurements. Samples were sintered for 30 minutes at the following temperatures: 650° C, 700° C, 750° C, 800° C, and 850° C. It is found that the cores of these wires are almost in pure MgB2 superconducting phase, indicating that the Ti-sheath does not react with Mg or B. The superconducting transition temperature Tc decreases from 36 K to 34.2 K with the decrease of the sintering temperature from 850° C to 650° C. At 5 K and 20 K, critical current density Jc peaks up for samples sintered at 800° C, which is in sharp contrast with previously reported result that for Fe-sheathed MgB2 wires, Jc peaks up at sintering temperature of 650° C.
    04/2010; DOI:10.1063/1.3402313
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    H. Fang · G. Liang
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    ABSTRACT: Fe-sheathed MgB2 wires doped with C and TiC nanoparticles in the formula MgB2-xCx+yTiC (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, and y = 0, 2.5 wt.%, 5 wt.%) were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the core materials in the wires contain small amount of Fe2B and MgO impurity phases, and the peaks shift with the variation of doping amount. It is found that the critical temperature Tc decreases with the increase of doping amount. Strong in-field current carrying capability enhancement was observed on MgB1.95C0.05+2.5 wt.% TiC.
    04/2010; DOI:10.1063/1.3402314
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    Laiyan Wu · Ping Xie · Jun Chen · Dawen Zhang · Gaodao Liang
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    ABSTRACT: A novel method for identification and quantification of microcystin-RR (MC-RR) and its metabolites (MC-RR-GSH and MC-RR-Cys) in the fish liver was developed and validated. These analytes were simultaneously extracted from fish liver using water containing EDTA with 5% acetic acid, followed by a mixed-mode cation-exchange SPE (Oasis MCX) and subsequently determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-ITMS). Extraction parameters including volume and pH of eluting solvents, were optimized. Best recoveries were obtained by using 10 mL of 15% ammonia solution in methanol. The mean recoveries at three concentrations (0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 microg g(-1) dry weight [DW]) for MC-RR, MC-RR-GSH and MC-RR-Cys were 93.6-99%, 68.1-73.6% and 90.0-95.2%, respectively. Method detection limit (MDL) were 4, 7 and 5 ng g(-1) DW for MC-RR, MC-RR-GSH and MC-RR-Cys, respectively. Limits of quantification (LOQs) for MC-RR, MC-RR-GSH and MC-RR-Cys were calculated to be 10, 18 and 13 ng g(-1) DW, respectively. Finally, this method was successfully applied to the identification and quantification of MC-RR, MC-RR-GSH and MC-RR-Cys in the liver of bighead carp with acute exposure of MCs.
    Journal of Chromatography A 02/2010; 1217(9):1455-62. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2009.12.068 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    Ting Yu · Ping Xie · Ming Dai · Gaodao Liang
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    ABSTRACT: A liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) method working in multiple reactions monitoring mode for the determination of trace amounts of microcystin variants (MC-LR and [Dha(7)] MC-LR) in waters was developed. The limit of quantification was 0.05 microg/L and the limit of detection was 0.015 microg/L for MC-LR and [Dha(7)] MC-LR, respectively. Recoveries for MCs were in the range of 68%-81%. MC-LR and [Dha(7)] MC-LR were chemically stable with similar physiochemical behavior.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 07/2009; 83(5):757-60. DOI:10.1007/s00128-009-9805-6 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of thermal neutron irradiation and excess oxygen on the properties of Ti-sheathed MgB<sub>2</sub> wires were investigated separately in this paper. No significant influence was observed when thermal neutron irradiation with fluence levels of 1.23 times 10<sup>14</sup> and 5.75 times 10<sup>14</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup> were applied on the sample, while fluence level of 3.16 times 10<sup>15</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup> provided a strong suppression of in-field critical current density. Excess oxygen in sample preparation process had negative effect on the properties of the MgB<sub>2</sub> wires. The samples prepared in air possessed lower critical temperature and in-field current carrying capability in comparison with the sample prepared in glove box.
    IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 07/2009; 19(3-19):3520 - 3523. DOI:10.1109/TASC.2009.2018458 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    Hui Fang · M. Alessandrini · C. Hoyt · G. Liang · B. Lv · K. Salama
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    ABSTRACT: Ti-sheathed MgB<sub>2</sub> wires doped with different amount of TiC nanoparticles were investigated. X-ray diffraction pattern suggested the existence of TiC<sub>0.59</sub> phase and carbon incorporation into MgB<sub>2</sub> lattice to form Mg(B<sub>1-x</sub>C<sub>x</sub>)<sub>2</sub>. Strong enhancement of in-field current carrying capability was observed on 2.5% TiC doped sample. The temperature effect was also studied. It was found that 850<sup>deg</sup>C was the optimized annealing temperature.
    IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 07/2009; 19(3-19):2760 - 2762. DOI:10.1109/TASC.2009.2018522 · 1.24 Impact Factor
  • Dawen Zhang · Ping Xie · Jun Chen · Ming Dai · Tong Qiu · Yaqin Liu · Gaodao Liang
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes seasonal changes of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and its glutathione (MC-LR-GSH) and cysteine conjugates (MC-LR-Cys) in three aquatic animals--snail (Bellamya aeruginosa), shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) collected from Lake Taihu, China. MC-LR, MC-LR-GSH, and MC-LR-Cys were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrum (LC-ESI-MS). The mean MC-LR concentrations in the hepatopancreas of snail and shrimp and liver of silver carp were 6.61, 0.24, and 0.027 microg g(-1) dry weight (DW), respectively; while the average MC-LR-Cys concentrations were 0.50, 0.97, and 5.72 microg g(-1) DW, respectively. MC-LR-GSH was usually not detectable in these samples. The above results suggest that: (1) in aquatic animals, especially fish, the main excretion form of MC-LR could be MC-LR-Cys, but not MC-LR-GSH, whereas MC-LR-Cys might play an important role in detoxication of MC-LR and (2) that efficiency of MC-LR-Cys formation differs among species. The main detoxication pathway of MC-LR in aquatic animals is suggested as follows: when MC-LR enters into liver/hepatopancreas, it firstly conjugates with polypeptide or protein (including GSH, PP-1 and 2A) containing Cys residues, perhaps also some free cysteine; subsequently, MC-LR-Cys is degraded from these polypeptide or protein; and finally is excreted from animals by the compound of MC-LR-Cys.
    Chemosphere 06/2009; 76(7):974-81. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.04.034 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    Yan Jiang · Ping Xie · Gaodao Liang
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    ABSTRACT: The use of malachite green (MG) in fish farming is prohibited in China due to its potentially toxicological and carcinogenic nature, but it is still illegally used in some places. Uptake, accumulation and depuration of MG in various tissues were studied under laboratory conditions in three common freshwater fish, Parabramispekinensis (plant-eating fish), Carassiusauratus (omnivorous fish) and Ophiocephalusargus (carnivorous fish). The concentrations of MG and its primary metabolite, the reduced and colorless leucomalachite green (LMG), were analyzed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS2). Absorption of MG occurred during the waterborne exposure and the MG concentrations in gills of the three fish species all showed a maximum at 0 h after an acute water exposure (6 mg l− 1 MG for 20 min). Afterwards, both MG and LMG declined very rapidly in the blood of the fish. Levels of MG and LMG were still above 0.002 μg g− 1 in fresh weight muscle at 240 h and may persist for as long as 10 days. Most MG was converted rapidly to LMG in the fish and depuration of LMG was very slow in fat tissue, skin and gonads of the fish. Distribution of LMG was strongly dependent on the fat content in the tissues of the fish, but not related to their different feeding habits. Therefore, it appears that fat tissue, skin and gonads of the fish contaminated by MG and LMG pose the greatest risk for human consumption.
    Aquaculture 03/2009; 288(1-2-288):1-6. DOI:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.10.025 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    Ming Dai · Ping Xie · Jun Chen · Gaodao Liang · Ying Liu · Tong Qiu
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid and sensitive method was developed and validated for the determination of MCYST (microcystin)-RR, -LR, and [Dha7] MCYST-LR in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analytes were extracted from rat plasma by protein precipitation, followed by solid-phase extraction. Liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, operating in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, was used to quantify MCYST-RR, -LR, and [Dha7] MCYST-LR in rat plasma. The recoveries for each analyte in rat plasma ranged from 70.8 to 88.7%. The calibration curve was linear within the range from 0.005 to 1.25μgmL−1. The limit of detection were 1.4, 1.0, 0.6ngmL−1 for MCYST-RR, -LR, and [Dha7] MCYST-LR. The overall precision was determined on three different days. The values for within- and between-day precision in rat plasma were within 15%. This method was applied to the identification and quantification of microcystins in rat plasma with acute exposure of microcystins via intravenous injection.
    Chromatographia 11/2008; 68(9):811-815. DOI:10.1365/s10337-008-0777-1 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    G Liang · X Liao · G Du · J Chen
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    ABSTRACT: Three precursor amino acids and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) are necessary for fermentative production of glutathione. In this study, our aims were to develop a strategy to enhance glutathione production by adding three precursor amino acids coupled with ATP in high cell density (HCD) cultivation of Candida utilis. A high-glutathione yeast strain, C. utilis WSH 02-08, was used in this study. Whole fermentative process for glutathione production was divided into two phases of cell growth and glutathione synthesis. Cells concentration was increased by HCD cultivation. Meanwhile, intracellular glutathione content was enhanced by the addition of three precursor amino acids. Concentrations of three precursor amino acids added at stationary phase were optimized by response surface methodology. Moreover, the addition of ATP 15 h after the addition of the three amino acids can further enhance glutathione production. Based on aforementioned phenomenon, a strategy of adding three precursor amino acids coupled with ATP was developed to enhance glutathione production. Without the addition of three precursor amino acids and the ATP, a total glutathione of 1123 mg l(-1) was achieved after 60-h cultivation. In comparison, addition of three precursor amino acid counterparts resulted in a total glutathione of 1841 mg l(-1). Moreover, by adding amino acids combined with ATP, a total glutathione of 2043 mg l(-1) was achieved after 72-h cultivation, increased by 81.9% and 11%, respectively, as compared with the control and the one without ATP addition. This is the first report on investigating changes of the intracellular three precursor amino acids and ATP, and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthase activity in HCD cultivation of C. utilis for glutathione production. A strategy of combining addition of three precursor amino acids with ATP was developed to enhance glutathione production in C. utilis.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 11/2008; 105(5):1432-40. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.03892.x · 2.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
256.45 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2013
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • Institute of Hydrobiology
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 1993–2012
    • Sam Houston State University
      • Department of Physics
      Huntsville, Texas, United States
  • 2011
    • Wuhan Centers for Disease Prevention and Control
      Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China
  • 2008
    • Jiangnan University
      • School of Biotechnology
      Wu-hsi, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 1987–1991
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department Physics and Astronomy
      Нью-Брансуик, New Jersey, United States