[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background A finding of reduced aortic-valve leaflet motion was noted on computed tomography (CT) in a patient who had a stroke after transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) during an ongoing clinical trial. This finding raised a concern about possible subclinical leaflet thrombosis and prompted further investigation. Methods We analyzed data obtained from 55 patients in a clinical trial of TAVR and from two single-center registries that included 132 patients who were undergoing either TAVR or surgical aortic-valve bioprosthesis implantation. We obtained four-dimensional, volume-rendered CT scans along with data on anticoagulation and clinical outcomes (including strokes and transient ischemic attacks [TIAs]). Results Reduced leaflet motion was noted on CT in 22 of 55 patients (40%) in the clinical trial and in 17 of 132 patients (13%) in the two registries. Reduced leaflet motion was detected among patients with multiple bioprosthesis types, including transcatheter and surgical bioprostheses. Therapeutic anticoagulation with warfarin, as compared with dual antiplatelet therapy, was associated with a decreased incidence of reduced leaflet motion (0% and 55%, respectively, P=0.01 in the clinical trial; and 0% and 29%, respectively, P=0.04 in the pooled registries). In patients who were reevaluated with follow-up CT, restoration of leaflet motion was noted in all 11 patients who were receiving anticoagulation and in 1 of 10 patients who were not receiving anticoagulation (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the incidence of stroke or TIA between patients with reduced leaflet motion and those with normal leaflet motion in the clinical trial (2 of 22 patients and 0 of 33 patients, respectively; P=0.16), although in the pooled registries, a significant difference was detected (3 of 17 patients and 1 of 115 patients, respectively; P=0.007). Conclusions Reduced aortic-valve leaflet motion was shown in patients with bioprosthetic aortic valves. The condition resolved with therapeutic anticoagulation. The effect of this finding on clinical outcomes including stroke needs further investigation. (Funded by St. Jude Medical and Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute; Portico-IDE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02000115 ; SAVORY registry, NCT02426307 ; and RESOLVE registry, NCT02318342 .).
New England Journal of Medicine 10/2015; 373(21). DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1509233 · 55.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SYMPLICITY HTN-3, the first trial of renal denervation (RDN) versus sham, enrolled 26% African Americans, a prospectively stratified cohort. Although the 6-month systolic blood pressure (SBP) reduction in African Americans (AAs) was similar in the RDN group (-15.5 ± 25.4 mm Hg, n = 85 vs. -17.8 ± 29.2, n = 49, P = .641), the sham SBP response was 9.2 mm Hg greater (P = .057) in AAs than non-AAs. In multivariate analyses, sham SBP response was predicted by an interaction between AA and a complex antihypertensive regimen (at least one antihypertensive medication prescribed ≥3 times daily), while in the RDN group, SBP response was predicted by an interaction between AA race and baseline BP ≥ 180 mm Hg. AA race did not independently predict SBP response in either sham or RDN. There appears to be effect modification by race with individual-level patient characteristics in both treatment arms that affect the observed pattern of SBP responses.
Journal of the American Society of Hypertension (JASH) 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jash.2015.08.001 · 2.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased mortality after surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for aortic stenosis (AS), and when the pulmonary artery pressure is particularly elevated, there may be questions about the clinical benefit of TAVR. We aimed to identify clinical and haemodynamic factors associated with increased mortality after TAVR among those with moderate/severe PH. Methods Among patients with symptomatic AS at high or prohibitive surgical risk receiving TAVR in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) I randomised trial or registry, 2180 patients with an invasive measurement of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) recorded were included, and moderate/severe PH was defined as an mPAP ≥35 mm Hg. Results Increasing severity of PH was associated with progressively worse 1-year all-cause mortality: none (n=785, 18.6%), mild (n=838, 22.7%) and moderate/severe (n=557, 25.0%) (p=0.01). The increased hazard of mortality associated with moderate/severe PH was observed in females, but not males (interaction p=0.03). In adjusted analyses, females with moderate/severe PH had an increased hazard of death at 1 year compared with females without PH (adjusted HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.18), whereas those with mild PH did not. Among males, there was no increased hazard of death associated with any severity of PH. In a multivariable Cox model of patients with moderate/severe PH, oxygen-dependent lung disease, inability to perform a 6 min walk, impaired renal function and lower aortic valve mean gradient were independently associated with increased 1-year mortality (p
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have a pre-existing, permanent pacemaker (PPM) or receive one as a consequence of the procedure. We hypothesised that chronic pacing may have adverse effects on TAVI outcomes.
Four groups of patients undergoing TAVI in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) trial and registries were compared: prior PPM (n=586), new PPM (n=173), no PPM (n=1612), and left bundle branch block (LBBB)/no PPM (n=160). At 1 year, prior PPM, new PPM and LBBB/no PPM had higher all-cause mortality than no PPM (27.4%, 26.3%, 27.7% and 20.0%, p<0.05), and prior PPM or new PPM had higher rehospitalisation or mortality/rehospitalisation (p<0.04). By Cox regression analysis, new PPM (HR 1.38, 1.00 to 1.89, p=0.05) and prior PPM (HR 1.31, 1.08 to 1.60, p=0.006) were independently associated with 1-year mortality. Surviving prior PPM, new PPM and LBBB/no PPM patients had lower LVEF at 1 year relative to no PPM (50.5%, 55.4%, 48.9% and 57.6%, p<0.01). Prior PPM had worsened recovery of LVEF after TAVI (Δ=10.0 prior vs 19.7% no PPM for baseline LVEF <35%, p<0.0001; Δ=4.1 prior vs 7.4% no PPM for baseline LVEF 35-50%, p=0.006). Paced ECGs displayed a high prevalence of RV pacing (>88%).
In the PARTNER trial, prior PPM, along with new PPM and chronic LBBB patients, had worsened clinical and echocardiographic outcomes relative to no PPM patients, and the presence of a PPM was independently associated with 1-year mortality. Ventricular dyssynchrony due to chronic RV pacing may be mechanistically responsible for these findings.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study sought to compare long-term optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based in-stent vascular response between the abluminal groove-filled biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) and the durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (EES) in the TARGET I trial. The TARGET I trial was a prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial which enrolled 458 patients with single de novo lesions treated by abluminal groove-filled biodegradable polymer SES and EES. A subset of 43 patients underwent angiography and OCT examinations at 3 years. All OCT images were analyzed at 0.4 mm intervals. A similar increase in angiographic late lumen loss was observed in SES and EES (from 0.05 ± 0.05 vs. 0.05 ± 0.05 mm [p = 0.84] at 9 months to 0.25 ± 0.37 vs. 0.26 ± 0.19 mm [p = 0.99] at 3 years, respectively), without significant differences at 3 years in mean neointimal thickness of stent struts (SES: 0.13 ± 0.02 mm vs. EES: 0.13 ± 0.02 mm, p = 0.80); mean percentage of covered struts (SES: 99.2 % vs. EES: 99.3 %, p = 0.53), or malapposed strut rates (SES: 0.08 % vs. EES: 0.06 %, p = 0.15). The OCT-based in-stent vascular response evaluation found similar vascular healing for the two studied devices, indicating that the luminal loss in EES from 9 months to 3 years cannot be imputed on its coated biocompatible polymer.
The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 07/2015; 31(8). DOI:10.1007/s10554-015-0721-z · 1.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
There has been conflicting clinical evidence as to the influence of female sex on outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of sex on early and late mortality and safety end points after transcatheter aortic valve replacement using a collaborative meta-analysis of patient-level data.
From the MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases, data were obtained from 5 studies, and a database containing individual patient-level time-to-event data was generated from the registry of each selected study. The primary outcome of interest was all-cause mortality. The safety end point was the combined 30-day safety end points of major vascular complications, bleeding events, and stroke, as defined by the Valve Academic Research Consortium when available.
Five studies and their ongoing registry data, comprising 11,310 patients, were included. Women constituted 48.6% of the cohort and had fewer comorbidities than men. Women had a higher rate of major vascular complications (6.3% vs. 3.4%; p < 0.001), major bleeding events (10.5% vs. 8.5%; p = 0.003), and stroke (4.4% vs. 3.6%; p = 0.029) but a lower rate of significant aortic incompetence (grade ≥2; 19.4% vs. 24.5%; p < 0.001). There were no differences in procedural and 30-day mortality between women and men (2.6 % vs. 2.2% [p = 0.24] and 6.5% vs. 6.5% [p = 0.93], respectively), but female sex was independently associated with improved survival at median follow-up of 387 days (interquartile range: 192 to 730 days) from the index procedure (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.79; 95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 0.86; p = 0.001).
Although women experience more bleeding events, as well as vascular and stroke complications, female sex is an independent predictor of late survival after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. This should be taken into account during patient selection for this procedure.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2015; 66(3):221-228. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.05.024 · 16.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The study objectives were to (1) compare the safety of high-risk surgical aortic valve replacement in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) I trial with Society of Thoracic Surgeons national benchmarks; (2) reference intermediate-term survival to that of the US population; and (3) identify subsets of patients for whom aortic valve replacement may be futile, with no survival benefit compared with therapy without aortic valve replacement.
From May 2007 to October 2009, 699 patients with high surgical risk, aged 84 ± 6.3 years, were randomized in PARTNER-IA; 313 patients underwent surgical aortic valve replacement. Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Survival for therapy without aortic valve replacement used 181 PARTNER-IB patients.
Operative mortality was 10.5% (expected 9.3%), stroke 2.6% (expected 3.5%), renal failure 5.8% (expected 12%), sternal wound infection 0.64% (expected 0.33%), and prolonged length of stay 26% (expected 18%). However, calibration of observed events in this relatively small sample was poor. Survival at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years was 75%, 68%, 57%, and 44%, respectively, lower than 90%, 81%, 73%, and 65%, respectively, in the US population, but higher than 53%, 32%, 21%, and 14%, respectively, in patients without aortic valve replacement. Risk factors for death included smaller body mass index, lower albumin, history of cancer, and prosthesis-patient mismatch. Within this high-risk aortic valve replacement group, only the 8% of patients with the poorest risk profiles had estimated 1-year survival less than that of similar patients treated without aortic valve replacement.
PARTNER selection criteria for surgical aortic valve replacement, with a few caveats, may be more appropriate, realistic indications for surgery than those of the past, reflecting contemporary surgical management of severe aortic stenosis in high-risk patients at experienced sites.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 06/2015; 150(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.05.073 · 4.17 Impact Factor