[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using the “between-grade levels” regression discontinuity design, this study examined the hypothesized differential sensitivity of logico-mathematical (LM) and infralogical (IL) operational tasks to the effects of chronological age and first grade schooling in a sample of 580 1st and 2nd grade Israeli children. The results indicate that the development of logico-mathematical operational skills (classification, class inclusion and transitivity) is mainly attributable to schooling. In contrast, the effect of schooling on the development of conservation of mass, liquid quantity and number (clearly an infralogical task) is negligible; acquisition of conservation is almost exclusively due to maturation and out-of-school experiences. The results support the theoretical predictions derived from French-Swiss research of the last two decades and are inconsistent with claims regarding the specificity of schooling effects to tasks that are taught in school.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study estimated the independent effects of age and schooling in grades 7–9 on scores obtained on invalid conditional and class syllogisms. The results, which point to a negative, albeit small, effect of out-of-school experience and to a sizeable positive effect of schooling, replicate previous findings in a different age range and support the counterintuitive hypothesis that accumulated daily experience with conditionals has a negative effect on the development of conditional reasoning, and that improved performance on invalid problems with age is entirely attributable to schooling. Contrary to most cognitive tasks, therefore, in which schooling operates in the same direction as out-of-school experience, in this case, schooling breaks daily-life interpretational habits, and therefore, is critical for development.
Cognitive Development 01/2006; 21:131-145. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to “Comprehension theory” improved performance on invalid conditional syllogisms is a function of the ability to dissociate from a biconditional interpretation. Given that biconditional interpretation is typically used in inferring from everyday conditionals (i.e., circumstantial conditionals), the accumulation of everyday experience should reinforce its usage rather than weaken it and, hence, be dysfunctional in solving invalid conditional syllogisms. This study examines the hypothesis that certain kinds of experiences that are unique to schooling account for improved performance on invalid problems with age. The study estimated the independent effects of age and schooling in Grades 5 and 6 on scores obtained on invalid conditional and class syllogisms. The results point to a negative, albeit very small effect of out-of-school experience and to a considerable positive effect of schooling. Hence, contrary to other cognitive tasks in which schooling operates in the same direction as out-of-school experience, in this case, it apparently breaks daily-life interpretational habits and therefore is crucial for the developmental process.
Cognitive Development 01/1997; 12(2):261-275. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because it is impossible to experiment with school attendance, the effect of formal education as opposed to chronological age on the development of transitive inference has never been investigated empirically. A recent quasi-experimental paradigm, which allows for disentangling the net effects of age and schooling, can help overcome this difficulty. The paradigm is applied to the estimation of the independent effects of age and schooling in Grades 5 and 6 on raw scores obtained in a 3-term series test. Results point to schooling as a major factor underlying the increase of scores as a function of age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)