[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To achieve malignancy, cancer cells convert numerous signaling pathways, with evasion from cell death being a characteristic hallmark. The cell death machinery represents an anti-cancer target demanding constant identification of tumor-specific signaling molecules. Control of mitochondrial radical formation, particularly superoxide interconnects cell death signals with appropriate mechanistic execution. Superoxide is potentially damaging, but also triggers mitochondrial cytochrome c release. While paraoxonase (PON) enzymes are known to protect against cardiovascular diseases, recent data revealed that PON2 attenuated mitochondrial radical formation and execution of cell death. Another family member, PON3, is poorly investigated. Using various cell culture systems and knockout mice, here we addressed its potential role in cancer. PON3 is found overexpressed in various human tumors and diminishes mitochondrial superoxide formation. It directly interacts with coenzyme Q10 and presumably acts by sequestering ubisemiquinone, leading to enhanced cell death resistance. Localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, PON3 abrogates apoptosis in response to DNA damage or intrinsic but not extrinsic stimulation. Moreover, PON3 impaired ER stress-induced apoptotic MAPK signaling and CHOP induction. Therefore, our study reveals the mechanism underlying PON3's anti-oxidative effect and demonstrates a previously unanticipated function in tumor cell development. We suggest PONs represent a novel class of enzymes crucially controlling mitochondrial radical generation and cell death.
Cell death and differentiation 03/2012; 19(9):1549-60. · 8.24 Impact Factor