Ofer Pasternak

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (59)191.18 Total impact

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    Ofer Pasternak, Marek Kubicki, Martha E Shenton
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years evidence has accumulated to suggest that neuroinflammation might be an early pathology of schizophrenia that later leads to neurodegeneration, yet the exact role in the etiology, as well as the source of neuroinflammation, are still not known. The hypothesis of neuroinflammation involvement in schizophrenia is quickly gaining popularity, and thus it is imperative that we have reliable and reproducible tools and measures that are both sensitive, and, most importantly, specific to neuroinflammation. The development and use of appropriate human in vivo imaging methods can help in our understanding of the location and extent of neuroinflammation in different stages of the disorder, its natural time-course, and its relation to neurodegeneration. Thus far, there is little in vivo evidence derived from neuroimaging methods. This is likely the case because the methods that are specific and sensitive to neuroinflammation are relatively new or only just being developed. This paper provides a methodological review of both existing and emerging positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging techniques that identify and characterize neuroinflammation. We describe \how these methods have been used in schizophrenia research. We also outline the shortcomings of existing methods, and we highlight promising future techniques that will likely improve state-of-the-art neuroimaging as a more refined approach for investigating neuroinflammation in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Schizophrenia Research 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2015.05.034 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a clear need to develop non-invasive markers of substantia nigra progression in Parkinson's disease. We previously found elevated free-water levels in the substantia nigra for patients with Parkinson's disease compared with controls in single-site and multi-site cohorts. Here, we test the hypotheses that free-water levels in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease increase following 1 year of progression, and that baseline free-water levels in the substantia nigra predict the change in bradykinesia following 1 year. We conducted a longitudinal study in controls (n = 19) and patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 25). Diffusion imaging and clinical data were collected at baseline and after 1 year. Free-water analyses were performed on diffusion imaging data using blinded, hand-drawn regions of interest in the posterior substantia nigra. A group effect indicated free-water values were increased in the posterior substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease compared with controls (P = 0.003) and we observed a significant group × time interaction (P < 0.05). Free-water values increased for the Parkinson's disease group after 1 year (P = 0.006), whereas control free-water values did not change. Baseline free-water values predicted the 1 year change in bradykinesia scores (r = 0.74, P < 0.001) and 1 year change in Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores (r = -0.44, P = 0.03). Free-water in the posterior substantia nigra is elevated in Parkinson's disease, increases with progression of Parkinson's disease, and predicts subsequent changes in bradykinesia and cognitive status over 1 year. These findings demonstrate that free-water provides a potential non-invasive progression marker of the substantia nigra. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Brain 05/2015; DOI:10.1093/brain/awv136 · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease confirmed at postmortem. Those at highest risk are professional athletes who participate in contact sports and military personnel who are exposed to repetitive blast events. All neuropathologically confirmed CTE cases, to date, have had a history of repetitive head impacts. This suggests that repetitive head impacts may be necessary for the initiation of the pathogenetic cascade that, in some cases, leads to CTE. Importantly, while all CTE appears to result from repetitive brain trauma, not all repetitive brain trauma results in CTE. Magnetic resonance imaging has great potential for understanding better the underlying mechanisms of repetitive brain trauma. In this review, we provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently used to investigate brain anomalies. We also provide an overview of neuroimaging findings in those exposed to repetitive head impacts in the acute/subacute and chronic phase of injury and in more neurodegenerative phases of injury, as well as in military personnel exposed to repetitive head impacts. Finally, we discuss future directions for research that will likely lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms separating those who recover from repetitive brain trauma vs. those who go on to develop CTE. © 2015 International Society of Neuropathology.
    Brain Pathology 05/2015; 25(3):318-49. DOI:10.1111/bpa.12249 · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diffusion imaging tractography is increasingly used to trace critical fiber tracts in brain tumor patients to reduce the risk of post-operative neurological deficit. However, the effects of peritumoral edema pose a challenge to conventional tractography using the standard diffusion tensor model. The aim of this study was to present a novel technique using a two-tensor unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm to track the arcuate fasciculus (AF) in brain tumor patients with peritumoral edema. Ten right-handed patients with left-sided brain tumors in the vicinity of language-related cortex and evidence of significant peritumoral edema were retrospectively selected for the study. All patients underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including a diffusion-weighted dataset with 31 directions. Fiber tractography was performed using both single-tensor streamline and two-tensor UKF tractography. A two-regions-of-interest approach was applied to perform the delineation of the AF. Results from the two different tractography algorithms were compared visually and quantitatively. Using single-tensor streamline tractography, the AF appeared disrupted in four patients and contained few fibers in the remaining six patients. Two-tensor UKF tractography delineated an AF that traversed edematous brain areas in all patients. The volume of the AF was significantly larger on two-tensor UKF than on single-tensor streamline tractography (p < 0.01). Two-tensor UKF tractography provides the ability to trace a larger volume AF than single-tensor streamline tractography in the setting of peritumoral edema in brain tumor patients.
    03/2015; 34. DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2015.03.009
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    ABSTRACT: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography enables the graphical reconstruction of the white matter pathways in vivo. The use of this technique to display the key fiber tracts in brain tumor patients for reducing the risk of post-operative neurologic deficit has increased in recent years. However, the effects of peritumoral edema pose a major challenge to the conventional single-tensor streamline fiber tracking method. OBJECTIVE: To present a novel technique using the two-tensor unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm for the tracking of arcuate fasciculus (AF) in brain tumor patients by resolving the effects of peritumoral edema. METHODS: Ten patients with malignant brain tumors in the vicinity of language-related areas underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging including a diffusion-weighted data set with 31 gradient directions. DTI data was preprocessed using an automatic quality control pipeline method. Fiber tracking was performed using both single-tensor streamline and two-tensor UKF tractography. A two-regions-of-interest approach was applied to perform delineation of the AF. Results from two different algorithms were compared side-by-side. RESULTS: Single-tensor streamline and two-tensor UKF tractography showed fundamental differences in mapping the fiber tracts in the edema area surrounding the malignant brain tumor. Using single-tensor streamline tractography, 4 of 10 patients showed disrupted and incomplete AF and the remaining six patients demonstrated only a slender fiber bundle. In contrast, the two-tensor UKF tractography could fully delineate the AF within such edematous brain areas in all ten patients. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that two-tensor UKF tractography provides the ability to trace the AF more accurately than single-tensor streamline tractography particularly in the setting of peritumoral edema in brain tumor patients. UKF tractography may be helpful in the quest to preserve the language function in brain surgery.
    19th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society for Neuro-Oncology, Miami, Florida USA; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Measures from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging reflect changes in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease. It is the case, however, that partial volume effects from free water can bias diffusion measurements. The bi-tensor diffusion model was introduced to quantify the contribution of free water and eliminates its bias on estimations of tissue microstructure. Here, we test the hypothesis that free water is elevated in the substantia nigra for Parkinson's disease compared with control subjects. This hypothesis was tested between large cohorts of Parkinson's disease and control participants in a single-site study and validated against a multisite study using multiple scanners. The fractional volume of free water was increased in the posterior region of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease compared with control subjects in both the single-site and multi-site studies. We did not observe changes in either cohort for free-water-corrected fractional anisotropy or free-water-corrected mean diffusivity. Our findings provide new evidence that the free-water index reflects alteration of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease, and this was evidenced across both single-site and multi-site cohorts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neurobiology of Aging 10/2014; 36(2). DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.10.029 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been extensively used to study the microarchitecture of white matter in schizophrenia. However, popular DWI-derived measures such as fractional anisotropy (FA) may be sensitive to many types of pathologies, and thus the interpretation of reported differences in these measures remains difficult. Combining DWI with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) – a putative measure of white matter myelination – can help us reveal the underlying mechanisms. Previous findings hypothesized that MTR differences in schizophrenia are associated with free water concentrations, which also affect the DWIs. In this study we use a recently proposed DWI-derived method called free-water imaging to assess this hypothesis. We have reanalyzed data from a previous study by using a fiber-based analysis of free-water imaging, providing a free-water fraction, as well as mean diffusivity and FA corrected for free-water, in addition to MTR along twelve major white matter fiber bundles in 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 healthy controls. We tested for group differences in each fiber bundle and for each measure separately and computed correlations between the MTR and the DWI-derived measures separately for both groups. Significant higher average MTR values in patients were found for the right uncinate fasciculus, the right arcuate fasciculus and the right inferior-frontal occipital fasciculus. No significant results were found for the other measures. No significant differences in correlations were found between MTR and the DWI-derived measures. The results suggest that MTR and free-water imaging measures can be considered complementary, promoting the acquisition of MTR in addition to DWI to identify group differences, as well as to better understand the underlying mechanisms in schizophrenia.
    Schizophrenia Research 10/2014; 161(1). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.09.046 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current research on concussion is primarily focused on injury identification and treatment. Prevention initiatives are, however, important for reducing the incidence of brain injury. This report examines the development and implementation of an interactive electronic teaching program (an e-module) that is designed specifically for concussion education within an adolescent population. This learning tool and the accompanying consolidation rubric demonstrate that significant engagement occurs in addition to the knowledge gained among participants when it is used in a school curriculum setting.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 10/2014; DOI:10.3171/2014.8.JNS132804 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Lauren J O'Donnell, Ofer Pasternak
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    ABSTRACT: One key pitfall in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) clinical neuroimaging research is the challenge of understanding and interpreting the results of a complex analysis pipeline. The sophisticated algorithms employed by the analysis software, combined with the relatively non-specific nature of many diffusion measurements, lead to challenges in interpretation of the results. This paper is aimed at an intended audience of clinical researchers who are learning about dMRI or trying to interpret dMRI results, and who may be wondering "Does dMRI tell us anything about the white matter?" We present a critical review of dMRI methods and measures used in clinical neuroimaging research, focusing on the most commonly used analysis methods and the most commonly reported measures. We describe important pitfalls in every section, and provide extensive references for the reader interested in more detail.
    Schizophrenia Research 09/2014; 161(1). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.09.007 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both peritumoral edema and crossing fibers pose a major challenge to the corticospinal tract (CST) modeling in malignant brain tumor patients when using the conventional single-tensor streamline fiber tracking method. The aim of this study is to present a novel technique using a two-tensor unscented Kalman filter (UKF) that resolves the effects of peritumoral edema and crossing fibers in tracing the CST. Methods: Four patients with malignant brain tumors in the vicinity of motor cortex underwent pre-surgical 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging including a diffusion-weighted sequence with 31 gradient direction. Fiber tracking was performed to delineate the CST using both single tensor streamline and two-tensor UKF tractography techniques[1,2], based on a two-regions-of interest approach. The two-tensor UKF tractography was designed using a mixture of two Gaussian tensors. The model parameters were estimated using UKF and subsequently propagated in the most consistent direction. Results from the two techniques were compared side-by-side. Results: The two-tensor UKF tractography could fully delineate the CST, whereas the CST displayed by single-tensor streamline tractography were incomplete or disrupted. Conclusions: These findings suggest that two-tensor UKF tractography is able to trace the CST more accurately than single-tensor streamline tractography in the settings of peritumoral edema and crossing fibers. Two-tensor UKF tractography may be helpful in the quest to preserve motor function in brain surgery.
    7th National Image-Guided Therapy Workshop, Boston MA, USA.; 09/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies have observed altered neurofunctional and structural organization in the aging brain. These observations from functional neuroimaging studies show a shift in brain activity from the posterior to the anterior regions with aging (PASA model), as well as a decrease in cortical thickness, which is more pronounced in the frontal lobe followed by the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes (retrogenesis model). However, very little work has been done using diffusion MRI (dMRI) with respect to examining the structural tissue alterations underlying these neurofunctional changes in the gray matter. Thus, for the first time, we propose to examine gray matter changes using diffusion MRI in the context of aging. In this work, we propose a novel dMRI based measure of gray matter “heterogeneity” that elucidates these functional and structural models (PASA and retrogenesis) of aging from the viewpoint of diffusion MRI. In a cohort of 85 subjects (all males, ages 15–55 years), we show very high correlation between age and “heterogeneity” (a measure of structural layout of tissue in a region-of-interest) in specific brain regions. We examine gray matter alterations by grouping brain regions into anatomical lobes as well as functional zones. Our findings from dMRI data connects the functional and structural domains and confirms the “retrogenesis” hypothesis of gray matter alterations while lending support to the neurofunctional PASA model of aging in addition to showing the preservation of paralimbic areas during healthy aging. Hum Brain Mapp, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 08/2014; 35(8). DOI:10.1002/hbm.22441 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Brain atrophy in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) introduces partial volume effects, limiting the sensitivity of diffusion tensor imaging to white matter microstructural degeneration. Appropriate correction isolates microstructural effects in MCI that might be precursors of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods Forty-eight participants (18 MCI, 15 AD, and 15 healthy controls) had magnetic resonance imaging scans and clinical evaluations at baseline and follow-up after 36 months. Ten MCI subjects were diagnosed with AD at follow-up and eight remained MCI. Free-water (FW) corrected measures on the white matter skeleton were compared between groups. Results FW corrected radial diffusivity, but not uncorrected radial diffusivity, was increased across the brain of the converted group compared with the nonconverted group (P < .05). The extent of increases was similar to that found comparing AD with controls. Conclusion Partial volume elimination reveals microstructural alterations preceding dementia. These alterations may prove to be an effective and feasible early biomarker of AD.
    Alzheimer's and Dementia 07/2014; 11(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2014.04.518 · 17.47 Impact Factor
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    Ofer Pasternak, Martha Shenton, Paul Echlin
    Journal of Neurosurgery 06/2014; 121(2):1-3. DOI:10.3171/2014.5.JNS132090a · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a cohort of community-recruited elderly subjects with normal cognition at initial evaluation, we found that baseline fornix white matter (WM) microstructure was significantly correlated with early volumetric longitudinal tissue change across a region of interest (called fornix significant ROI, fSROI), which overlaps circuits known to be selectively vulnerable to Alzheimer's dementia pathology. Other WM and gray matter regions had much weaker or non-existent associations with longitudinal tissue change. Tissue loss in fSROI was in turn a significant factor in a survival model of cognitive decline, as was baseline fornix microstructure. These findings suggest that WM deterioration in the fornix and tissue loss in fSROI may be the early beginnings of posterior limbic circuit and default mode network degeneration. We also found that gray matter baseline volumes in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus predicted cognitive decline in survival models. But since GM regions did not also significantly predict brain-tissue loss, our results may imply a view in which early, prodromal deterioration appears as two quasi independent processes in white and gray matter regions of the limbic circuit crucial to memory.
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 05/2014; 6:106. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2014.00106 · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • ISMRM, Milan, Italy; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report.
    Alzheimer's Research and Therapy 02/2014; 6(1):10. DOI:10.1186/alzrt239 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Object Concussion is a common injury in ice hockey and a health problem for the general population. Traumatic axonal injury has been associated with concussions (also referred to as mild traumatic brain injuries), yet the pathological course that leads from injury to recovery or to long-term sequelae is still not known. This study investigated the longitudinal course of concussion by comparing diffusion MRI (dMRI) scans of the brains of ice hockey players before and after a concussion. Methods The 2011-2012 Hockey Concussion Education Project followed 45 university-level ice hockey players (both male and female) during a single Canadian Interuniversity Sports season. Of these, 38 players had usable dMRI scans obtained in the preseason. During the season, 11 players suffered a concussion, and 7 of these 11 players had usable dMRI scans that were taken within 72 hours of injury. To analyze the data, the authors performed free-water imaging, which reflects an increase in specificity over other dMRI analysis methods by identifying alterations that occur in the extracellular space compared with those that occur in proximity to cellular tissue in the white matter. They used an individualized approach to identify alterations that are spatially heterogeneous, as is expected in concussions. Results Paired comparison of the concussed players before and after injury revealed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) common pattern of reduced free-water volume and reduced axial and radial diffusivities following elimination of free-water. These free-water-corrected measures are less affected by partial volumes containing extracellular water and are therefore more specific to processes that occur within the brain tissue. Fractional anisotropy was significantly increased, but this change was no longer significant following the free-water elimination. Conclusions Concussion during ice hockey games results in microstructural alterations that are detectable using dMRI. The alterations that the authors found suggest decreased extracellular space and decreased diffusivities in white matter tissue. This finding might be explained by swelling and/or by increased cellularity of glia cells. Even though these findings in and of themselves cannot determine whether the observed microstructural alterations are related to long-term pathology or persistent symptoms, they are important nonetheless because they establish a clearer picture of how the brain responds to concussion.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 02/2014; DOI:10.3171/2013.12.JNS132090 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Object Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is a commonly occurring sports-related injury, especially in contact sports such as hockey. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), which appear as small, hypointense lesions on T2*-weighted images, can result from TBI. The authors use susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) to automatically detect small hypointensities that may be subtle signs of chronic and acute damage due to both subconcussive and concussive injury. The goal was to investigate how the burden of these hypointensities changes over time, over a playing season, and postconcussion, in comparison with subjects who did not suffer a medically observed and diagnosed concussion. Methods Images were obtained in 45 university-level adult male and female ice hockey players before and after a single Canadian Interuniversity Sports season. In addition, 11 subjects (5 men and 6 women) underwent imaging at 72 hours, 2 weeks, and 2 months after concussion. To identify subtle changes in brain tissue and potential CMBs, nonvessel clusters of hypointensities on SWI were automatically identified, and a hypointensity burden index was calculated for all subjects at the beginning of the season (BOS), the end of the season (EOS), and at postconcussion time points (where applicable). Results A statistically significant increase in the hypointensity burden, relative to the BOS, was observed for male subjects with concussions at the 2-week postconcussion time point. A smaller, nonsignificant rise in the burden for female subjects with concussions was also observed within the same time period. There were no significant changes in burden for nonconcussed subjects of either sex between the BOS and EOS time points. However, there was a statistically significant difference in the burden between male and female subjects in the nonconcussed group at both the BOS and EOS time points, with males having a higher burden. Conclusions This method extends the utility of SWI from the enhancement and detection of larger (> 5 mm) CMBs, which are often observed in more severe cases of TBI, to cases involving smaller lesions in which visual detection of injury is difficult. The hypointensity burden metric proposed here shows statistically significant changes over time in the male subjects. A smaller, nonsignificant increase in the burden metric was observed in the female subjects.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 02/2014; 120(4). DOI:10.3171/2013.12.JNS132093 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Object The aim of this study was to examine the brain's white matter microstructure by using MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in ice hockey players with a history of clinically symptomatic concussion compared with players without a history of concussion. Methods Sixteen players with a history of concussion (concussed group; mean age 21.7 ± 1.5 years; 6 female) and 18 players without a history of concussion (nonconcussed group; mean age 21.3 ± 1.8 years, 10 female) underwent 3-T DTI at the end of the 2011-2012 Canadian Interuniversity Sports ice hockey season. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to test for group differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), and the measure "trace," or mean diffusivity. Cognitive evaluation was performed using the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) and the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-2 (SCAT2). Results TBSS revealed a significant increase in FA and AD, and a significant decrease in RD and trace in several brain regions in the concussed group, compared with the nonconcussed group (p < 0.05). The regions with increased FA and decreased RD and trace included the right posterior limb of the internal capsule, the right corona radiata, and the right temporal lobe. Increased AD was observed in a small area in the left corona radiata. The DTI measures correlated with neither the ImPACT nor the SCAT2 scores. Conclusions The results of the current study indicate that a history of concussion may result in alterations of the brain's white matter microstructure in ice hockey players. Increased FA based on decreased RD may reflect neuroinflammatory or neuroplastic processes of the brain responding to brain trauma. Future studies are needed that include a longitudinal analysis of the brain's structure and function following a concussion to elucidate further the complex time course of DTI changes and their clinical meaning.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 01/2014; DOI:10.3171/2013.12.JNS132092 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a previous study we have demonstrated, using a novel diffusion MRI analysis called free-water imaging, that the early stages of schizophrenia are more likely associated with a neuroinflammatory response and less so with a white matter deterioration or a demyelination process. What is not known is how neuroinflammation and white matter deterioration change along the progression of the disorder. In this study we apply the free-water measures on a population of 29 chronic schizophrenia subjects and compare them with 25 matching controls. Our aim was to compare the extent of free-water imaging abnormalities in chronic subjects with the ones previously obtained for subjects at their first psychotic episode. We find that chronic subjects showed a limited extent of abnormal increase in the volume of the extracellular space, suggesting a less extensive neuroinflammatory response relative to patients at the onset of schizophrenia. At the same time, the chronic schizophrenia subjects had greater extent of reduced fractional anisotropy compared to the previous study, suggesting increased white matter deterioration along the progression of the disease. Our findings substantiate the role of neuroinflammation in the earlier stages of the disorder, and the effect of neurodegeneration that is worsening in the chronic phase.
    Schizophrenia Research 01/2014; 161(1). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.07.031 · 4.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
191.18 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2015
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Radiology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011–2014
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005–2010
    • Tel Aviv University
      • Department of Computer Science
      Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel