Frank Bergmann

Universität Heidelberg, Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (100)436.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background The incidence of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNEN) is increasing. This study aimed to evaluate predictors of overall survival and the indication for surgery.Methods Data collected between October 2001 and December 2012 were analysed. Histological grading and staging was based on the classifications of the World Health Organization, the International Union Against Cancer and the European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society.ResultsSome 310 patients (150 female, 48·4 per cent) underwent surgical resection. The final survival analysis included 291 patients. Five-year overall survival differed according to tumour grade (G): 91·0 per cent among 156 patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNET) G1, 70·8 per cent in 111 patients with pNET G2, and 20 per cent in 24 patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (pNEC) G3 (P < 0·001). Tumours graded G3 (hazard ratio (HR) 6·96, 95 per cent confidence interval 3·67 to 13·21), the presence of distant metastasis (HR 2·41, 1·32 to 4·42) and lymph node metastasis (HR 2·10, 1·07 to 4·16) were independent predictors of worse survival (P < 0·001, P = 0·004 and P = 0·032 respectively). Eight of 61 asymptomatic patients with pNEN smaller than 2 cm had tumours graded G2 or G3, and six of 51 patients had lymph node metastasis. Among patients with pNEC G3, the presence of distant metastasis had a significant impact on the 5-year overall survival rate: 0 per cent versus 43 per cent in those without distant metastasis (P = 0·036).Conclusion Neuroendocrine tumours graded G3, lymph node and distant metastasis are independent predictors of worse overall survival in patients with pNEN.
    British Journal of Surgery 08/2014; · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The biology of pancreatic acinar cell cystadenomas has not been clearly defined. However, a non-neoplastic process, caused by a cell differentiation failure leading to a cystic transformation, has been discussed, as well as a benign neoplastic lesion. Pancreatic acinar cell cystadenomas usually consist of thin-walled unilocular or multilocular cysts, and mural nodules have been described in two cases of a recent series. In one of these nodules, chromosomal imbalances were detected, which provided preliminary evidence for a neoplastic process. The aim of the current study was to further characterize the lesions by molecular analyses. In four cases without mural nodules, the clonality was assessed by performing mutational analyses within the highly variable displacement-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA. As a result, no closer correlation was identified between different foci within the tumors than between the tumors and adjacent normal pancreatic acinar tissue, indicating polyclonality of these lesions. Further molecular analyses revealed no mutations of the β-catenin and K-ras genes. In addition, no immunohistochemical evidence was identified for mutations of Smad4 or p53. In conclusion, the results of the current study demonstrated that pancreatic acinar cell cystadenomas are non-neoplastic lesions, with the potential exception of those rare cases with mural nodules.
    Oncology letters 08/2014; 8(2):852-858. · 0.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is characterized by diffuse or focal swelling of the pancreas. AIP has been divided into types 1 and 2. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the clinicopathological characteristics, therapy and outcome of patients with AIP.Methods The medical records of patients diagnosed with AIP between January 2003 and July 2011 were reviewed. Characteristics of patients with AIP types 1 and 2 were compared with those of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).ResultsAIP was classified as type 1 in 40 patients and type 2 in 32 according to the HISORt (Histology, Imaging, Serology, Other organ involvement, Response to therapy) criteria. Patients with histologically confirmed AIP type 2 were younger than those with type 1 (P = 0·005). Some 30 of 32 patients with AIP type 2 were found to have a localized tumour-like pancreatic mass and underwent pancreatectomy, compared with only 16 of 40 with type 1 (P < 0·001). Three of 25 patients with AIP type 2 presented with raised serum levels of IgG4 compared with 21 of 38 with type 1 (P < 0·001). There was no difference in symptoms and involvement of other organs between AIP types 1 and 2. Presentation with weight loss was more common among patients with PDAC than those with AIP, but there was no difference in pain or jaundice between the groups. Raised serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels were more prevalent in patients with PDAC.Conclusion Patients with AIP type 2 frequently present with abdominal pain and a tumour-like mass. Differentiating AIP from PDAC is difficult, so making the clinical decision regarding operative versus conservative management is challenging.
    British Journal of Surgery 07/2014; · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lymph node (LN) involvement is a major prognostic factor in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, the distinction N0/N1 is not sufficient to accurately predict prognosis. To improve prognostic accuracy in N1 tumors, different LN parameters have been tested. Previous studies were based on series with variable numbers of examined lymph nodes (ELN) and came to inconsistent conclusions as to the value of the number of positive lymph nodes (PLN) and the lymph node ratio (LNR).
    Annals of surgery. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the long-term survival and quality of life in total pancreatectomies and to identify risk factors for perioperative morbidity and mortality.
    Annals of surgery. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To asses the impact of CA 19-9 and weight loss/gain on outcome after neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC).
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 06/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To systematically characterize specific pain patterns in the most frequent pancreatic diseases.
    Pancreatology 01/2014; 14(3):S13. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of pancreatic acinar cells in initiating fibrogenic responses during the early stages of alcoholic acute pancreatitis has not been evaluated. We investigated the ability of injured acinar cells to generate pancreatic fibrosis in acute pancreatitis. Rats were fed either an ethanol-containing or control diet over 14 weeks and euthanized 3 or 24 hours after a single lipopolysaccharide injection. Profibrotic transforming growth factor-β of acinar cells and pancreatic fibrosis were assessed by immunofluorescence, histological characteristics, and electron microscopy. Human pancreatic tissues were also evaluated. Periacinar cell fibrosis and collagen were exacerbated 24 hours after endotoxemia in alcohol-fed rats. Alcohol exposure exacerbated acinar cell-specific production of transforming growth factor β in response to lipopolysaccharide in vivo and in acinar cell-like AR42J cells in vitro. Although a morphological examination showed no visible signs of necrosis, early pancreatic fibrosis can be initiated by little or no pancreatic necrosis. Transforming growth factor β was also significantly increased in human acinar cells from patients with acute/recurrent pancreatitis compared with chronic pancreatitis tissue. Alcohol exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced pancreatic fibrosis during the early onset of mild, subclinical, acute pancreatitis. We suggest that multiple, subclinical, acute pancreatitis episodes can accumulate in fibrosis during the development of chronic pancreatitis, even if there is no history of acute pancreatitis.
    American Journal Of Pathology 09/2013; · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is usually incurable. Contrary to genetic mechanisms involved in PDAC pathogenesis, epigenetic alterations are ill defined. Here, we determine the contribution of epigenetically silenced genes to the development of PDAC. We analyzed enriched, highly methylated DNAs from PDACs, chronic pancreatitis (CP) and normal tissues using CpG island microarrays and identified WNK2 as a prominent candidate tumor suppressor gene being downregulated early in PDAC development. WNK2 was further investigated in tissue microarrays, methylation analysis of early pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), mouse models for PDAC and pancreatitis, re-expression studies after demethylation, and cell growth assays using WNK2 overexpression. Demethylation assays confirmed the link between methylation and expression. WNK2 hypermethylation was higher in tumor than in surrounding inflamed tissues and was observed in PanIN lesions as well as in a PDAC mouse model. WNK2 mRNA and protein expressions were lower in PDAC and CP compared with normal tissues both in patients and mouse models. Overexpression of WNK2 led to reduced cell growth, and WNK2 expression in tissues correlated negatively with pERK1/2 expression, a downstream target of WNK2 responsible for cell proliferation. Downregulation of WNK2 by promoter hypermethylation occurs early in PDAC pathogenesis and may support tumor cell growth via the ERK-MAPK pathway.Oncogene advance online publication, 5 August 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.312.
    Oncogene 08/2013; · 7.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate outcome after intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) compared to 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-RT) as neoadjuvant treatment in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). In total, 57 patients with LAPC were treated with IMRT and chemotherapy. A median total dose of 45 Gy to the PTV_baseplan and 54 Gy to the PTV_boost in single doses of 1.8 Gy for the PTV_baseplan and median single doses of 2.2 Gy in the PTV_boost were applied. Outcomes were evaluated and compared to a large cohort of patients treated with 3D-RT. Overall treatment was well tolerated in all patients and IMRT could be completed without interruptions. Median overall survival was 11 months (range 5-37.5 months). Actuarial overall survival at 12 and 24 months was 36 % and 8 %, respectively. A significant impact on overall survival could only be observed for a decrease in CA 19-9 during treatment, patients with less pre-treatment CA 19-9 than the median, as well as weight loss during treatment. Local progression-free survival was 79 % after 6 months, 39 % after 12 months, and 13 % after 24 months. No factors significantly influencing local progression-free survival could be identified. There was no difference in overall and progression-free survival between 3D-RT and IMRT. Secondary resectability was similar in both groups (26 % vs. 28 %). Toxicity was comparable and consisted mainly of hematological toxicity due to chemotherapy. IMRT leads to a comparable outcome compared to 3D-RT in patients with LAPC. In the future, the improved dose distribution, as well as advances in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) techniques, may improve the use of IMRT in local dose escalation strategies to potentially improve outcome.
    Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 07/2013; · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cancer cells often lose contact inhibition to undergo anchorage-independent proliferation and become resistant to apoptosis by inactivating the Hippo signaling pathway, resulting in activation of the transcriptional co-activator yes-associated protein (YAP). However, the oncogenic mechanisms of YAP are unclear. METHODS: Using cross-species analysis of expression data, the Notch ligand Jagged-1 (Jag-1) was identified as downstream target of YAP in hepatocytes and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. We analyzed the functions of YAP in HCC cells via overexpression and RNA silencing experiments. We used transgenic mice that overexpressed a constitutively activated form of YAP (YAP(S127A)), and measured protein levels in HCC and colorectal and pancreatic tumor samples from patients. RESULTS: Human HCC cell lines and mouse hepatocytes that overexpress YAP(S127A) upregulated Jag-1, leading to activation of the Notch pathway and increased proliferation. Induction of Jag-1, activation of Notch, and cell proliferation required binding of YAP to its transcriptional partner TEAD4; TEAD4 binding required Mst1/2, but not WNT-β-catenin signaling. Levels of YAP correlated with Jag-1 expression and Notch signaling in human tumor samples and shorter survival times of patients with HCC or colorectal cancer. CONCLUSION: The transcriptional regulator YAP upregulates Jag-1 to activate Notch signaling in HCC cells and mouse hepatocytes. YAP-dependent activity of Jag-1 and Notch correlate in human HCC and colorectal tumor samples with patient survival times, suggesting the use of YAP and Notch inhibitors as therapeutics for gastrointestinal cancer.
    Gastroenterology 02/2013; · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In the present retrospective analysis we analysed the therapeutic outcome of a set of patients, who were treated with chemoradiation (CRT) for recurrent pancreatic cancer (RPC) in a single institution.Patients and Methods: Forty-one patients had a history of primary resection for pancreatic cancer. In case of an unresectable recurrency patients were treated with CRT at our institution between 2002 and 2010 with a median dose of 48.4 Gy (range 39.6-54 Gy). Concurrent chemotherapy regimes included Gemcitabine (GEM) in 37/41 patients (90%) and Fluorouracil (FU) or Capecitabine (CAP) in 4/41 patients (10%). Patients were re-evaluated after CRT with computed tomography and/or explorative laparotomy. During re-resection or laparotomy 15 patients received an additional intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with a median dose of 15 Gy (range 12--15 Gy). Median age was 65 years (range 39--76 years) and there were 26 male and 15 female patients. RESULTS: The median overall survival (mOS), local control (LC) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 16.1, 13.8 and 6.9 months respectively for all patients after the first day of CRT. Re-resection was possible in five patients (12%) and a complete remission (CR) as defined by tumor-free biopsy was seen in 6 patients (15%). When re-resection could be achieved after CRT mOS was improved to 28.3 months (n = 5 patients, 95%-CI 10.2 -- 46.3 months). Patients receiving IORT had a significantly improved mOS compared to no IORT (p = 0.034). Fifteen patients (37%) experienced a local tumour progression and main site of distant metastasis was the liver (11 patients, 27%).Overall treatment-related toxicity was mild, grade III hematologic toxicity was observed in 11 patients (27 %). CONCLUSION: In summary we observed a good therapeutic response with mild to moderate toxicity levels for CRT in RPC. Overall survival and PFS were clearly improved in case of induction of a complete remission (tumor-free biopsies) or after achieving a re-resection, thus providing a curative intended therapy even in case of disease recurrence.
    Radiation Oncology 01/2013; 8(1):27. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The glycoprotein MFG-E8 mediates phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells and influences the pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory diseases. MFG-E8 was shown to attenuate the progression of inflammation and to improve survival in septic rats. Accumulating evidence suggests an immunomodulatory link between MFG-E8 and the pro-inflammatory chemokine fractalkine, which may determine the severity of pain, fibrosis, and inflammation in chronic pancreatitis (CP). METHODS: The expression and localization of MFG-E8 was investigated in CP (n = 62), and normal pancreas (NP; n = 34) by QRT-PCR, Western-blot and immunohistochemistry analyses. Results were correlated with mRNA expression of fractalkine, CX3CR1, and with the presence and degree of pain and fibrosis. Human pancreatic stellate cells (hPSCs) were isolated from CP tissues and evaluated for MFG-E8 mRNA expression after fractalkine stimulation. RESULTS: MFG-E8-mRNA was significantly overexpressed in CP and isolated hPSCs when compared to NP. Western-blot and immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed accumulation of MFG-E8 in CP, with noticeably increased MFG-E8 immunoreactivity in tubular complexes. MFG-E8 expression correlated significantly with fractalkine expression, severe fibrosis, and the presence of pain in CP patients. Stimulation of hPSCs with fractalkine led to a significant increase in MFG-E8 expression. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we demonstrated for the first time that MFG-E8 is significantly up-regulated in CP patients and together with fractalkine correlated noticeably with severe fibrosis and the presence of pain. hPSCs overexpress MFG-E8 upon fractalkine stimulation in vitro, which underlines the suggested immunmodulatory link in CP and may be a key mechanism in CP fibrogenesis and pain generation. Taken together, these novel findings suggest that MFG-E8 blockade may be a promising tool for future immunotherapy in CP to attenuate both fibrosis and pain sensation.
    BMC Gastroenterology 01/2013; 13(1):14. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of pancreatic acinar cells in initiating necro-inflammatory responses during the early onset of alcoholic acute pancreatitis (AP) has not been fully evaluated. We investigated the ability of acinar cells to generate pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, including inflammasome-associated IL-18/caspase-1, and evaluated acinar cell necrosis in an animal model of AP and human samples. Rats were fed either an ethanol-containing or control diet for 14 weeks and killed 3 or 24 h after a single lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Inflammasome components and necro-inflammation were evaluated in acinar cells by immunofluorescence (IF), histology, and biochemical approaches. Alcohol exposure enhanced acinar cell-specific production of TNFα, IL-6, MCP-1 and IL-10, as early as 3 h after LPS, whereas IL-18 and caspase-1 were evident 24 h later. Alcohol enhanced LPS-induced TNFα expression, whereas blockade of LPS signaling diminished TNFα production in vitro, indicating that the response of pancreatic acinar cells to LPS is similar to that of immune cells. Similar results were observed from acinar cells in samples from patients with acute/recurrent pancreatitis. Although morphologic examination of sub-clinical AP showed no visible signs of necrosis, early loss of pancreatic HMGB1 and increased systemic levels of HMGB1 and LDH were observed, indicating that this strong systemic inflammatory response is associated with little pancreatic necrosis. These results suggest that TLR-4-positive acinar cells respond to LPS by activating the inflammasome and producing pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators during the development of mild, sub-clinical AP, and that these effects are exacerbated by alcohol injury.
    Cell Death & Disease 01/2013; 4:e816. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Local recurrence of pancreatic cancer occurs in 80 % of patients within 2 years after potentially curative resections. Around 30 % of patients have isolated local recurrence (ILR) without evidence of metastases. In spite of localized disease these patients usually only receive palliative chemotherapy and have a short survival. PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery as part of a multimodal treatment for ILR of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: All consecutive operations performed for suspected ILR in our institution between October 2001 and October 2009 were identified from a prospective database. Perioperative outcome, survival, and prognostic parameters were assessed. RESULTS: Of 97 patients with histologically proven recurrence, 57 (59 %) had ILR. In 40 (41 %) patients surgical exploration revealed metastases distant to the local recurrence. Resection was performed in 41 (72 %) patients with ILR, while 16 (28 %) ILR were locally unresectable. Morbidity and mortality were 25 and 1.8 % after resections and 10 and 0 % after explorations, respectively. Median postoperative survival was 16.4 months in ILR versus 9.4 months in metastatic disease (p < 0.0001). In ILR median survival was significantly longer after resection (26.0 months) compared with exploration without resection (10.8 months, p = 0.0104). R0 resection was achieved in 18 patients and resulted in 30.5 months median survival. Presence of metastases, incomplete resection, and high preoperative CA 19-9 serum values were associated with lesser survival. CONCLUSIONS: Resection for isolated local recurrence of pancreatic cancer is feasible, safe, and associated with favorable survival outcome. This concept warrants further evaluation in other institutions and in randomized controlled trials.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 12/2012; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: bjc2011217a
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Amyloidosis is a life-threatening protein misfolding disease and affects cardiac tissue, leading to heart failure, myocardial ischemia and arrhythmia. Amyloid deposits result in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of innate defense components, i.e., Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) and the complement system, in different types of cardiac amyloidosis. METHODS: Expression of DMBT1 and of the complement proteins C1q, C3d and C4d in cardiac specimens of patients with different types of amyloidosis were determined by immunohistochemistry and correlated with amyloid deposits stained by Congo red dye. RESULTS: Strong DMBT1 staining adjacent to amyloid deposits was detected in different amyloidosis types, depending on the extent of the deposits. DMBT1 is localized in the endomysium and perimysium, in the endocardium, in the myocytes and in endothelial cells of affected transmural vessels. C1q, C3d and C4d were detected in the amyloid deposits but also in the endomysium and perimysium, in some myocytes, in endothelial cells, in the endocardium, and around the amyloid deposits. CONCLUSIONS: Up-regulated DMBT1 and complement activation in cardiac amyloidosis may be part of the activated pathways induced by protein aggregation and the consecutive inflammatory reaction.
    Cardiovascular pathology: the official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology 12/2012; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) presenting with a micropapillary growth pattern is frequently associated with a prominent neutrophil infiltration into the tumor. The relevance of neutrophil infiltrates for tumor progression, however, is still debated. To gain insight into the role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in PDAC, we assessed their effect on pancreatic tumor cells grown in vitro as monolayers. Time-lapse video microscopy showed a PMN-induced dyshesion of the tumor cells, and subsequent experiments revealed that this dyshesion was due to PMN elastase-mediated degradation of E-cadherin, an adhesion molecule that mediates the intercellular contact of the tumor cells. E-cadherin degradation by elastase or — (for comparison) down-modulation by specific siRNA, significantly increased the migratory capacity of the pancreatic tumor cells, leading to the hypothesis that PMNs could contribute to the invasive tumor growth. To address this issue, biopsies of patients with PDAC (n = 112) were analyzed. We found that E-cadherin expression correlated negatively with PMN infiltration, compatible with the notion that E-cadherin is cleaved by PMN-derived elastase, which in turn could result in the dispersal of the tumor cells, enhanced migratory capacity and thus invasive tumor growth.
    European Journal of Immunology 12/2012; 42(12). · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intraoperative examination of specimens from the liver, bile ducts, gallbladder and pancreas are widely used in routine fresh frozen section diagnostics. The main clinical requests focus on diagnosis of masses of unknown dignity as well as evaluation of surgical margins in oncological resections. In addition, assessment of organ quality for transplantation is also often required.
    Der Pathologe 08/2012; 33(5):413-23. · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate existing management guidelines for branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). According to current treatment guidelines (Sendai criteria), patients with asymptomatic branch-duct type IPMNs of the pancreas less than 3 cm in diameter without suspicious features in preoperative imaging should undergo conservative treatment with yearly follow-up examinations. Nevertheless, the risk of harboring malignancy or invasive cancer remains a significant matter of consequence. All patients who were surgically resected for branch-duct IPMNs between January 2004 and July 2010 at the University Clinic of Heidelberg were analyzed. Clinical characteristics of the patients and preoperative imaging were examined with regard to the size of the lesions, presence of mural nodules, thickening of the wall, dilation of the main pancreatic duct, and tumor markers. Results were correlated with histopathological features and were discussed with regard to the literature. Among a total of 287 consecutively resected IPMNs, 123 branch-duct IPMNs were identified analyzing preoperative imaging. Some 69 branch-duct IPMNs were less than 3 cm in size, without mural nodules, thickening of the wall, or other features characteristic for malignancy ("Sendai negative"). Of all the Sendai negative branch-duct IPMNs, 24.6% (17/69) showed malignant features (invasive carcinoma or carcinoma in situ) upon histological examination of the surgical specimen. Although many branch-duct IPMNs are small and asymptomatic, they harbor a significant risk of malignancy. We believe that both main-duct and branch-duct IPMNs represent premalignant lesions. This should be taken into account for adequate therapeutic management. With regard to these results, the current Sendai criteria for branch-duct IPMNs need to be adjusted.
    Annals of surgery 08/2012; 256(2):313-20. · 7.90 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
436.76 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2014
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • • Institute of Papyrology
      • • Institute of Pathology (Mannheim)
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2007–2008
    • Technische Universität München
      • Clinic and Polyclinic for Surgery
      München, Bavaria, Germany