[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have revealed the association between SNPs located on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes, including HLA-DP and HLA-DQ, and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, mainly in Asian populations. HLA-DP alleles or haplotypes associated with chronic HBV infection or disease progression have not been fully identified in Asian populations. We performed trans-ethnic association analyses of HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1 alleles and haplotypes with hepatitis B virus infection and disease progression among Asian populations comprising Japanese, Korean, Hong Kong, and Thai subjects. To assess the association between HLA-DP and chronic HBV infection and disease progression, we conducted high-resolution (4-digit) HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 genotyping in a total of 3,167 samples, including HBV patients, HBV-resolved individuals and healthy controls. Trans-ethnic association analyses among Asian populations identified a new risk allele HLA-DPB1*09∶01 (P = 1.36×10(-6); OR = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.50-2.59) and a new protective allele DPB1*02∶01 (P = 5.22×10(-6); OR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.58-0.81) to chronic HBV infection, in addition to the previously reported alleles. Moreover, DPB1*02∶01 was also associated with a decreased risk of disease progression in chronic HBV patients among Asian populations (P = 1.55×10(-7); OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.39-0.65). Trans-ethnic association analyses identified Asian-specific associations of HLA-DP alleles and haplotypes with HBV infection or disease progression. The present findings will serve as a base for future functional studies of HLA-DP molecules in order to understand the pathogenesis of HBV infection and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e86449. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Through a genome-wide association study of a Japanese population, we recently identified TNFSF15, a gene encoding TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A), as a susceptibility gene for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). We investigated the clinical significance of TL1A and one of its receptors, decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), in PBC.
We analysed the systemic and local expression of TL1A and DcR3 in 110 PBC patients and 46 healthy controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining.
Serum TL1A levels were significantly increased in PBC patients at both early and late stages as compared with healthy controls, and its levels were significantly decreased in early-stage PBC patients after ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment. TL1A was immunohistochemically localized to biliary epithelial cells, Kupffer cells, blood vessels and infiltrating mononuclear cells in the PBC liver. In addition, TL1A messenger RNA expression was increased in the PBC liver as compared with the non-diseased liver. Serum DcR3 levels were also significantly increased in PBC patients, and were significantly decreased after UDCA treatment in early-stage PBC patients.
These results indicate that TL1A and DcR3 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PBC.
Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 08/2013; · 3.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine (METH) use can provoke psychotic reactions requiring immediate treatment, namely METH-induced psychosis. Although the distinction between METH-induced and primary psychosis is important for understanding their clinical courses, we do not have clear diagnostic procedure by their symptoms. Not only are there similarities between the clinical features of METH-induced psychosis and schizophrenia, but there is also epidemiological evidence of a shared genetic risk between 'METH-related' disorders and schizophrenia, which makes the differentiation of these two conditions difficult. In this study, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) targeting METH-dependent patients. The METH sample group, used in the METH-dependence GWAS, included 236 METH-dependent patients and 864 healthy controls. We also included a 'within-case' comparison between 194 METH-induced psychosis patients and 42 METH-dependent patients without psychosis in a METH-induced psychosis GWAS. To investigate the shared genetic components between METH dependence, METH-induced psychosis and schizophrenia, data from our previous schizophrenia GWAS (total N=1108) was re-analyzed. In the SNP-based analysis, none of the SNPs showed genome-wide significance in either dataset. By performing a polygenic component analysis, however, we found that a large number of 'risk' alleles for METH-induced psychosis are overrepresented in individuals with schizophrenia (Pbest=0.0090). Conversely, we did not detect enrichment either between METH dependence and METH-induced psychosis or between METH dependence and schizophrenia. The results support previous epidemiological and neurobiological evidence for a relationship between METH-induced psychosis and schizophrenia. These also suggest that the overlap between genes scored as positive in these datasets can have higher probability as susceptibility genes for psychosis.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 17 April 2013; doi:10.1038/npp.2013.94.
Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 04/2013; · 6.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies have reported that prefrontal hemodynamic dysfunction during executive function tasks may be a promising biomarker of psychiatric disorders, because its portability and noninvasiveness allow easy measurements in clinical settings. Here, we investigated the degree to which prefrontal NIRS signals are genetically determined. Using a 52-channel NIRS system, we monitored the oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) signal changes in 38 adult pairs of right-handed monozygotic (MZ) twins and 13 pairs of same-sex right-handed dizygotic (DZ) twins during a letter version of the verbal fluency task. Heritability was estimated based on a classical twin paradigm using structured equation modeling. Significant genetic influences were estimated in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left frontal pole. The degrees of heritability were 66% and 75% in the variances, respectively. This implies that the prefrontal hemodynamic dysfunction observed during an executive function task measured by NIRS may be an efficient endophenotype for large-scale imaging/genetics studies in psychiatric disorders.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impulsivity in intertemporal choice has been operationalized as "delay discounting", referring to the preference for a sooner, smaller reward. FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) is a co-chaperone of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). FKBP5 overexpression causes GR resistance, resulting in increased plasma cortisol levels. High cortisol levels are associated with low impulsivity in intertemporal choice. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5 on delay discounting.
The participants consisted of 91 healthy Japanese people (66 males and 25 females with a mean age of 40.9 ± 6.9 years). Each participant completed Kirby's monetary choice questionnaire (MCQ) and donated a whole blood sample. Five SNPs in FKBP5 were genotyped using the DigiTag2. SNP linear regression analyses with 100,000 permutations were conducted for the hyperbolic time-discount rate (k).
Two SNPs were excluded from analysis because of their low minor allelic frequencies. The SNP rs1360780 showed a significant association; participants with more minor alleles (T) were less impulsive in intertemporal choice for delayed gain (multiplicity-corrected P = 0.047).
The significant SNP rs1360780 is located in the region adjacent to the hormone response element (HRE)-binding sequence where transcription factors bind and alter the transcription of FKBP5. A minor allele (T) of rs1360780, which causes FKBP5 overexpression, may reduce impulsivity in intertemporal choice (i.e. delay discounting) via GR resistance and the subsequent high cortisol levels. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between FKBP5 and impulsivity in intertemporal choice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To discover susceptibility genes of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), we conducted a 3-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) using three populations: Japanese from the Japanese Genetic Consortium for Alzheimer Disease (JGSCAD), Koreans, and Caucasians from the Alzheimer Disease Genetic Consortium (ADGC). In Stage 1, we evaluated data for 5,877,918 genotyped and imputed SNPs in Japanese cases (n = 1,008) and controls (n = 1,016). Genome-wide significance was observed with 12 SNPs in the APOE region. Seven SNPs from other distinct regions with p-values <2×10(-5) were genotyped in a second Japanese sample (885 cases, 985 controls), and evidence of association was confirmed for one SORL1 SNP (rs3781834, P = 7.33×10(-7) in the combined sample). Subsequent analysis combining results for several SORL1 SNPs in the Japanese, Korean (339 cases, 1,129 controls) and Caucasians (11,840 AD cases, 10,931 controls) revealed genome wide significance with rs11218343 (P = 1.77×10(-9)) and rs3781834 (P = 1.04×10(-8)). SNPs in previously established AD loci in Caucasians showed strong evidence of association in Japanese including rs3851179 near PICALM (P = 1.71×10(-5)) and rs744373 near BIN1 (P = 1.39×10(-4)). The associated allele for each of these SNPs was the same as in Caucasians. These data demonstrate for the first time genome-wide significance of LOAD with SORL1 and confirm the role of other known loci for LOAD in Japanese. Our study highlights the importance of examining associations in multiple ethnic populations.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e58618. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Obesity is a growing health concern in the Oceanic populations. To investigate the genetic factors associated with adult obesity in the Oceanic populations, the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene with obesity was examined in 694 adults living in Tonga and Solomon Islands.RESULTS:A screening for variation in 16 Oceanic subjects detected 17 SNPs in the entire region of ADRB2, of which nine SNPs including two non-synonymous ones, rs1042713 (Arg16Gly) and rs1042714 (Gln27Glu), were further genotyped for all subjects. The rs34623097-A allele, at a SNP located upstream of ADRB2, showed the strongest association with risk for obesity in a logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and population (P=5.6 × 10(-4), odds ratio [OR]=2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.5-4.2). The 27Glu was also significantly associated with obesity in the single-point association analysis (P=0.013, OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.2-3.4); however, this association was no longer significant after adjustment for rs34623097 since these SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium with each other. A copy of the obesity-risk allele, rs34623097-A, led to a 1.6 kg/m(2) increase in body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) (P=0.0019). A luciferase reporter assay indicated that rs34623097-A reduced the transcriptional activity of the luciferase reporter gene by approximately 10% compared with rs34623097-G. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that rs34623097 modulated the binding affinity with nuclear factors. An evolutionary analysis implies that a G>A mutation at rs34623097 occurred in the Neandertal genome and then the rs34623097-A allele flowed into the ancestors of present-day humans.CONCLUSION:The present results suggest that rs34623097-A, which would lead to lower expression of ADRB2, contributes to the onset of obesity in the Oceanic populations.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 11 December 2012; doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.206.
International journal of obesity (2005) 12/2012; · 5.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding the phylogenetic relationship between Hokkaido Ainu and Ryukyu islanders has been of great interest in human genetics, archaeology, and anthropology. We examined short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms on autosomes and Y-chromosomes for Ainu, and compared this with data from Ryukyu islanders. A statistical test for nine autosomal (A-STR) loci gave no indication that the Ainu had experienced any bottleneck effect(s). The genetic distances (Rst) based on the A-STR data consistently showed substantial differentiation between the Ainu and all other populations. The haplotype analysis based on Y-chromosomal (Y-STR) data revealed 10 distinct haplotypes found in 19 Ainu males; 7 out of 10 were Ainu-specific haplotypes, whereas two haplotypes were shared with two males from main-island Okinawa and Miyako island, respectively, indicating a strong, close relationship between the Ainu and the Ryukyu islanders. The time to the most recent common ancestor of the Y-lineages obtained in the Ainu and the Ryukyu islanders was estimated to be 37745 years ago. Overall, the A-STR showed uniqueness of the Ainu, and the Y-STR haplotypes revealed strong evidence for a link between the two indigenous populations of the Hokkaido and the Ryukyu islands.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Japanese Archipelago stretches over 4000 km from north to south, and is the homeland of the three human populations; the Ainu, the Mainland Japanese and the Ryukyuan. The archeological evidence of human residence on this Archipelago goes back to >30 000 years, and various migration routes and root populations have been proposed. Here, we determined close to one million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the Ainu and the Ryukyuan, and compared these with existing data sets. This is the first report of these genome-wide SNP data. Major findings are: (1) Recent admixture with the Mainland Japanese was observed for more than one third of the Ainu individuals from principal component analysis and frappe analyses; (2) The Ainu population seems to have experienced admixture with another population, and a combination of two types of admixtures is the unique characteristics of this population; (3) The Ainu and the Ryukyuan are tightly clustered with 100% bootstrap probability followed by the Mainland Japanese in the phylogenetic trees of East Eurasian populations. These results clearly support the dual structure model on the Japanese Archipelago populations, though the origins of the Jomon and the Yayoi people still remain to be solved.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 8 November 2012; doi:10.1038/jhg.2012.114.
Journal of Human Genetics 11/2012; · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For the identification of susceptibility loci for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed in 963 Japanese individuals (487 PBC cases and 476 healthy controls) and in a subsequent replication study that included 1,402 other Japanese individuals (787 cases and 615 controls). In addition to the most significant susceptibility region, human leukocyte antigen (HLA), we identified two significant susceptibility loci, TNFSF15 (rs4979462) and POU2AF1 (rs4938534) (combined odds ratio [OR] = 1.56, p = 2.84 × 10(-14) for rs4979462, and combined OR = 1.39, p = 2.38 × 10(-8) for rs4938534). Among 21 non-HLA susceptibility loci for PBC identified in GWASs of individuals of European descent, three loci (IL7R, IKZF3, and CD80) showed significant associations (combined p = 3.66 × 10(-8), 3.66 × 10(-9), and 3.04 × 10(-9), respectively) and STAT4 and NFKB1 loci showed suggestive association with PBC (combined p = 1.11 × 10(-6) and 1.42 × 10(-7), respectively) in the Japanese population. These observations indicated the existence of ethnic differences in genetic susceptibility loci to PBC and the importance of TNF signaling and B cell differentiation for the development of PBC in individuals of European descent and Japanese individuals.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 10/2012; 91(4):721-728. · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) using chronic HBV (hepatitis B virus) carriers with and without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in five independent Chinese populations found that one SNP (rs17401966) in KIF1B was associated with susceptibility to HCC. In the present study, a total of 580 HBV-derived HCC cases and 1351 individuals with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) or asymptomatic carrier (ASC) were used for replication studies in order to evaluate the reported association with HBV-derived HCC in other East Asian populations.
We did not detect any associations between rs17401966 and HCC in the Japanese cohorts (replication 1: OR = 1.09, 95 % CI = 0.82-1.43; replication 2: OR = 0.79, 95 % CI = 0.54-1.15), in the Korean cohort (replication 3: OR = 0.95, 95 % CI = 0.66-1.36), or in the Hong Kong Chinese cohort (replication 4: OR = 1.17, 95 % CI = 0.79-1.75). Meta-analysis using these cohorts also did not show any associations with P = 0.97.
None of the replication cohorts showed associations between rs17401966 and HBV-derived HCC. This may be due to differences in the genetic diversity among the Japanese, Korean and Chinese populations. Other reasons could be the high complexity of multivariate interactions between the genomic information and the phenotype that is manifesting. A much wider range of investigations is needed in order to elucidate the differences in HCC susceptibility among these Asian populations.
BMC Medical Genetics 06/2012; 13:47. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis is a common autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation. We report a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in a Japanese population including 4,074 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (cases) and 16,891 controls, followed by a replication in 5,277 rheumatoid arthritis cases and 21,684 controls. Our study identified nine loci newly associated with rheumatoid arthritis at a threshold of P < 5.0 × 10(-8), including B3GNT2, ANXA3, CSF2, CD83, NFKBIE, ARID5B, PDE2A-ARAP1, PLD4 and PTPN2. ANXA3 was also associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (P = 0.0040), and B3GNT2 and ARID5B were associated with Graves' disease (P = 3.5 × 10(-4) and 2.9 × 10(-4), respectively). We conducted a multi-ancestry comparative analysis with a previous meta-analysis in individuals of European descent (5,539 rheumatoid arthritis cases and 20,169 controls). This provided evidence of shared genetic risks of rheumatoid arthritis between the populations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to serious liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, about 85-90% of infected individuals become inactive carriers with sustained biochemical remission and very low risk of LC or HCC. To identify host genetic factors contributing to HBV clearance, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and replication analysis using samples from HBV carriers and spontaneously HBV-resolved Japanese and Korean individuals. Association analysis in the Japanese and Korean data identified the HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 genes with P(meta) = 1.89×10⁻¹² for rs3077 and P(meta) = 9.69×10⁻¹⁰ for rs9277542. We also found that the HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 genes were significantly associated with protective effects against chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in Japanese, Korean and other Asian populations, including Chinese and Thai individuals (P(meta) = 4.40×10⁻¹⁹ for rs3077 and P(meta) = 1.28×10⁻¹⁵ for rs9277542). These results suggest that the associations between the HLA-DP locus and the protective effects against persistent HBV infection and with clearance of HBV were replicated widely in East Asian populations; however, there are no reports of GWAS in Caucasian or African populations. Based on the GWAS in this study, there were no significant SNPs associated with HCC development. To clarify the pathogenesis of CHB and the mechanisms of HBV clearance, further studies are necessary, including functional analyses of the HLA-DP molecule.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e39175. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes exhibit the highest degree of polymorphism in the human genome. This high degree of variation at classical HLA class I and class II loci has been maintained by balancing selection for a long evolutionary time. However, little is known about recent positive selection acting on specific HLA alleles in a local population. To detect the signature of recent positive selection, we genotyped six HLA loci, HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-DPB1 in 418 Japanese subjects, and then assessed the haplotype homozygosity (HH) of each HLA allele. There were 120 HLA alleles across the six loci. Among the 80 HLA alleles with frequencies of more than 1%, DPB1*04∶01, which had a frequency of 6.1%, showed exceptionally high HH (0.53). This finding raises the possibility that recent positive selection has acted on DPB1*04∶01. The DPB1*04∶01 allele, which was present in the most common 6-locus HLA haplotype (4.4%), A*33∶03-C*14∶03-B*44∶03-DRB1*13∶02-DQB1*06∶04-DPB1*04∶01, seems to have flowed from the Korean peninsula to the Japanese archipelago in the Yayoi period. A stochastic simulation approach indicated that the strong linkage disequilibrium between DQB1*06∶04 and DPB1*04∶01 observed in Japanese cannot be explained without positive selection favoring DPB1*04∶01. The selection coefficient of DPB1*04∶01 was estimated as 0.041 (95% credible interval 0.021-0.077). Our results suggest that DPB1*04∶01 has recently undergone strong positive selection in Japanese population.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e46806. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Panic disorder (PD) is a moderately heritable anxiety disorder whose pathogenesis is not well understood. Due to the lack of power in previous association studies, genes that are truly associated with PD might not be detected. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in two independent data sets using the Affymetrix Mapping 500K Array or Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0. We obtained imputed genotypes for each GWAS and performed a meta-analysis of two GWAS data sets (718 cases and 1717 controls). For follow-up, 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested in 329 cases and 861 controls. Gene ontology enrichment and candidate gene analyses were conducted using the GWAS or meta-analysis results. We also applied the polygenic score analysis to our two GWAS samples to test the hypothesis of polygenic components contributing to PD. Although genome-wide significant SNPs were not detected in either of the GWAS nor the meta-analysis, suggestive associations were observed in several loci such as BDKRB2 (P=1.3 × 10(-5), odds ratio=1.31). Among previous candidate genes, supportive evidence for association of NPY5R with PD was obtained (gene-wise corrected P=6.4 × 10(-4)). Polygenic scores calculated from weakly associated SNPs (P<0.3 and 0.4) in the discovery sample were significantly associated with PD status in the target sample in both directions (sample I to sample II and vice versa) (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that large sets of common variants of small effects collectively account for risk of PD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The DigiTag2 assay enables analysis of a set of 96 SNPs using Kapa 2GFast HotStart DNA polymerase with a new protocol that has a total running time of about 7 hours, which is 6 hours shorter than the previous protocol. Quality parameters (conversion rate, call rate, reproducibility and concordance) were at the same levels as when genotype calls were acquired using the previous protocol. Multiplex PCR with 192 pairs of locus-specific primers was available for target preparation in the DigiTag2 assay without the optimization of reaction conditions, and quality parameters had the same levels as those acquired with 96-plex PCR. The locus-specific primers were able to achieve sufficient (concentration of target amplicon ≥5 nM) and specific (concentration of unexpected amplicons <2 nM) amplification within 2 hours, were also able to achieve detectable amplifications even when working in a 96-plex or 192-plex form. The improved DigiTag2 assay will be an efficient platform for screening an intermediate number of SNPs (tens to hundreds of sites) in the replication analysis after genome-wide association study. Moreover, highly parallel and short-acting amplification with locus-specific primers may thus facilitate widespread application to other PCR-based assays.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e29967. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For the identification of susceptibility loci for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed in 963 Japanese individuals (487 PBC cases and 476 healthy controls) and in a subsequent replication study that included 1,402 other Japanese individuals (787 cases and 615 controls). In addition to the most significant susceptibility region, human leukocyte antigen (HLA), we identified two significant susceptibility loci, TNFSF15 (rs4979462) and POU2AF1 (rs4938534) (combined odds ratio [OR] = 1.56, p = 2.84 x 10(-14) for rs4979462, and combined OR = 1.39, p = 2.38 x 10(-8) for rs4938534). Among 21 non-HLA susceptibility loci for PBC identified in GWASs of individuals of European descent, three loci (IL7R, IKZF3, and CD80) showed significant associations (combined p = 3.66 x 10(-8), 3.66 x 10(-9), and 3.04 x 10(-9), respectively) and STAT4 and NFKB1 loci showed suggestive association with PBC (combined p = 1.11 x 10(-6) and 1.42 x 10(-7), respectively) in the Japanese population. These observations indicated the existence of ethnic differences in genetic susceptibility loci to PBC and the importance of TNF signaling and B cell differentiation for the development of PBC in individuals of European descent and Japanese individuals.