Kendall T Szeliga

Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States

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Publications (17)50.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Appropriate animal models are critical to conduct translational studies of human disorders without variables that can confound clinical studies. Such analytic methods as patch-clamp electrophysiological and voltammetric recordings of neurons in brain slices require living brain tissue. In order to obtain viable tissue from nonhuman primate brains, tissue collection methods must be designed to preserve cardiovascular and respiratory functions for as long as possible. This paper describes a method of necropsy that has been used in three species of monkeys that satisfies this requirement. At necropsy, animals were maintained under a deep surgical plane of anesthesia while a craniotomy was conducted to expose the brain. Following the craniotomy, animals were perfused with ice-cold, oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid to displace blood and to reduce the temperature of the entire brain. The brain was removed within minutes of death and specific brain regions were immediately dissected for subsequent in vitro electrophysiology or voltammetry experiments. This necropsy method also provided for the collection of tissue blocks containing all brain regions that were immediately frozen and stored for subsequent genomic, proteomic, autoradiographic and histological studies. An added benefit from the design of this necropsy method is that all major peripheral tissues were also collected and are now being utilized in a wide range of genomic, biochemical and histological assays. This necropsy method has resulted in the establishment and growth of a nonhuman primate alcohol tissue bank designed to distribute central nervous system and peripheral tissues to the larger scientific community.
    Cell and Tissue Banking 05/2013; · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RATIONALE: Intermittent delivery of an important commodity (e.g., food pellets) generates excessive behaviors as an adjunct to the schedule of reinforcement (adjunctive behaviors) that are hypothesized to be due to conflict between engaging and escaping a situation where reinforcement is delivered, but at suboptimal rates. OBJECTIVES: This study characterized the endocrine correlates during schedule-induced polydipsia of water and ethanol using a longitudinal approach in non-human primates. METHODS: Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol were measured in samples from awake cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, 11 adult males) obtained at the onset, mid-day, and offset of their 12-h light cycle. The monkeys were induced to drink water and ethanol (4 % w/v, in water) using a fixed time (FT) 300-s interval schedule of pellet delivery. The induction fluid changed every 30 sessions in the following order: water, 0.5 g/kg ethanol, 1.0 g/kg ethanol, and 1.5 g/kg ethanol. Following induction, ethanol and water were concurrently available for 22 h/day. RESULTS: The FT 300-s schedule gradually increased ACTH, but not cortisol, during water induction to a plateau sustained throughout ethanol induction in every monkey. Upon termination of the schedule, ACTH decreased to baseline and cortisol below baseline. Diurnal ACTH and cortisol were unrelated to the dose of ethanol, but ACTH rhythm flattened at 0.5 g/kg/day and remained flattened. CONCLUSIONS: The coincidence of elevated ACTH with the initial experience of drinking to intoxication may have altered the mechanisms involved in the transition to heavy drinking.
    Psychopharmacology 03/2013; · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early childhood stress is a risk factor for the development of substance-abuse disorders. A nonhuman primate model of early life stress, social impoverishment through nursery-rearing rather than mother-rearing, has been shown to produce increased impulsive and anxiety-like behaviors, cognitive and motor deficits, and increased alcohol consumption. These behavioral changes have been linked to changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a serotonin (5-HT) metabolite. The effects of different rearing conditions on ethanol drinking and three measures of 5-HT function in the central nervous system were evaluated, including CSF 5-HIAA levels and tissue levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in brain samples. Brain samples were taken from the dorsal caudate, putamen, substantia nigra (SN) pars reticulata, SN pars compacta and hippocampus. There was a clear effect of rearing condition on the 5-HT system. Overall 5-HIAA and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio measures of 5-HT turnover were significantly lower in nursery reared compared to mother-reared animals. In addition, there was a strong within-subject correlation between CSF and brain tissue 5-HIAA levels. Ethanol drinking was greater in nursery reared monkeys, consistent with previous results. These findings show that CSF 5-HIAA measurements can be used to predict brain 5-HT activity that may be involved in behavioral outcomes such as anxiety and alcohol consumption. Thus, CSF sampling may provide a minimally invasive test for neurochemical risk factors related to alcohol abuse.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 03/2012; 46(4):371-6. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous biochemical as well as electrophysiological techniques require tissue that must be retrieved very quickly following death in order to preserve the physiological integrity of the neuronal environment. Therefore, the ability to accurately predict the precise locations of brain regions of interest (ROI) and to retrieve those areas as quickly as possible following the brain harvest is critical for subsequent analyses. One way to achieve this objective is the utilization of high-resolution MRI to guide the subsequent dissections. In the present study, individual MRI images of the brains of rhesus and cynomolgus macaques that had chronically self-administered ethanol were employed in order to determine which blocks of dissected tissue contained specific ROIs. MRI-guided brain dissection of discrete brain regions was completely accurate in 100% of the cases. In comparison, approximately 60-70% accuracy was achieved in dissections that relied on external landmarks alone without the aid of MRI. These results clearly demonstrate that the accuracy of targeting specific brain areas can be improved with high-resolution MR imaging.
    Methods 05/2009; 50(3):199-204. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed an animal model of alcohol self-administration that initially employs schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) to establish reliable ethanol consumption under open access (22 h/d) conditions with food and water concurrently available. SIP is an adjunctive behavior that is generated by constraining access to an important commodity (e.g., flavored food). The induction schedule and ethanol polydipsia generated under these conditions affords the opportunity to investigate the development of drinking typologies that lead to chronic, excessive alcohol consumption. Adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were induced to drink water and 4% (w/v in water) ethanol by a Fixed-Time 300 seconds (FT-300 seconds) schedule of banana-flavored pellet delivery. The FT-300 seconds schedule was in effect for 120 consecutive sessions, with daily induction doses increasing from 0.0 to 0.5 g/kg to 1.0 g/kg to 1.5 g/kg every 30 days. Following induction, the monkeys were allowed concurrent access to 4% (w/v) ethanol and water for 22 h/day for 12 months. Drinking typographies during the induction of drinking 1.5 g/kg ethanol emerged that were highly predictive of the daily ethanol intake over the next 12 months. Specifically, the frequency in which monkeys ingested 1.5 g/kg ethanol without a 5-minute lapse in drinking (defined as a bout of drinking) during induction strongly predicted (correlation 0.91) subsequent ethanol intake over the next 12 months of open access to ethanol. Blood ethanol during induction were highly correlated with intake and with drinking typography and ranged from 100 to 160 mg% when the monkeys drank their 1.5 g/kg dose in a single bout. Forty percent of the population became heavy drinkers (mean daily intakes >3.0 g/kg for 12 months) characterized by frequent "spree" drinking (intakes >4.0 g/kg/d). This model of ethanol self-administration identifies early alcohol drinking typographies (gulping the equivalent of 6 drinks) that evolve into chronic heavy alcohol consumption in primates (drinking the equivalent of 16 to 20 drinks per day). The model may aid in identifying biological risks for establishing harmful alcohol drinking.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 09/2008; 32(10):1824-38. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vasculogenesis is essential to the preservation and repair of damaged or diseased vessels. Alcohol is the most commonly abused drug among young adults, but its effects on vessel growth and repair are unknown. The basis of vascular repair is endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) recruitment to assist in the formation of new vascular network (vasculogenesis). Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the effects of ethanol consumption on the production, mobilization and vasculogenesis potential EPCs in nonhuman primates. Four to five year-old (young adult) male rhesus monkeys consumed monkey chow and water (Control, n = 7), or chow and water + ethanol (Alcohol, 2.45 g/d, n = 7) for 12 months. Peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples were collected for fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis of cell surface antigens (CD45, CD31, CD44, CD133, VEGF-R2 - or KDR); and for capillary formation on Matrigel-coated plates. There were greater numbers of nonhematopoeitic stromal cells (CD45-) and putative mesenchymal progenitor cells (CD45-/CD44+) in the PB and BM of Alcohol versus Control monkeys (p < 0.05). Additionally, there were greater numbers of EPCs (CD45-/CD133+/KDR+) in the BM and PB of Alcohol versus Control monkeys (p < 0.05). However, the EPCs of Alcohol monkeys were less likely to form capillaries on matrigel-coated plates than Control monkeys (p < 0.05). Ethanol consumption in monkeys markedly increased the production and mobilization of EPCs, but decreased their ability to form capillaries. The pathophysiologic consequences of such effects are unclear, but may represent an ethanol-induced chronic stress on the BM, resulting in EPC.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 02/2008; 32(1):155-61. · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Experimental Social Psychology - J EXP SOC PSYCHOL. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroimaging of animal models of alcoholism offers a unique path for translational research to the human condition. Animal models permit manipulation of variables that are uncontrollable in clinical, human investigation. This symposium, which took place at the annual meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, on June 29th, 2004, presented initial findings based on neuroimaging studies from the two centers of the Integrative Neuroscience Initiative on Alcoholism funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Effects of alcohol exposure were assessed with in vitro glucose metabolic imaging of rat brain, in vitro receptor imaging of monkey brain, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging of monkey brain, and in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic quantification of alcohol metabolism kinetics in rat brain.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 03/2005; 29(2):287-94. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current study was designed to extend our knowledge of the N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor system in mediating the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol in non-human primates. To characterize the discriminative stimulus effects of the NMDA uncompetitive antagonists dizocilpine, phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine in male and female monkeys under different ethanol training conditions. Adult male ( n=8) and female ( n=9) cynomolgus monkeys ( Macaca fascicularis) were divided into four groups and trained to discriminate 1.0 g/kg ethanol ( n=8) versus water or 2.0 g/kg ethanol ( n=9) versus water in a 2 x 2 design with training dose and sex as main group factors. Ethanol (20% w/v) solutions were administered intragastrically (IG) and responding was maintained under a fixed ratio schedule of food reinforcement. Dose-response determinations for dizocilpine [IG and intramuscular (IM)], PCP (IM) and ketamine (IM) were made under two training intervals (30 and 60 min). Dizocilpine, PCP and ketamine dose-dependently substituted for ethanol in three of four training conditions, the notable exception being in males trained with 2.0 g/kg ethanol. Ethanol-like discriminative stimulus effects were greater with IM dizocilpine than with IG dizocilpine. At the lower ethanol training dose (1.0 g/kg), there were no sex differences in the ethanol-like discriminative stimulus effects of dizocilpine, PCP or ketamine, nor were there sex differences in the potencies to produce ethanol-like discriminative stimulus effects. Sex differences were readily apparent with the higher ethanol training dose (2.0 g/kg), with the NMDA ligands failing to substitute for ethanol in male monkeys, probably due to the rate-suppressive effects of these compounds. These data suggest that NMDA receptor-mediated activity is a component to the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol in male and female nonhuman primates. However, NMDA uncompetitive antagonists were less likely to produce discriminative stimulus effects similar to a high ethanol training dose in male monkeys. In comparison to consistent substitution by GABA(A) positive modulators for ethanol, substitution patterns produced by NMDA uncompetitive antagonists suggest a less robust mediation of the ethanol discriminative stimulus through NMDA receptor systems in nonhuman primates.
    Psychopharmacology 08/2002; 162(3):273-81. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Rationale. The current study was designed to extend our knowledge of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor system in mediating the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol in non-human primates. Objectives. To characterize the discriminative stimulus effects of the NMDA uncompetitive antagonists dizocilpine, phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine in male and female monkeys under different ethanol training conditions. Methods. Adult male (n=8) and female (n=9) cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were divided into four groups and trained to discriminate 1.0g/kg ethanol (n=8) versus water or 2.0g/kg ethanol (n=9) versus water in a 2×2 design with training dose and sex as main group factors. Ethanol (20% w/v) solutions were administered intragastrically (IG) and responding was maintained under a fixed ratio schedule of food reinforcement. Dose-response determinations for dizocilpine [IG and intramuscular (IM)], PCP (IM) and ketamine (IM) were made under two training intervals (30 and 60min). Results. Dizocilpine, PCP and ketamine dose-dependently substituted for ethanol in three of four training conditions, the notable exception being in males trained with 2.0g/kg ethanol. Ethanol-like discriminative stimulus effects were greater with IM dizocilpine than with IG dizocilpine. At the lower ethanol training dose (1.0g/kg), there were no sex differences in the ethanol-like discriminative stimulus effects of dizocilpine, PCP or ketamine, nor were there sex differences in the potencies to produce ethanol-like discriminative stimulus effects. Sex differences were readily apparent with the higher ethanol training dose (2.0g/kg), with the NMDA ligands failing to substitute for ethanol in male monkeys, probably due to the rate-suppressive effects of these compounds. Conclusions. These data suggest that NMDA receptor-mediated activity is a component to the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol in male and female nonhuman primates. However, NMDA uncompetitive antagonists were less likely to produce discriminative stimulus effects similar to a high ethanol training dose in male monkeys. In comparison to consistent substitution by GABAA positive modulators for ethanol, substitution patterns produced by NMDA uncompetitive antagonists suggest a less robust mediation of the ethanol discriminative stimulus through NMDA receptor systems in nonhuman primates.
    Psychopharmacology 06/2002; 162(3):273-281. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current study was designed to extend our knowledge of the GABA(A) receptor system in mediating discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol in non-human primates. To characterize the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol, pentobarbital, midazolam, muscimol and morphine in male and female monkeys under different ethanol training conditions. Adult male (n=8) and female (n=10) Macaca fascicularis monkeys were divided into four groups and trained to discriminate 1.0 g/kg ethanol (n=8) versus water or 2.0 g/kg ethanol (n=10) versus water in a 2x2 design with training dose and sex as main group factors. Solutions were administered intragastrically (20% ethanol w/v) and responding was maintained under a fixed-ratio schedule of food reinforcement. Dose-response determinations of ethanol, pentobarbital, midazolam, muscimol and morphine were made under the training condition of 30 min pretreatment interval. The ethanol pretreatment interval in training sessions was then increased to 60 min and the effects of ethanol, pentobarbital and midazolam were redetermined. Training dose influenced the ED50 of ethanol to produce substitution under both pretreatment intervals and pentobarbital to produce substitution under the 30-min pretreatment training interval. There were no group differences in sensitivity to midazolam. The potency of the ligands to produce ethanol substitution was consistent across groups with midazolam>pentobarbital>ethanol. There were no sex differences in substitution of the ligands for ethanol. Blood ethanol concentrations at the onset of ethanol training sessions were higher in the 2.0 g/kg groups and under longer pretreatment times, but were not different on the basis of sex. Pentobarbital and midazolam produce ethanol-like discriminative stimulus effects in male and female cynomolgus monkeys suggesting a significant GABA(A) component mediating the behavioral effects of ethanol. There was limited evidence that training dose of ethanol influenced substitution pattern of the GABA(A) ligands in cynomolgus monkeys, unlike previous findings in rats. Finally, there appear to be no sex differences in the profile of GABA(A) mechanisms involved in the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol.
    Psychopharmacology 11/2000; 152(2):181-8. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: The current study was designed to extend our knowledge of the GABAA receptor system in mediating discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol in non-human primates. Objectives: To characterize the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol, pentobarbital, midazolam, muscimol and morphine in male and female monkeys under different ethanol training conditions. Methods: Adult male (n=8) and female (n=10) Macaca fascicularis monkeys were divided into four groups and trained to discriminate 1.0g/kg ethanol (n=8) versus water or 2.0g/kg ethanol (n=10) versus water in a 2×2 design with training dose and sex as main group factors. Solutions were administered intragastrically (20% ethanol w/v) and responding was maintained under a fixed-ratio schedule of food reinforcement. Dose-response determinations of ethanol, pentobarbital, midazolam, muscimol and morphine were made under the training condition of 30min pretreatment interval. The ethanol pretreatment interval in training sessions was then increased to 60min and the effects of ethanol, pentobarbital and midazolam were redetermined. Results: Training dose influenced the ED50 of ethanol to produce substitution under both pretreatment intervals and pentobarbital to produce substitution under the 30-min pretreatment training interval. There were no group differences in sensitivity to midazolam. The potency of the ligands to produce ethanol substitution was consistent across groups with midazolam>pentobarbital>ethanol. There were no sex differences in substitution of the ligands for ethanol. Blood ethanol concentrations at the onset of ethanol training sessions were higher in the 2.0g/kg groups and under longer pretreatment times, but were not different on the basis of sex. Conclusions: Pentobarbital and midazolam produce ethanol-like discriminative stimulus effects in male and female cynomolgus monkeys suggesting a significant GABAA component mediating the behavioral effects of ethanol. There was limited evidence that training dose of ethanol influenced substitution pattern of the GABAA ligands in cynomolgus monkeys, unlike previous findings in rats. Finally, there appear to be no sex differences in the profile of GABAA mechanisms involved in the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol.
    Psychopharmacology 09/2000; 152(2):181-188. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies showed that sensitivity to the ethanol-like discriminative stimulus effects of allopregnanolone and ethanol are enhanced during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle when progesterone levels peak in monkeys trained to discriminate 1.0 g/kg ethanol. The present study further explored the influence of the menstrual cycle phase on the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol, allopregnanolone, and midazolam. Female adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were trained to discriminate 1.0 g/kg ethanol (n = 3) or 2.0 g/kg ethanol (n = 4) (20% w/v; i.g.) from water (i.g.). A cumulative dosing procedure was used to test discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol (0.5-2.5 g/kg; i.g.) and the ethanol-like discriminative stimulus effects of allopregnanolone (0.1-1.0 mg/kg; i.v.) or midazolam (1.0-17 mg/kg; i.g.) during the follicular vs. luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In the 2.0-g/kg group, sensitivity to the ethanol-like effects of allopregnanolone was increased during the luteal vs. follicular phase in two of three monkeys. In contrast, average sensitivity to ethanol was not different in the luteal compared to the follicular phase in the 2.0-g/kg group. Finally, there was no difference in sensitivity to midazolam between the follicular and luteal phases in monkeys trained with either 2.0 g/kg or 1.0 g/kg ethanol. Overall, the ethanol-like discriminative stimulus effects of midazolam are not sensitive to the menstrual cycle phase. In addition, there was less influence of the menstrual cycle phase on allopregnanolone and ethanol sensitivity in a 2.0-g/kg compared to a 1.0-g/kg ethanol training dose.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 11/1999; 64(2):379-83. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The physiological consequences of drinking ethanol differ among men and women; however, the biological basis of this gender difference is unknown. Our study characterized sex-related blood ethanol concentration (BEC) 60 min postethanol administration and ethanol elimination rates in male and female monkeys and across the phases of the menstrual cycle. Subjects were male (n = 4) and female (n = 4) cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with a history of ethanol exposure and maintained at a lean body weight by food restriction. On three separate occasions, each monkey was administered 1.0 g/kg ethanol intragastrically and blood samples (20 microl) were collected every 60 min over a 5-hr period. For females, three phases of the menstrual cycle were determined by the presence of menses and plasma progesterone levels. There was no effect of menstrual cycle on mean 60 min BECs or mean rates of elimination. Mean BECs 60 min after 1.0 g/kg ethanol were: males = 86 mg/dl (+/- 2; n = 4) and females = 82 mg/dl (+/- 5; n = 4). There was no effect of sex on the highest BEC measured, which occurred at the 60 min time point in all subjects. Female monkeys did have faster average rates of ethanol elimination [34 +/- 2 (mg/dl)/hr] compared with males [23 +/- 1 (mg/dl)/hr]. The sex differences in metabolism of ethanol found with the macaque monkey model correlates well with human subject studies and suggests this is an appropriate model to further explore gender differences in response to ethanol.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 05/1999; 23(4):611-6. · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • K T Szeliga, K A Grant
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested a modulatory role of the 5-HT2 receptor system in the behavioral effects of ethanol. The present study examined the discriminative stimulus effects of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist (-)-dimethoxy-4-indophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI) and the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin in rats trained to discriminate either 1.5 g/kg of ethanol from water (intragastrically, n = 7) or 2.0 g/kg of ethanol from water (intragastrically, n = 8). In substitution tests, neither DOI (0.3 to 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) nor ketanserin (3.0 to 17.0 mg/kg, i.p.) produced discriminative stimulus effects similar to either training dose of ethanol, although decreases in rates of responding were significant at the highest doses tested. Likewise, when given in combination with ethanol, neither 5-HT2 ligand shifted the ethanol-dose response determination in either the 1.5 or 2.0 g/kg ethanol training groups. DOI in combination with ethanol did not alter rates of responding, whereas ketanserin in combination with ethanol significantly decreased response rates. Thus, the 5-HT2A receptor ligands do not appreciably affect the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol, in contrast to previous results with 5-HT1B ligands.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 06/1998; 22(3):646-51. · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Kendall T. Szeliga, Kathleen A. Grant
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested a modulatory role of the 5-HT2 receptor system in the behavioral effects of ethanol. The present study examined the discriminative stimulus effects of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist (–)-dimethoxy-4-indophenly-2-aminopropane (DOI) and the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin in rats trained to discriminate either 1.5 g/kg of ethanol from water (intragastrically, n= 7) or 2.0 g/kg of ethanol from water (intragastrically, n= 8). In substitution tests, neither DOI (0.3 to 1.0 mg/kg, ip) nor ketanserin (3.0 to 17.0 mg/kg, ip) produced discriminative stimulus effects similar to either training dose of ethanol, although decreases in rates of responding were significant at the highest doses tested. Likewise, when given in combination with ethanol, neither 5-HT2 ligand shifted the ethanol-dose response determination in either the 1.5 or 2.0 g/kg ethanol training groups. DOI in combination with ethanol did not alter rates of responding, whereas ketanserin in combination with ethanol significantly decreased response rates. Thus, the 5-HT2A receptor ligands do not appreciably affect the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol, in contrast to previous results with 5-HT1B ligands.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 04/1998; 22(3):646 - 651. · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Behavioural Pharmacology - BEHAV PHARMACOL. 01/1998; 9(1).

Publication Stats

128 Citations
50.66 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • Department of Behavioral Neuroscience
      Portland, Oregon, United States
  • 2005
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 1998–2002
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States