Rakesh Singh Dhanda

Biomedical Informatics Centre, Chandigarh, Chandigarh, India

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Publications (8)15.75 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of the tcpC in the blood E.coli isolates collected from the sepsis patients admitted to the ICU was investigated for the first time. The blood and fecal samples were collected from sepsis and non-sepsis patients, respectively. The prevalence of the tcpC and phylogroups was confirmed by gene-specific PCR. The occurrence of the tcpC in the blood E.coli isolates from sepsis patients was significantly higher than the fecal isolates. The higher prevalence of blood E.coli isolates among the pathogenic groups (B2,D) as compared to the commensal groups (A,B1) suggests tcpC as a prospective new virulence marker for sepsis.
  • N. Malla, K. Goyal, R. S. Dhanda, M. Yadav
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    ABSTRACT: Innate and adaptive immunity play a significant role in urogenital infections. Innate immunity is provided by the epithelial cells and mucus lining along with acidic pH, which forms a strong physical barrier against the pathogens in female reproductive tract. Cells of innate immune system, antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, chemokines and adaptive immunity in the reproductive tract are evolved during infection, and a pro-inflammatory response is generated to fight against the invading pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, a primary urogenital protozoa, the etiological agent of human trichomoniasis, a curable sexually transmitted infection. The involvement of the urogenital tract by other protozoal infections such as P. falciparum, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Entamoeba histolytica and Acanthamoeba infection is rarely reported. Trichomonas induce pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive responses in infected subjects. Multifactorial pathogenic mechanisms including parasite adherence, cysteine proteases, lipophosphoglycan, free radical, cytokine generation and Toll-like receptors appear to interplay with the induction of local and systemic immune responses that ultimately determine the outcome of the infection. However, the involvement of urogenital pathogen-specific immune mechanisms and effect of normal local resident flora on the outcome (symptomatic vs. asymptomatic) of infection are poorly understood. Moreover, immune interactions in trichomoniasis subjects co-infected with bacterial and viral pathogens need to be elucidated.
    Parasite Immunology 09/2014; 36(9). DOI:10.1111/pim.12114 · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • Manisha Yadav, D Nagarjuna, Rakesh Singh Dhanda
    BMC Infectious Diseases 05/2014; 14(Suppl 3):E20. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-S3-E20 · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • Manisha Yadav, Neha Verma, Rakesh Singh Dhanda
    Health 01/2013; 05(08):1216-1226. DOI:10.4236/health.2013.58165 · 0.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MTG16, MTGR1 and ETO are nuclear transcriptional corepressors of the human ETO protein family. MTG16 is implicated in hematopoietic development and in controlling erythropoiesis/megakaryopoiesis. Furthermore, ETO homologue genes are 3'participants in leukemia fusions generated by chromosomal translocations responsible of hematopoietic dysregulation. We tried to identify structural and functional promoter elements of MTG16 and MTGR1 genes in order to find associations between their regulation and hematopoiesis. 5' deletion examinations and luciferase reporter gene studies indicated that a 492 bp sequence upstream of the transcription start site is essential for transcriptional activity by the MTG16 promoter. The TATA- and CCAAT-less promoter with a GC box close to the start site showed strong reporter activity when examined in erythroid/megakaryocytic cells. Mutation of an evolutionary conserved GATA -301 consensus binding site repressed promoter function. Furthermore, results from in vitro antibody-enhanced electrophoretic mobility shift assay and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated binding of GATA-1 to the GATA -301 site. A role of GATA-1 was also supported by transfection of small interfering RNA, which diminished MTG16 expression. Furthermore, expression of the transcription factor HERP2, which represses GATA-1, produced strong inhibition of the MTG16 promoter reporter consistent with a role of GATA-1 in transcriptional activation. The TATA-less and CCAAT-less MTGR1 promoter retained most of the transcriptional activity within a -308 to -207 bp region with a GC-box-rich sequence containing multiple SP1 binding sites reminiscent of a housekeeping gene with constitutive expression. However, mutations of individual SP1 binding sites did not repress promoter function; multiple active SP1 binding sites may be required to safeguard constitutive MTGR1 transcriptional activity. The observed repression of MTG16/MTGR1 promoters by the leukemia associated AML1-ETO fusion gene may have a role in hematopoietic dysfunction of leukemia. An evolutionary conserved GATA binding site is critical in transcriptional regulation of the MTG16 promoter. In contrast, the MTGR1 gene depends on a GC-box-rich sequence for transcriptional regulation and possible ubiquitous expression. Our results demonstrate that the ETO homologue promoters are regulated differently consistent with hematopoietic cell-type- specific expression and function.
    BMC Molecular Biology 03/2012; 13:11. DOI:10.1186/1471-2199-13-11 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    Ram Ajore, Rakesh Singh Dhanda, Urban Gullberg, Inge Olsson
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    ABSTRACT: The Eight-Twenty-One (ETO) nuclear co-repressor gene belongs to the ETO homologue family also containing Myeloid Translocation Gene on chromosome 16 (MTG16) and myeloid translocation Gene-Related protein 1 (MTGR1). By chromosomal translocations ETO and MTG16 become parts of fusion proteins characteristic of morphological variants of acute myeloid leukemia. Normal functions of ETO homologues have as yet not been examined. The goal of this work was to identify structural and functional promoter elements upstream of the coding sequence of the ETO gene in order to explore lineage-specific hematopoietic expression and get hints to function. A putative proximal ETO promoter was identified within 411 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Strong ETO promoter activity was specifically observed upon transfection of a promoter reporter construct into erythroid/megakaryocytic cells, which have endogeneous ETO gene activity. An evolutionary conserved region of 228 bp revealed potential cis-elements involved in transcription of ETO. Disruption of the evolutionary conserved GATA -636 consensus binding site repressed transactivation and disruption of the ETS1 -705 consensus binding site enhanced activity of the ETO promoter. The promoter was stimulated by overexpression of GATA-1 into erythroid/megakaryocytic cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay with erythroid/megakaryocytic cells showed specific binding of GATA-1 to the GATA -636 site. Furthermore, results from chromatin immunoprecipitation showed GATA-1 binding in vivo to the conserved region of the ETO promoter containing the -636 site. The results suggest that the GATA -636 site may have a role in activation of the ETO gene activity in cells with erythroid/megakaryocytic potential. Leukemia associated AML1-ETO strongly suppressed an ETO promoter reporter in erythroid/megakaryocytic cells. We demonstrate that the GATA-1 transcription factor binds and transactivates the ETO proximal promoter in an erythroid/megakaryocytic-specific manner. Thus, trans-acting factors that are essential in erythroid/megakaryocytic differentiation govern ETO expression.
    BMC Molecular Biology 05/2010; 11:38. DOI:10.1186/1471-2199-11-38 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • AndrĂ© Olsson, Inge Olsson, Rakesh Singh Dhanda
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    ABSTRACT: The leukaemia-associated eight-twenty-one (ETO) family members ETO, MTG16 (Myeloid Translocation Gene on chromosome 16) and MTGR1 (Myeloid Transforming Gene-Related protein1) are putative transcriptional repressor proteins, which form complexes with coregulatory nuclear corepressors such as SIN3 (SWI-Independent) and N-CoR (Nuclear receptor Co Repressor). In acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), fusion proteins involving the transcription factor AML1 and corepressors ETO or MTG16 are recurrently found. We investigated transcriptional repression by the ETO family members ETO and MTG16 with attention to the conserved Nervy Homology Regions (NHRs) and the interacting corepressors human SIN3B (hSIN3B) and N-CoR. Transcriptional repression was examined in a cell line by a GAL4-thymidine kinase luciferase reporter to which the corepressors were tethered through a binding domain. ETO- and MTG16-mediated repression was found to be independent of deletion of the oligomerization NHR2, but deletion of NHR4 and in particular combined deletion of NHR2 and NHR4 lowered the capacity for repression. An interaction was observed between the corepressors hSIN3B and N-CoR and these two proteins cooperated for transcriptional repression independent of co-transfected ETO and MTG16. Transcriptional repression mediated by ETO and MTG16 was only slightly strengthened by coexpression of hSIN3B or N-CoR and was dependent on HDAC activity. Our data indicate that ETO family member-mediated oligomerization and repression can be distinct events and that interaction between ETO family members and hSIN3B or N-CoR may not necessarily strengthen transcriptional repression.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/2008; 1779(10):590-8. DOI:10.1016/j.bbagrm.2008.06.001 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    Rakesh Singh Dhanda, Sofia Rondin Lindberg, Inge Olsson
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    ABSTRACT: SIN3 (SWI-Independent) is part of a transcriptional deacetylase complex, which generally mediates the formation of repressive chromatin. The purpose of this work was to study possible interactions between corepressors human SIN3B (hSIN3B) and the ETO homologues - ETO (eight twenty-one), MTG16 (myeloid-transforming gene 16) and MTGR1 (MTG-related protein 1). In addition, the subnuclear localization of the hSIN3B and the ETO homologues was also examined. A ubiquitous expression of hSIN3B was observed in adult and fetal tissues. Results with both ectopically expressed proteins in COS-7 cells and endogeneous proteins in the K562 human erytholeukemia cell line demonstrated interactions between hSIN3B and ETO or MTG16 but not MTGR1. Furthermore, nuclear extract of primary placental cells showed complexes between hSIN3B and ETO. The interaction between hSIN3B and ETO required an intact amino-terminus of ETO and the NHR2 domain. A nucleolar localization of hSIN3B and all the ETO homologues was demonstrated upon overexpression in COS-7 cells, and confirmed for the endogeneously expressed proteins in K562 cells. However, hSIN3B did not colocalize or interact with the leukemia-associated AML1 -ETO. Our data from protein-protein interactions and immunolocalization experiments support that hSIN3B is a potential member of a corepressor complex involving selective ETO homologues.
    BMC Molecular Biology 02/2008; 9:8. DOI:10.1186/1471-2199-9-8 · 2.06 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12 Citations
15.75 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Biomedical Informatics Centre
      Chandigarh, Chandigarh, India
  • 2012–2014
    • Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Translational and Regenerative Medicine
      Chandigarh, Chandigarh, India