[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Basement membrane, a specialized ECM that underlies polarized epithelium of eumetazoans, provides signaling cues that regulate cell behavior and function in tissue genesis and homeostasis. A collagen IV scaffold, a major component, is essential for tissues and dysfunctional in several diseases. Studies of bovine and Drosophila tissues reveal that the scaffold is stabilized by sulfilimine chemical bonds (S = N) that covalently cross-link methionine and hydroxylysine residues at the interface of adjoining triple helical protomers. Peroxidasin, a heme peroxidase embedded in the basement membrane, produces hypohalous acid intermediates that oxidize methionine, forming the sulfilimine cross-link. We explored whether the sulfilimine cross-link is a fundamental requirement in the genesis and evolution of epithelial tissues by determining its occurrence and evolutionary origin in Eumetazoa and its essentiality in zebrafish development; 31 species, spanning 11 major phyla, were investigated for the occurrence of the sulfilimine cross-link by electrophoresis, MS, and multiple sequence alignment of de novo transcriptome and available genomic data for collagen IV and peroxidasin. The results show that the cross-link is conserved throughout Eumetazoa and arose at the divergence of Porifera and Cnidaria over 500 Mya. Also, peroxidasin, the enzyme that forms the bond, is evolutionarily conserved throughout Metazoa. Morpholino knockdown of peroxidasin in zebrafish revealed that the cross-link is essential for organogenesis. Collectively, our findings establish that the triad-a collagen IV scaffold with sulfilimine cross-links, peroxidasin, and hypohalous acids-is a primordial innovation of the ECM essential for organogenesis and tissue evolution.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2014; 111(1):331-6. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Non-enzymatic modification of proteins in hyperglycemia is a major proposed mechanism of diabetic complications. Specifically, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) derived from hyperglycemia-induced reactive carbonyl species (RCS) can have pathogenic consequences when they target functionally critical protein residues. Modification of a small number of these critical residues, often undetectable by the methodologies relying on measurements of total AGE levels, can cause significant functional damage. Therefore, detection of specific sites of protein damage in diabetes is central to understanding the molecular basis of diabetic complications and for identification of biomarkers which are mechanistically linked to the disease. The current paradigm of RCS-derived protein damage places a major focus on methylglyoxal (MGO), an intermediate of cellular glycolysis. We propose that glyoxal (GO) is a major contributor to extracellular matrix (ECM) damage in diabetes. Here, we review the current knowledge and provide new data about GO-derived site-specific ECM modification in experimental diabetes.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 03/2013; · 2.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesangial cells and podocytes express integrins α1β1 and α2β1, which are the two major collagen receptors that regulate multiple cellular functions, including extracellular matrix homeostasis. Integrin α1β1 protects from glomerular injury by negatively regulating collagen production, but the role of integrin α2β1 in renal injury is unclear. Here, we subjected wild-type and integrin α2-null mice to injury with adriamycin or partial renal ablation. In both of these models, integrin α2-null mice developed significantly less proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis. In addition, selective pharmacological inhibition of integrin α2β1 significantly reduced adriamycin-induced proteinuria, glomerular injury, and collagen deposition in wild-type mice. This inhibitor significantly reduced collagen synthesis in wild-type, but not integrin α2-null, mesangial cells in vitro, demonstrating that its effects are integrin α2β1-dependent. Taken together, these results indicate that integrin α2β1 contributes to glomerular injury by positively regulating collagen synthesis and suggest that its inhibition may be a promising strategy to reduce glomerular injury and proteinuria.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 03/2012; 23(6):1027-38. · 9.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative damage to proteins is one of the major pathogenic mechanisms in many chronic diseases. Therefore, inhibition of this oxidative damage can be an important part of therapeutic strategies. Pyridoxamine (PM), a prospective drug for treatment of diabetic nephropathy, has been previously shown to inhibit several oxidative and glycoxidative pathways, thus protecting amino acid side chains of the proteins from oxidative damage. Here, we demonstrated that PM can also protect protein backbone from fragmentation induced via different oxidative mechanisms including autoxidation of glucose. This protection was due to hydroxyl radical scavenging by PM and may contribute to PM therapeutic effects shown in clinical trials.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2011; 411(3):574-9. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonenzymatic modification of proteins in hyperglycemia is a major mechanism causing diabetic complications. These modifications can have pathogenic consequences when they target active site residues, thus affecting protein function. In the present study, we examined the role of glucose autoxidation in functional protein damage using lysozyme and RGD-α3NC1 domain of collagen IV as model proteins in vitro. We demonstrated that glucose autoxidation induced inhibition of lysozyme activity as well as NC1 domain binding to α(V)β(3) integrin receptor via modification of critical arginine residues by reactive carbonyl species (RCS) glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal while nonoxidative glucose adduction to the protein did not affect protein function. The role of RCS in protein damage was confirmed using pyridoxamine which blocked glucose autoxidation and RCS production, thus protecting protein function, even in the presence of high concentrations of glucose. Glucose autoxidation may cause protein damage in vivo since increased levels of GO-derived modifications of arginine residues were detected within the assembly interface of collagen IV NC1 domains isolated from renal ECM of diabetic rats. Since arginine residues are frequently present within protein active sites, glucose autoxidation may be a common mechanism contributing to ECM protein functional damage in hyperglycemia and oxidative environment. Our data also point out the pitfalls in functional studies, particularly in cell culture experiments, that involve glucose treatment but do not take into account toxic effects of RCS derived from glucose autoxidation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) affects both glomerular cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM), yet the pathogenic mechanisms involving cell-matrix interactions are poorly understood. Glycation alters integrin-dependent cell-ECM interactions, and perturbation of these interactions results in severe renal pathology in diabetic animals. Here, we investigated how chemical modifications of the ECM by hyperglycemia and carbonyl stress, two major features of the diabetic milieu, affect mesangial cell functions. Incubation of collagen IV with pathophysiological levels of either the carbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO) or glucose resulted in modification of arginine or lysine residues, respectively. Mouse mesangial cells plated on MGO-modified collagen IV showed decreased adhesion and migration. Cells plated on glucose-modified collagen IV showed reduced proliferation and migration and increased collagen IV production. Inhibiting glucose-mediated oxidative modification of collagen IV lysine residues rescued the alterations in cell growth, migration, and collagen synthesis. We propose that diabetic ECM affects mesangial cell functions via two distinct mechanisms: modification of arginine residues by MGO inhibits cell adhesion, whereas oxidative modification of lysine residues by glucose inhibits cell proliferation and increases collagen IV production. These mechanisms may contribute to mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix expansion in DN.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2009; 20(10):2119-25. · 9.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are the major causes of biological tissue damage during exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The existing strategies to protect normal tissues from the detrimental effects of IR suffer from several shortcomings including highly toxic side effects, unfavorable administration routes, and low efficacy. These shortcomings emphasize a need for radioprotective treatments that combine effectiveness with safety and ease of use. In this paper, we demonstrate that pyridoxamine, a ROS and RCS scavenger with a very favorable safety profile, can inhibit IR-induced gastrointestinal epithelial apoptosis in cell culture and in an animal model. Pyridoxamine was more effective at protecting from radiation-induced apoptosis than amifostine, a synthetic thiol compound and the only FDA-approved radioprotector. We suggest that pyridoxamine has potential as an effective and safe radioprotective agent.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 07/2009; 47(6):779-85. · 5.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonenzymatic modification of proteins is one of the key pathogenic factors in diabetic complications. Uncovering the mechanisms of protein damage caused by glucose is fundamental to understanding this pathogenesis and in the development of new therapies. We investigated whether the mechanism involving reactive oxygen species can propagate protein damage in glycation reactions beyond the classical modifications of lysine and arginine residues. We have demonstrated that glucose can cause specific oxidative modification of tryptophan residues in lysozyme and inhibit lysozyme activity. Furthermore, modification of tryptophan residues was also induced by purified albumin-Amadori, a ribose-derived model glycation intermediate. The AGE inhibitor pyridoxamine (PM) prevented the tryptophan modification, whereas another AGE inhibitor and strong carbonyl scavenger, aminoguanidine, was ineffective. PM specifically inhibited generation of hydroxyl radical from albumin-Amadori and protected tryptophan from oxidation by hydroxyl radical species. We conclude that oxidative degradation of either glucose or the protein-Amadori intermediate causes oxidative modification of protein tryptophan residues via hydroxyl radical and can affect protein function under physiologically relevant conditions. This oxidative stress-induced structural and functional protein damage can be ameliorated by PM via sequestration of catalytic metal ions and scavenging of hydroxyl radical, a mechanism that may contribute to the reported therapeutic effects of PM in the complications of diabetes.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 05/2008; 44(7):1276-85. · 5.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pyridoxamine (PM) is a promising drug candidate for treatment of diabetic nephropathy. The therapeutic effect of PM has been demonstrated in multiple animal models of diabetes and in phase II clinical trials. However, the mechanism of PM therapeutic action is poorly understood. One potential mechanism is scavenging of pathogenic reactive carbonyl species (RCS) found to be elevated in diabetes. We have suggested previously that the pathogenicity of RCS methylglyoxal (MGO) may be due to modification of critical arginine residues in matrix proteins and interference with renal cell-matrix interactions. We have also shown that this MGO effect can be inhibited by PM (Pedchenko et al. (2005) Diabetes 54, 2952-2960). These findings raised the questions of whether the effect is specific to MGO, whether other structurally different physiological RCS can act via the same mechanism, and whether their action is amenable to PM protection. In the present study, we have shown that the important physiological RCS 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) can damage protein functionality, including the ability of collagen IV to interact with glomerular mesangial cells. We have also demonstrated that PM can protect against 3-DG-induced protein damage via a novel mechanism that includes transient adduction of 3-DG by PM followed by irreversible PM-mediated oxidative cleavage of 3-DG. Our results suggest that, in diabetic nephropathy, the therapeutic effect of PM is achieved, in part, via protection of renal cell-matrix interactions from damage by a variety of RCS. Our data emphasize the potential importance of the contribution by 3-DG, along with other more reactive RCS, to this pathogenic mechanism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to prevent kidney stones and nephrolithiasis in hyperoxaluria, a new treatment that specifically reduces oxalate production and therefore urinary oxalate excretion would be extremely valuable. Pyridoxamine(PM) could react with the carbonyl intermediates of oxalate biosynthesis, glycolaldehyde and glyoxylate, and prevent their metabolism to oxalate. In PM treated rats, endogenous urinary oxalate levels were consistently lower and became statistically different from controls after 12 days of experiment. In ethylene glycol-induced hyperoxaluria, PM treatment resulted in significantly lower (by ~50%) levels of urinary glycolate and oxalate excretion compared to untreated hyperoxaluric animals, as well as in a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal formation in papillary and medullary areas of the kidney. These results, coupled with favorable toxicity profiles of PM in humans, show promise for the therapeutic use of PM in primary hyperoxaluria and other kidney stone diseases.
Urological Research 12/2005; 33(5):368-71. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perturbation of interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) of renal glomeruli may contribute to characteristic histopathological lesions found in the kidneys of patients with diabetic nephropathy. However, the mechanism by which the diabetic conditions may affect cell-ECM interactions is unknown. Existing hypotheses suggest a role of glucose in direct modification of ECM. Here, we have demonstrated that carbonyl compound methylglyoxal (MGO) completely inhibited endothelial cell adhesion to recombinant alpha3 noncollagenous 1 domain of type IV collagen mediated via a short collagenous region containing RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence as well as binding of purified alpha(v)beta(3) integrin to this protein. Specific MGO adducts of the arginine residue were detected within RGD sequence using mass spectrometry. Modification by carbonyl compounds glyoxal or glycolaldehyde had similar but smaller effects. MGO strongly inhibited adhesion of renal glomerular cells, podocytes, and mesangial cells to native collagen IV and laminin-1 as well as binding of collagen IV to its major receptor in glomerular cells, alpha(1)beta(1) integrin. In contrast, modification of these proteins by glucose had no effect on cell adhesion. Pyridoxamine, a promising drug for treatment of diabetic nephropathy, protected cell adhesion and integrin binding from inhibition by MGO. We suggest that in diabetes, perturbation of integrin-mediated cell-matrix interactions occurs via the modification of critical arginine residues in renal ECM by reactive carbonyl compounds. This mechanism may contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare genetic disorder of glyoxylate metabolism that results in overproduction of oxalate. The disease is characterized by severe calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis, resulting in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) early in life. Most patients eventually require dialysis and kidney transplantation, usually in combination with the replacement of the liver. Reduction of urinary oxalate levels can efficiently decrease calcium oxalate depositions; yet, no treatment is available that targets oxalate biosynthesis. In previous in vitro studies, we demonstrated that pyridoxamine can trap reactive carbonyl compounds, including intermediates of oxalate biosynthesis.
The effect of PM on urinary oxalate excretion and kidney crystal formation was determined using the ethylene glycol rat model of hyperoxaluria. Animals were given 0.75% to 0.8% ethylene glycol in drinking water to establish and maintain hyperoxaluria. After 2 weeks, pyridoxamine treatment (180 mg/day/kg body weight) started and continued for an additional 2 weeks. Urinary creatinine, glycolate, oxalate, and calcium were measured along with the microscopic analysis of kidney tissues for the presence of calcium oxalate crystals.
Pyridoxamine treatment resulted in significantly lower (by approximately 50%) levels of urinary glycolate and oxalate excretion compared to untreated hyperoxaluric animals. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal formation in papillary and medullary areas of the kidney.
These results, coupled with favorable toxicity profiles of pyridoxamine in humans, show promise for therapeutic use of pyridoxamine in primary hyperoxaluria and other kidney stone diseases.
Kidney International 02/2005; 67(1):53-60. · 8.52 Impact Factor