B S Lartiges

University of Lorraine, Nancy, Lorraine, France

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Publications (57)165.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi) is a long-domesticated cactus that is widespread throughout arid and semiarid regions. Ofi is grown for both its fruits and edible cladodes, which are flattened photosynthetic stems. Young cladodes develop from mother cladodes, thus forming series of cladodes of different ages. Therefore, successive cladodes may hold some potential for biomonitoring over several years the local atmospheric pollution. In this study, cladodes, roots, dust deposited onto the cladodes, and soil samples were collected in the vicinity of three heavily polluted sites, i.e., a fertilizer industry, the road side of a highway, and mine tailings. The lead content was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used to characterize the cladode surfaces and the nature of dust deposit, and the lead isotopes were analyzed to identify the origin of Pb. The results show that (i) Ofi readily bioaccumulates Pb, (ii) the lead isotopic composition of cladodes evidences a foliar pathway of lead into Ofi and identifies the relative contributions of local Pb sources, and (iii) an evolution of air quality is recorded with successive cladodes, which makes Ofi a potential biomonitor to be used in environmental and health studies.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11356-015-4998-1 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of polymeric substances on the biomineralization and stabilization of green rust (GR), the effect of two organic polymers on the transformation of lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) to GR vs. magnetite in presence of Shewanella putrefaciens was investigated. These two polymers, generally used as flocculants, are polyacrylic acid (PAA), which bears negatively charged carboxylic groups at neutral pH and is expected to react with cationic hydrolyzed iron species, and polyacrylamide (PAM), which is a neutral polymer that may develop hydrogen bonds with iron nanocolloids. The bioreduction of lepidocrocite by S. putrefaciens was performed under conditions known to yield either magnetite or GR. Each operational condition of interest was investigated with various polymer concentrations from 0.6 to 60 mg g−1 Fe (10 to 1000 mg l−1). The final product was characterized using X-ray diffraction and electronic microscopy. The results showed that the formation of GR is favored, with respect to magnetite, to a lesser extent with PAM than with PAA. These results indicated that polymers influence the chemical stability of GR and/or guide the route of biomineralization. Polymer properties, in addition to silica and phosphate concentrations, are then critical parameters that control the secondary iron mineral biomineralization from iron-reducing bacteria.Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Geomicrobiology Journal to view the supplemental file.
    Geomicrobiology 08/2013; 30:600-615. DOI:10.1080/01490451.2012.746403 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most important sources of solid waste in the Mediterranean Basin ecosystem originated from the phosphate fertilizer industries, which discharge phosphogypsum (PG) directly into aquatic environments or are stacked on stockpiles. The present study investigates metal release from PG under the influence of variable pH, increasing PG mass content, and complexing organic matter ligands. Major ions from PG leachates, grain size and charge, main functional groups along with metal leachability (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn) were determined using ion chromatography, laser diffraction, zetameter, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. The complete dissolution of PG recorded is at 2 g/L. Saturation and supersaturation with respect to PG may occur at concentrations of 3 and 4 g/L, respectively, revealing a clustering phenomenon leading to heavy metal encapsulation within the aggregates. Organic ligands such as citrate may trigger the cationic exchange within the PG suspension leading to ion release. As these factors are considered as specific process involving the release of contaminants from PG during storage under natural conditions, this study could set the foundations for PG remediation in aquatic environment. Organic ligands under controlled pH conditions could be utilized in treating fertilizer industrial wastes by taking into consideration the particularity of the receiving area, thus decreasing metal hazardous impact on natural media.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 06/2013; DOI:10.1007/s11356-013-1875-7 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A natural coagulant protein was extracted from the endosperm of Cocos nucifera, and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, potentiometric titration, electrophoretic mobility, and then tested for its coagulant properties using silica nanocolloids. The infrared spectra revealed predominant absorption bands at 1649 cm-1 and 1536 cm-1 characteristics of -C=O in primary and secondary amides of proteins arranged into an alpha-helical secondary structure, and the presence of triolein when fat was not removed from the extract. The molecular weight determined by size exclusion chromatography was about 5.6 kDa, the charge density of the fat extracted protein being 1.05 meq g-1, and the isoelectric point 7.5. The proteinous extracts behaved as effective coagulants of silica particles, the destabilisation mechanism being consistent with an heteroaggregation of oppositely charged colloids. Overall, the characteristics of that natural protein were closely similar to those of Moringa oleifera seed extract, thus suggesting that copra can be considered as a potential source of an efficient and sustainable coagulant for water treatment in emerging countries.
    Separation and Purification Technology 05/2013; 116:35-40. DOI:10.1016/j.seppur.2013.05.015 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The coagulation of sodium montmorillonite by inorganic salts (NaNO3, Ca(NO3)2 and La(NO3)3) was studied by combining classical turbidity measurements with wide-angle-X-ray scattering (WAXS), small-angle-X-ray scattering (SAXS), and transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM). Using size-selected samples, such a combination, associated with an original quantitative treatment of TXM images, provides a true multiscale investigation of the formed structures in a spatial range extending from a few ångstroms to a few micrometers. We then show that, at neutral pH and starting with fully Na-exchanged samples, coagulation proceeds via the formation of stacks of particles with a slight mismatch between layers. These stacks arrange themselves into larger porous anisotropic particles, the porosity of which depends on the valence of the cation used for coagulation experiments. Face-face coagulation is clearly dominant under those conditions, and no evidence for significant face-edge coagulation was found. These structures appear to arrange as larger clusters, the organization of which should control the mechanical properties of the flocs.
    Langmuir 03/2013; 29(10). DOI:10.1021/la400245n · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nature of the interaction between iron oxyhydroxide compounds and natural organic matter (NOM) may take various forms and is still a matter of debate. It is an important field to understand, especially for water treatment applications and for the knowledge of iron transport in the environment. The nature of association reached between iron oligomeric species and NOM is here investigated using Mo¨ssbauer spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) at the Fe-L3 edge. Raw waterNOMtaken from Moselle River (France), natural humic substances extracted from the riverine suspended matter, and a synthesized humic-like substance, are coagulated with iron nitrate according to a jar-test procedure. The results from Mo¨ssbauer spectroscopy indicate that Fe is present in an octahedral coordination environment, which is consistent with prior X-ray absorption spectroscopy reported in the literature. The areas beneath the peaks (Fe L3 edge) and the peak shapes of EELS spectra differ according to the origin of the organic matter, suggesting that various types of Fe populations can be distinguished using the EELS technique. Combining the selectivity of both Mo¨ssbauer spectroscopy for identifying trace, poorly crystalline Fe solids, oxidation state and of EELS for being able to characterize the population of Fe based on L-edge spectra, appears promising for characterizing Fe in systems containing NOM.
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    ABSTRACT: Analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy, sequential chemical extraction, and pyrolysis–gas chromatography on solvent-extractable organic matter are used to provide both direct and indirect speciation of heavy metals and organic matter in sewage-suspended solids and in biofilms taken from an urban sewer in an emerging country. Compared to developed countries where the domestic activities represent the main source of heavy metal pollution in wastewater, the combined sewer system of an emerging country also integrates significant contributions originating from the private drinking water supply system (Zn, Cu, Cr, and Ni), industrial discharges (Cu, Mn), and road dust transported by street washing (Pb). The relative importance of those sources changes drastically over time as evidenced by the difference in metal levels recorded between weekday and weekend effluents. Nevertheless, sewer biofilms are found to provide a good averaging of contaminant loads and they can be used as environmental archives. The speciation study reveals the predominance of neoformed minerals such as sulfides and phosphates and highlights the strong biogeochemical dynamics that takes place within the sewer system. Electron microscope observations of heavy metal-bearing phases proved to be necessary to provide a consistent interpretation of chemical extraction results. The molecular characterization of the solvent-extractable organic matter from biofilms reveals the presence of classical fingerprints of domestic activity such as fecal sterols and detergents but also confirms a major contribution of petroleum by-products consistent with a traffic-related pollution.
    Water Air and Soil Pollution 10/2012; 223(8). DOI:10.1007/s11270-012-1226-1 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Soil amendment by phosphogypsum (PG) application becomes of increasing importance in agriculture. This may lead, however, to soil, plant, and groundwater contamination with trace elements (TEs) inherently present in PG. Monitoring of selected TEs (Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd) distribution and mobility in a Mediterranean red soil profile has been performed in soil parcels applied with PG over a 16-month period. Concentrations were measured in soil and plant samples collected from various depth intervals at different points in time. TEs sequential extraction was performed on soil and PG samples. Results showed soil profile enrichment peaked 5 months after PG application for Cd, and 12 months for Pb, Zn, and Cu. Rainwater, pH, total organic carbon, and cationic exchange capacity were the main controlling factors in TEs accumulation in soils. Cd was transferred to a soil depth of about 20 cm. Zn exhibited mobility towards deeper layers. Pb and Cu were accumulated in around 20-55-cm-deep layers. PG increased the solubility of the studied TEs; PG-applied soils contained TEs bound to exchangeable and acid-soluble fractions in higher percentages than reference soil. Pb, Zn, and Cu were sorbed into mineral soil phases, while Cd was mainly found in the exchangeable (bio-available) form. The order of TEs decreasing mobility was Zn > Cd > Pb > Cu. Roots and leaves of existed plants, Cichorium intybus L., accumulated high concentrations of Cd (1-2.4 mg/kg), exceeding recommended tolerable levels, and thus signifying potential health threats through contaminated crops. It was therefore recommended that PG should be applied in carefully established, monitored, and controlled quantities to agricultural soils.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 07/2012; 184(7):4397–4412. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two caseins labelled as CaSMG (casein without fats) and CaMG (casein with fats) were extracted from coconut cream. Both caseins were used as coagulants for the aggregation of humic acid (HA) particles in synthetic water at pH = 6 during the jar-test essays. The optimum dosage of CaMG or CaSMG and the residual turbidities of treated water obtained depend on the type of used casein (CaMG or CaSMG) and the concentration of particles in solution. The optimal doses of CaMG and CaSMG are respectively 280 and 180 mg/L for solution S(1) (HA aqueous solution at 15 mg/L), and then 340 and 240 mg/L for solution S(2) (HA aqueous solution at 25 mg/L). The residual turbidities of treated water are respectively 6.88 and 3.85 NTU for solution S(1) and 4.52 and 2.53 NTU for solution S(2). The collected sediment volumes are respectively 1.2 and 1.5 mL for solutions S(1) and S(2). The electrophoretic mobility measurement and transmission electron microscopy images of flocs formed during the flocculation essays suggest that both caseins operate through both mechanisms (charge neutralisation and bridging process mechanism), this last one seems to be predominant. The aggregates formed are the large clusters and result from adsorption of HA particles by the casein molecules.
    Water Science & Technology 06/2012; 66(2):345-51. DOI:10.2166/wst.2012.190 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In wastewater treatment plants, optimizing bacterial flocculation and bacterial sludge dewatering requires a detailed understanding of the concomitant biological and physico-chemical processes governing the action of flocculating agent on living cells. Here we investigate the interactions between polyethyleneimine (PEI, 60,000g/mol) and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 lacking or not the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen surface structure. Flocculation tests were performed on bacteria with/without LPS O-antigen after being exposed to 0-100mg/L PEI concentrations. Measurements of electrophoretic mobility and bacterial aggregates size were complemented by transmission electron micrographs and atomic force microscopy images. While low PEI concentrations (<20mg/L) lead to flocculation of both bare and LPS O-antigen-decorated bacterial strains, the lysis of bacterial membranes occurred at larger polymer concentrations for the latter, which highlights the protective role of LPS O-antigen against harmful PEI-mediated membrane alterations. Depending on polymer concentration, two types of bacterial aggregates are identified: one that solely integrates bacterial cells, and another that includes both cells and cell residues resulting from lysis (membrane and/or LPS fragments, and inner cell content materials). The latter is expected to significantly contribute to water entrapping in sludge and thus lower dewatering process efficiency.
    Water Research 04/2012; 46(6):1838-46. DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2011.12.061 · 5.32 Impact Factor
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    Lina Nafeh Kassir, Bruno Lartiges, Naim Ouaini
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    ABSTRACT: Fugitive dust emission, transport and deposition from phosphate fertilizer industries may pose an environmental hazard to the surrounding environment, particularly to soil. This study is to evaluate such hazard by investigating the fate of airborne pollutants, their transfer from atmosphere to soil surface, and their contamination potential. Concentrations of elements were measured in soil samples. Elemental analyses were carried out using ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Analysis of speciation of trace elements, using a sequential extraction method, was performed on the plant's raw material (apatite), product and waste (phosphate fertilizer and phosphogypsum). A model estimating local atmospheric dry deposition was formulated. Statistical analyses were performed on sample data. Measured phosphorus accumulated considerably to the north-east of the plant, mainly due to the prevailing wind and associated dry deposition. Results exhibited considerably above-threshold enrichments in potentially toxic, bio-available trace elements (Cd, Zn) (2.5-6.9, 295-506 mg kg(-1)) and radionuclide (U, 20-98.69 mg kg(-1)) within a major deposition area. Speciation results revealed Zn and Cd occurring predominantly in mobile phases within the pollution source materials. Dry deposition calculation showed extensive input fluxes of Sr, Zn, Cr, U, Ni and Cd. Significant correlation was established between measured trace elements concentrations and their calculated deposition fluxes. Phosphorus species were the principal carriers of trace elements in soils. The phosphate industry poses a serious soil pollution hazard, with deposited contaminants being potentially hazardous to plants and groundwater. This study serves as a basis to assess the phosphate industry's risk impact on soil, while it introduces combined analytical methodologies for such assessment.
    Environmental Technology 04/2012; 33(7-9):873-885. DOI:10.1080/09593330.2011.601765 · 1.20 Impact Factor
  • La Houille Blanche 11/2011; DOI:10.1051/lhb/2011049 · 0.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Soil amendment by phosphogypsum (PG) application becomes of increasing importance in agriculture. This may lead, however, to soil, plant, and groundwater contamination with trace elements (TEs) inherently present in PG. Monitoring of selected TEs (Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd) distribution and mobility in a Mediterranean red soil profile has been performed in soil parcels applied with PG over a 16-month period. Concentrations were measured in soil and plant samples collected from various depth intervals at different points in time. TEs sequential extraction was performed on soil and PG samples. Results showed soil profile enrichment peaked 5 months after PG application for Cd, and 12 months for Pb, Zn, and Cu. Rainwater, pH, total organic carbon, and cationic exchange capacity were the main controlling factors in TEs accumulation in soils. Cd was transferred to a soil depth of about 20 cm. Zn exhibited mobility towards deeper layers. Pb and Cu were accumulated in around 20-55-cm-deep layers. PG increased the solubility of the studied TEs; PG-applied soils contained TEs bound to exchangeable and acid-soluble fractions in higher percentages than reference soil. Pb, Zn, and Cu were sorbed into mineral soil phases, while Cd was mainly found in the exchangeable (bio-available) form. The order of TEs decreasing mobility was Zn > Cd > Pb > Cu. Roots and leaves of existed plants, Cichorium intybus L., accumulated high concentrations of Cd (1-2.4 mg/kg), exceeding recommended tolerable levels, and thus signifying potential health threats through contaminated crops. It was therefore recommended that PG should be applied in carefully established, monitored, and controlled quantities to agricultural soils.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 07/2011; 184(7):4397-412. DOI:10.1007/s10661-011-2272-7 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two divalent cation-based coagulants, magnesium chloride and manganese chloride, were used to treat synthetic textile wastewaters containing the azo-dye pigment Levafix Brilliant Blue EBRA. The jar-tests were performed in the presence or absence of auxiliary dyeing chemicals. They proved that (i) both divalent cation-based coagulants were effective in the treatment of those alkaline effluents, (ii) better performances in terms of color removal, residual turbidity, and settled volume, were achieved with manganese chloride, and (iii) the presence of dyeing auxiliaries significantly increases the required coagulant demand for treating the textile effluent. The dye removal mechanisms were investigated by combining observations of freeze-dried sediments with transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, adsorption experiments, and aggregates size measurements with a laser sizer under cyclic shear conditions. The results show that brucite (Mg(OH)(2)) particles are formed when applying MgCl(2) to the textile wastewaters, whereas a mixture of feitknechite (β-MnOOH) and hausmannite (Mn(3)O(4)) is obtained when using MnCl(2). More poorly crystallized particles are formed in presence of auxiliary dyeing chemicals. The adsorption experiments suggested that the azo-dye pigment adsorbs onto the surface of precipitating phases, whereas the aggregation dynamics indicated that a charge-neutralization mechanism underlies the formation of aggregates. The dye removal is then consistent with a precipitation/adsorption mechanism.
    Journal of hazardous materials 03/2011; 187(1-3):264-73. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.01.008 · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1] The Ganga River is one of the main conveyors of sediments produced by Himalayan erosion. Determining the flux of elements transported through the system is essential to understand the dynamics of the basin. This is hampered by the chemical heterogeneity of sediments observed both in the water column and under variable hydrodynamic conditions. Using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) acquisitions with sediment depth profile sampling of the Ganga in Bangladesh we build a simple model to derive the annual flux and grain size distributions of the sediments. The model shows that ca. 390 (±30) Mt of sediments are transported on average each year through the Ganga at Haring Bridge (Bangladesh). Modeled average sediment grain size parameters D 50 and D 84 are 27 (±4) and 123 (±9) mm, respectively. Grain size parameters are used to infer average chemical compositions of the sediments owing to a strong grain size chemical composition relation. The integrated sediment flux is characterized by low Al/Si and Fe/Si ratios that are close to those inferred for the Himalayan crust. This implies that only limited sequestration occurs in the Gangetic floodplain. The stored sediment flux is estimated to c.a. 10% of the initial Himalayan sediment flux by geochemical mass balance. The associated, globally averaged sedimentation rates in the floodplain are found to be ca. 0.08 mm/yr and yield average Himalayan erosion rate of ca. 0.9 mm/yr. This study stresses the need to carefully address the average composition of river sediments before solving large‐scale geochemical budgets. (2011), A Rouse‐based method to integrate the chemical composition of river sediments: Application to the Ganga basin, J. Geophys. Res., 116, F04012, doi:10.1029/2010JF001947.
  • B. S. Lartiges, L. J. Michot, J. Y. Bottero
    MRS Online Proceeding Library 01/2011; 432. DOI:10.1557/PROC-432-345
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    ABSTRACT: The Ganga River is one of the main conveyors of sediments produced by Himalayan erosion. Determining the flux of elements transported through the system is essential to understand the dynamics of the basin. This is hampered by the chemical heterogeneity of sediments observed both in the water column and under variable hydrodynamic conditions. Using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) acquisitions with sediment depth profile sampling of the Ganga in Bangladesh we build a simple model to derive the annual flux and grain size distributions of the sediments. The model shows that ca. 390 (±30) Mt of sediments are transported on average each year through the Ganga at Haring Bridge (Bangladesh). Modeled average sediment grain size parameters D50 and D84 are 27 (±4) and 123 (±9) mm, respectively. Grain size parameters are used to infer average chemical compositions of the sediments owing to a strong grain size chemical composition relation. The integrated sediment flux is characterized by low Al/Si and Fe/Si ratios that are close to those inferred for the Himalayan crust. This implies that only limited sequestration occurs in the Gangetic floodplain. The stored sediment flux is estimated to c.a. 10% of the initial Himalayan sediment flux by geochemical mass balance. The associated, globally averaged sedimentation rates in the floodplain are found to be ca. 0.08 mm/yr and yield average Himalayan erosion rate of ca. 0.9 mm/yr. This study stresses the need to carefully address the average composition of river sediments before solving large‐scale geochemical budgets.
    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 01/2011; 116:F04012. DOI:10.1029/2010JF001947 · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The net effect of organic carbon cycling during continental erosion depends on the balance between rock-derived organic carbon oxidation and ­biospheric organic carbon burial in sediments. Himalayan erosion is dominated by physical transport and each year up to two billion tons of sediments eroded from the Himalaya are delivered to the Bengal Fan through the Ganga–Brahmaputra (G–B) fluvial system. We developed a sampling protocol that allows the heterogeneity of the sediment load to be accounted for. In the channel of large rivers, the total organic carbon content (TOC) is variable and decreases towards depth. TOC is positively correlated to Al/Si ratio, which characterizes the mineral and grain size sorting. In the delta of Bangladesh, sediments from Ganga, Brahmaputra and Lower Meghna have similar organic carbon loading. Coupling Raman Micro-spectroscopy and High Resolution Transmitted Electron Microscopy allows the unambiguous detection and characterization of petrogenic (rock-derived) carbon. Comparison of Himalayan rivers and G–B in Bangladesh indicates that the most graphitised forms are selectively preserved and delivered to the Bay of Bengal. Radiocarbon characterization of sediments along depth profiles yields values for the absolute concentration of petrogenic carbon in rivers sediments. Comparison of Himalayan rocks and G–B sediments in Bangladesh shows that 40% (±10) of the organic carbon contained in the Himalayan rocks is preserved and delivered to the ocean. The evolution of stable isotopic composition (δ13C) from the outflow of the Himalayan range to the delta of Bangladesh shows that during the Gangetic floodplain transit, more than 50% of organic carbon derived from the Himalaya is oxidized and replaced by organic carbon derived from the floodplain. The organic carbon loading of recent Bengal Fan sediments is comparable to that of G–B river sediments. Biomarker abundance and δ13C values show that organic carbon is dominated by terrestrial inputs. The terrestrial organic carbon burial efficiency is thus close to 100%. This strongly contrasts with other large deltaic system on earth, where ∼70% of terrestrial organic carbon is oxidized prior to burial. This extreme burial efficiency is sustained by high erosion rate in Himalaya that generates high sedimentation rate and low oxygen availability in the Bay of Bengal. The balance between biospheric organic carbon burial and petrogenic carbon oxidation indicates a net CO2consumption of 3.2 ± 0.8 × 1011mol/year. Atmospheric CO2consumption through organic carbon cycling during Himalayan erosion is thus an order of magnitude higher than the CO2consumption through silicate weathering in the Himalayan basin (6.4 × 1010mol/year). Efficient burial of organic carbon is a characteristic of high physical erosion typical of active orogenic systems. Enhanced physical erosion and consequent organic carbon burial buffer atmospheric CO2thereby exerting a negative feedback on the long-term climate. KeywordsErosional processes-Fate of soil organic carbon-Carbon burial-Sedimentation-Fluvial transport
    12/2010: pages 163-181;

Publication Stats

858 Citations
165.35 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2013
    • University of Lorraine
      Nancy, Lorraine, France
    • Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
    • University of Toulouse
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • 2001–2013
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Laboratoire environnement et minéralurgie (LEM)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003
    • Ecole Nationale Supérieure Des Industries Chimiques (ENSIC)
      Nancy, Lorraine, France