[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we address the experimental implementation of an all-optical packet routing scheme, with contention resolution capability, using interconnected semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)-based Mach–Zehnder interferometer (SOA-MZI) structures. Cross talk stemming from the blocked packets, due to the nonideal switching performed by the SOA-MZIs, is analyzed in every stage of the routing configuration. The routing functions and states performance are evaluated through bit-error ratio measurements and extinction ratio analysis.
Journal of Optical Communications and Networking. 07/2014; 6(7).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) are a well-established solution of optical access networks. They could prove an enabling technology for DataCom by offering extended range of active optical functionalities. However, in such costand energy-critical applications, high-integration densities increase the operational temperatures and require powerhungry external cooling. Taking a step further towards improving the cost and energy effectiveness of active optical components, we report on the development of a GaInNAs/GaAs (dilute nitride) SOA operating at 1.3μm that exhibits a gain value of 28 dB and combined with excellent temperature stability owing to the large conduction band offset between GaInNAs quantum well and GaAs barrier. Moreover, the characterization results reveal almost no gain variation around the 1320 nm region for a temperature range from 20° to 50° C. The gain recovery time attained values as short as 100 ps, allowing implementation of various signal processing functionalities at 10 Gb/s. The combined parameters are very attractive for application in photonic integrated circuits requiring uncooled operation and thus minimizing power consumption. Moreover, as a result of the insensitivity to heating issues, a higher number of active elements can be integrated on chip-scale circuitry, allowing for higher integration densities and more complex optical on-chip functions. Such component could prove essential for next generation DataCom networks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New broadband applications are causing the datacenters to proliferate, raising the bar for higher interconnection speeds. So far, optical board-to-board and rack-to-rack interconnects relied primarily on low-cost commodity optical components assembled in a single package. Although this concept proved successful in the first generations of opticalinterconnect modules, scalability is a daunting issue as signaling rates extend beyond 25 Gb/s. In this paper we present our work towards the development of two technology platforms for migration beyond Infiniband enhanced data rate (EDR), introducing new concepts in board-to-board and rack-to-rack interconnects. The first platform is developed in the framework of MIRAGE European project and relies on proven VCSEL technology, exploiting the inherent cost, yield, reliability and power consumption advantages of VCSELs. Wavelength multiplexing, PAM-4 modulation and multi-core fiber (MCF) multiplexing are introduced by combining VCSELs with integrated Si and glass photonics as well as BiCMOS electronics. An in-plane MCF-to-SOI interface is demonstrated, allowing coupling from the MCF cores to 340x400 nm Si waveguides. Development of a low-power VCSEL driver with integrated feed-forward equalizer is reported, allowing PAM-4 modulation of a bandwidth-limited VCSEL beyond 25 Gbaud. The second platform, developed within the frames of the European project PHOXTROT, considers the use of modulation formats of increased complexity in the context of optical interconnects. Powered by the evolution of DSP technology and towards an integration path between inter and intra datacenter traffic, this platform investigates optical interconnection system concepts capable to support 16QAM 40GBd data traffic, exploiting the advancements of silicon and polymer technologies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We introduce a novel design of an all-optical packet routing node that
allows for the selection and forwarding of optical packets based on the
routing information contained in hybrid wavelength division
multiplexing/optical code division multiple access (WDM/OCDMA) labels. A
stripping paradigm of optical code-label is adopted. The router is built
around an optical-code gate that consists in an optical flip-flop
controlled by two fiber Bragg grating correlators and is combined with a
Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI)-based forwarding gate. We
experimentally verify the proof-of-principle operation of the proposed
self-routing node under NRZ and OCDMA packet traffic conditions. The
successful switching of elastic NRZ payload at 40 Gb/s controlled by
DS-OCDMA coded labels and the forwarding operation of encoded data using
EQC codes are presented. Proper auto-correlation functions are obtained
with higher than 8.1 dB contrast ratio, suitable to efficiently trigger
the latching device with a contrast ratio of 11.6 dB and switching times
below 3.8 ns. Error-free operation is achieved with 1.5 dB penalty for
40 Gb/s NRZ data and with 2.1 dB penalty for DS-OCDMA packets. The
scheme can further be applied to large-scale optical packet switching
networks by exploiting efficient optical coders allocated at different
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the first experimental performance evaluation of a 75-μm-long plasmonic multimode interference switch that is hetero-integrated on a silicon-on-insulator platform, operating with 10-Gb/s data signals. The switch exhibits a 2.9-μs response time and 44.5% modulation depth, while the extinction ratio between the ports alters from 5.4 to -1.5 dB for 35-mW electrical (switching) power. Error-free performance was achieved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate a system-level evaluation of an A-MZI with 60μm long DLSPP active branches exhibiting more than 14dB extinction ratio. Error-free switching operation is achieved for a 4×10Gb/s incoming WDM data stream with only 13.1mW power consumption.
European Conference on Optical Communication; 09/2012
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the first experimental performance evaluation of a 75 um long plasmonic MMI switch, hetero-integrated on a SOI platform, operating with 10Gb/s data signals. The switch exhibits 2.9μs response time and 44.5% modulation depth while its extinction ratio varies from 5.4 to -1.5 dB for 35mW switching power. Error-free performance was achieved.
European Conference on Optical Communication; 09/2012
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The field of data communications and short-range interconnects in computing and High Performance Data Centers (HPCs) and Computing Systems has been up to date almost exclusively dominated by electronics, which have formed the main technological solution for the interconnection of many core/board/rack modules. In FP7-PLATON project we are investigating novel hybrid Silicon-Plasmonics components/subsystems for the demonstration of a Tb/s scale router with ultralow power consumption, footprint and end-to-end propagation delay. The breakthrough approach of PLATON relies on a novel hybrid Silicon-Plasmonics technology where Silicon Photonics is the low loss platform for the formation of the passive circuitry and Plasmonics is exploited for the active parts of the router towards reducing size and energy consumption. In this article, we will present our latest results on true WDM traffic transmission and switching using active plasmonics integrated on the Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide platform and we will outline the roadmap for future energy efficient Data Centers and HPCs with the integration of our novel technology.
14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks; 07/2012
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the first system-level demonstration of an active plasmonic device in 10-Gb/s data traffic conditions. An asymmetric silicon-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer with dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides serving as the electrically controlled arms, operates as thermo-optic On/Off gating element with 2.8- μ s response time and 10.8-mW power consumption.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A comprehensive theoretical analysis of end-fire coupling between dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton and rib/wire silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides is presented. Simulations are based on the 3-D vector finite element method. The geometrical parameters of the interface are varied in order to identify the ones leading to optimum performance, i.e., maximum coupling efficiency. Fabrication tolerances about the optimum parameter values are also assessed. In addition, the effect of a longitudinal metallic stripe gap on coupling efficiency is quantified, since such gaps have been observed in fabricated structures. Finally, theoretical results are compared against insertion loss measurements, carried out for two distinct sets of samples comprising rib and wire SOI waveguides, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Grating couplers are the best solution for testing nano-photonic
circuits. Their main benefit is that they allow access via an optical
fiber from the top and therefore there is no need to dice the chip and
prepare the facets crucially. In the PLATON project grating couplers
were designed to couple TM mode into and out of the SOI waveguides.
Simulations came up with a grating coupler layout capable of theoretical
coupling losses lower than 3dB for 1550 nm in TM configuration. A fully
etched grating structure was chosen for fabrication simplicity and the
optimal filling factor was found. The structures were fabricated using
proximity error correction (PEC) and show a uniform coupling efficiency
for all couplers. Therefore they are well-suited for all applications
which demand for stable fiber-to-chip coupling. The spectral response of
the structures was measured from 1500 to 1580 nm with 2 nm step and
measuring the fiber-tofiber losses of three straight waveguides equipped
with three grating couplers with different gap widths. The optimal
grating period exhibits adequate coupling losses of 3.23 dB per coupler
at 1557 nm, being therefore the most promising design.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM)-enabled transmission of 480Gb/s aggregate data traffic (12x40Gb/s) as well as high-quality 1x2 thermo-optic tuning in Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguides (DLSPPWs). The WDM transmission characteristics have been verified through BER measurements by exploiting the heterointegration of a 60 μm-long straight DLSPPW on a Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide platform, showing error-free performance for six out of the twelve channels. High-quality thermo-optic tuning has been achieved by utilizing Cycloaliphatic-Acrylate-Polymer as an efficient thermo-optic polymer loading employed in a dual-resonator DLSPPW switching structure, yielding a 9 nm wavelength shift and extinction ratio values higher than 10 dB at both output ports when heated to 90°C.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the first system-level evaluation of an active plasmonic device in 10Gb/s data traffic conditions. Thermo-optic ON/OFF modulation with 3μs response time and 10mW power consumption is presented using an asymmetric MZI silicon-plasmonic gate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate 480 Gb/s (12×40 Gb/s) WDM enabled data transmission through a dielectric loaded plasmonic waveguide. Error-free performance with power penalties ranging between 0.2-1 dB has been obtained for six out of the twelve channels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate experimental evidence of the data capture and the low-energy thermo-optic tuning credentials of dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures integrated on a silicon chip. We show 7-nm thermo-optical tuning of a plasmonic racetrack-resonator with less than 3.3 mW required electrical power and verify error-free 10-Gb/s transmission through a 60-μm-long dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We propose and demonstrate experimentally an all-optical packet routing scheme using hybrid-wavelength-division multiplexing/optical-code-division multiple access labeling for 40-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) data. With no electronic control, the system forwards asynchronously packets delimited by valid label and suppresses unwanted traffic. It consists of an optical flip-flop controlled by two correlators combined with a Mach–Zehnder interferometer that selects packets for each fiber output. The experimental results show optical switching operation for the optical-code gate with an extinction ratio of 16 dB between the switched and unswitched packets and a switching time below 2 ns. Error-free operation has been successfully achieved with low-power penalty for 40-Gb/s NRZ data.