Martin B Leon

Columbia University, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (726)6701.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The long-term risk associated with different coronary artery disease (CAD) presentations in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES) is poorly characterized. We pooled patient-level data for women enrolled in 26 randomized clinical trials. Of 11,577 women included in the pooled database, 10,133 with known clinical presentation received a DES. Of them, 5,760 (57%) had stable angina pectoris (SAP), 3,594 (35%) had unstable angina pectoris (UAP) or non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and 779 (8%) had ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as clinical presentation. A stepwise increase in 3-year crude cumulative mortality was observed in the transition from SAP to STEMI (4.9% vs 6.1% vs 9.4%; p <0.01). Conversely, no differences in crude mortality rates were observed between 1 and 3 years across clinical presentations. After multivariable adjustment, STEMI was independently associated with greater risk of 3-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 3.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.99 to 5.98; p <0.01), whereas no differences were observed between UAP or NSTEMI and SAP (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.34; p = 0.94). In women with ACS, use of new-generation DES was associated with reduced risk of major adverse cardiac events (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.98). The magnitude and direction of the effect with new-generation DES was uniform between women with or without ACS (pinteraction = 0.66). In conclusion, in women across the clinical spectrum of CAD, STEMI was associated with a greater risk of long-term mortality. Conversely, the adjusted risk of mortality between UAP or NSTEMI and SAP was similar. New-generation DESs provide improved long-term clinical outcomes irrespective of the clinical presentation in women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.06.010 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 08/2015; 8(9):1266. DOI:10.1016/j.jcin.2015.05.009 · 7.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased mortality after surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for aortic stenosis (AS), and when the pulmonary artery pressure is particularly elevated, there may be questions about the clinical benefit of TAVR. We aimed to identify clinical and haemodynamic factors associated with increased mortality after TAVR among those with moderate/severe PH. Among patients with symptomatic AS at high or prohibitive surgical risk receiving TAVR in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) I randomised trial or registry, 2180 patients with an invasive measurement of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) recorded were included, and moderate/severe PH was defined as an mPAP ≥35 mm Hg. Increasing severity of PH was associated with progressively worse 1-year all-cause mortality: none (n=785, 18.6%), mild (n=838, 22.7%) and moderate/severe (n=557, 25.0%) (p=0.01). The increased hazard of mortality associated with moderate/severe PH was observed in females, but not males (interaction p=0.03). In adjusted analyses, females with moderate/severe PH had an increased hazard of death at 1 year compared with females without PH (adjusted HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.18), whereas those with mild PH did not. Among males, there was no increased hazard of death associated with any severity of PH. In a multivariable Cox model of patients with moderate/severe PH, oxygen-dependent lung disease, inability to perform a 6 min walk, impaired renal function and lower aortic valve mean gradient were independently associated with increased 1-year mortality (p<0.05 for all), whereas several haemodynamic indices were not. A risk score, including these factors, was able to identify patients with a 15% vs 59% 1-year mortality. The relationship between moderate/severe PH and increased mortality after TAVR is altered by sex, and clinical factors appear to be more influential in stratifying risk than haemodynamic indices. These findings may have implications for the evaluation of and treatment decisions for patients referred for TAVR with significant PH. NCT00530894. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 08/2015; DOI:10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308001 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have a pre-existing, permanent pacemaker (PPM) or receive one as a consequence of the procedure. We hypothesised that chronic pacing may have adverse effects on TAVI outcomes. Four groups of patients undergoing TAVI in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) trial and registries were compared: prior PPM (n=586), new PPM (n=173), no PPM (n=1612), and left bundle branch block (LBBB)/no PPM (n=160). At 1 year, prior PPM, new PPM and LBBB/no PPM had higher all-cause mortality than no PPM (27.4%, 26.3%, 27.7% and 20.0%, p<0.05), and prior PPM or new PPM had higher rehospitalisation or mortality/rehospitalisation (p<0.04). By Cox regression analysis, new PPM (HR 1.38, 1.00 to 1.89, p=0.05) and prior PPM (HR 1.31, 1.08 to 1.60, p=0.006) were independently associated with 1-year mortality. Surviving prior PPM, new PPM and LBBB/no PPM patients had lower LVEF at 1 year relative to no PPM (50.5%, 55.4%, 48.9% and 57.6%, p<0.01). Prior PPM had worsened recovery of LVEF after TAVI (Δ=10.0 prior vs 19.7% no PPM for baseline LVEF <35%, p<0.0001; Δ=4.1 prior vs 7.4% no PPM for baseline LVEF 35-50%, p=0.006). Paced ECGs displayed a high prevalence of RV pacing (>88%). In the PARTNER trial, prior PPM, along with new PPM and chronic LBBB patients, had worsened clinical and echocardiographic outcomes relative to no PPM patients, and the presence of a PPM was independently associated with 1-year mortality. Ventricular dyssynchrony due to chronic RV pacing may be mechanistically responsible for these findings. ( NCT00530894). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 08/2015; DOI:10.1136/heartjnl-2015-307666 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An increased use of bioprosthetic heart valves has stimulated an interest in possible transcatheter options for bioprosthetic valve failure given the high operative risk. The encouraging results of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in high-risk surgical candidates with native disease have led to the development of the transcatheter valve-in-valve (VIV) procedures for failed bioprostheses. VIV procedures are unique in many ways, and there is an increased need for multimodality imaging in a team-based approach. The echocardiographic approach to VIV procedures has not previously been described. In this review, we summarize key echocardiographic requirements for optimal patient selection, procedural guidance, and immediate post-procedural assessment for VIV procedures. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    JACC. Cardiovascular imaging 08/2015; 8(8):960-979. DOI:10.1016/j.jcmg.2015.01.024 · 6.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes short-term and mid-term outcomes of nonagenarian patients undergoing transfemoral or transapical transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve (PARTNER)-I trial. From April 2007 to February 2012, 531 nonagenarians, mean age 93 ± 2.1 years, underwent TAVR with a balloon-expandable prosthesis in the PARTNER-I trial: 329 through transfemoral (TF-TAVR) and 202 transapical (TA-TAVR) access. Clinical events were adjudicated and echocardiographic results analyzed in a core laboratory. Quality of life (QoL) data were obtained up to 1 year post-TAVR. Time-varying all-cause mortality was referenced to that of an age-sex-race-matched US population. For TF-TAVR, post-procedure 30-day stroke risk was 3.6%; major adverse events occurred in 35% of patients; 30-day paravalvular leak was greater than moderate in 1.4%; median post-procedure length of stay (LOS) was 5 days. Thirty-day mortality was 4.0% and 3-year mortality 48% (44% for the matched population). By 6 months, most QoL measures had stabilized at a level considerably better than baseline, with Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) 72 ± 21. For TA-TAVR, post-procedure 30-day stroke risk was 2.0%; major adverse events 32%; 30-day paravalvular leak was greater than moderate in 0.61%; and median post-procedure LOS was 8 days. Thirty-day mortality was 12% and 3-year mortality 54% (42% for the matched population); KCCQ was 73 ± 23. A TAVR can be performed in nonagenarians with acceptable short- and mid-term outcomes. Although TF- and TA-TAVR outcomes are not directly comparable, TA-TAVR appears to carry a higher risk of early death without a difference in intermediate-term mortality. Age alone should not preclude referral for TAVR in nonagenarians. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2015.05.021 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study sought to compare long-term optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based in-stent vascular response between the abluminal groove-filled biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) and the durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (EES) in the TARGET I trial. The TARGET I trial was a prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial which enrolled 458 patients with single de novo lesions treated by abluminal groove-filled biodegradable polymer SES and EES. A subset of 43 patients underwent angiography and OCT examinations at 3 years. All OCT images were analyzed at 0.4 mm intervals. A similar increase in angiographic late lumen loss was observed in SES and EES (from 0.05 ± 0.05 vs. 0.05 ± 0.05 mm [p = 0.84] at 9 months to 0.25 ± 0.37 vs. 0.26 ± 0.19 mm [p = 0.99] at 3 years, respectively), without significant differences at 3 years in mean neointimal thickness of stent struts (SES: 0.13 ± 0.02 mm vs. EES: 0.13 ± 0.02 mm, p = 0.80); mean percentage of covered struts (SES: 99.2 % vs. EES: 99.3 %, p = 0.53), or malapposed strut rates (SES: 0.08 % vs. EES: 0.06 %, p = 0.15). The OCT-based in-stent vascular response evaluation found similar vascular healing for the two studied devices, indicating that the luminal loss in EES from 9 months to 3 years cannot be imputed on its coated biocompatible polymer.
    The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10554-015-0721-z · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There has been conflicting clinical evidence as to the influence of female sex on outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of sex on early and late mortality and safety end points after transcatheter aortic valve replacement using a collaborative meta-analysis of patient-level data. From the MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases, data were obtained from 5 studies, and a database containing individual patient-level time-to-event data was generated from the registry of each selected study. The primary outcome of interest was all-cause mortality. The safety end point was the combined 30-day safety end points of major vascular complications, bleeding events, and stroke, as defined by the Valve Academic Research Consortium when available. Five studies and their ongoing registry data, comprising 11,310 patients, were included. Women constituted 48.6% of the cohort and had fewer comorbidities than men. Women had a higher rate of major vascular complications (6.3% vs. 3.4%; p < 0.001), major bleeding events (10.5% vs. 8.5%; p = 0.003), and stroke (4.4% vs. 3.6%; p = 0.029) but a lower rate of significant aortic incompetence (grade ≥2; 19.4% vs. 24.5%; p < 0.001). There were no differences in procedural and 30-day mortality between women and men (2.6 % vs. 2.2% [p = 0.24] and 6.5% vs. 6.5% [p = 0.93], respectively), but female sex was independently associated with improved survival at median follow-up of 387 days (interquartile range: 192 to 730 days) from the index procedure (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.79; 95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 0.86; p = 0.001). Although women experience more bleeding events, as well as vascular and stroke complications, female sex is an independent predictor of late survival after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. This should be taken into account during patient selection for this procedure. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2015; 66(3):221-228. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.05.024 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most prevalent valve disorders and has numerous etiologies, including primary (organic) MR, due to underlying degenerative/structural mitral valve (MV) pathology, and secondary (functional) MR, which is principally caused by global or regional left ventricular remodeling and/or severe left atrial dilation. Diagnosis and optimal management of MR requires integration of valve disease and heart failure specialists, MV cardiac surgeons, interventional cardiologists with expertise in structural heart disease, and imaging experts. The introduction of transcatheter MV therapies has highlighted the need for a consensus approach to pragmatic clinical trial design and uniform endpoint definitions to evaluate outcomes in patients with MR. The Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium is a collaboration between leading academic research organizations and physician-scientists specializing in MV disease from the United States and Europe. Three in-person meetings were held in Virginia and New York during which 44 heart failure, valve, and imaging experts, MV surgeons and interventional cardiologists, clinical trial specialists and statisticians, and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered all aspects of MV pathophysiology, prognosis, and therapies, culminating in a 2-part document describing consensus recommendations for clinical trial design (Part 1) and endpoint definitions (Part 2) to guide evaluation of transcatheter and surgical therapies for MR. The adoption of these recommendations will afford robustness and consistency in the comparative effectiveness evaluation of new devices and approaches to treat MR. These principles may be useful for regulatory assessment of new transcatheter MV devices, as well as for monitoring local and regional outcomes to guide quality improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    European Heart Journal 07/2015; 66(3). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv333 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To assess technical performance learning curves of teams performing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TF-TAVR).BackgroundTF-TAVR is a new procedure for treating severe aortic stenosis. The number of cases required for procedural efficiency is unknown.Methods In the PARTNER-I trial, 1,521 patients underwent TF-TAVR from 4/2007–2/2012. Learning curve analysis of technical performance metrics was performed using institution-specific patient sequence number, interval between procedures, and institutional trial entry date. Learning curve characteristics were assessed using semi-parametric and parametric mixed-effects models.ResultsAs patient sequence number increased, average procedure time decreased from 154 to 85 minutes (P < 0.0001), and fluoroscopy time from 28 to 20 minutes (P < 0.0001). Procedure time plateaued at an average of 83 minutes (range 52–140). Procedure time plateau was dynamic during the course of the trial, averaging 25 cases (range 21–52) by its end. The later institutions enrolled in the trial, the shorter the initial procedure time. During the trial, percutaneous rather than surgical access increased from 7.9% to 69%.Conclusions Technical performance learning curves exist for TF-TAVR; procedural efficiency increased with experience, with concomitant decreases in radiation and contrast media exposure. The number of cases needed to achieve efficiency decreased progressively, with optimal procedural performance reached after approximately 25 cases for late-entering institutions. Knowledge and experience accumulated by early TF-TAVR institutions were disseminated, shortening the learning curve of late-entering institutions. Technological advances resulting from learning during the trial moved the field from initial conservative surgical cut-down to percutaneous access for most patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/ccd.26120 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study objectives were to (1) compare the safety of high-risk surgical aortic valve replacement in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) I trial with Society of Thoracic Surgeons national benchmarks; (2) reference intermediate-term survival to that of the US population; and (3) identify subsets of patients for whom aortic valve replacement may be futile, with no survival benefit compared with therapy without aortic valve replacement. From May 2007 to October 2009, 699 patients with high surgical risk, aged 84 ± 6.3 years, were randomized in PARTNER-IA; 313 patients underwent surgical aortic valve replacement. Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Survival for therapy without aortic valve replacement used 181 PARTNER-IB patients. Operative mortality was 10.5% (expected 9.3%), stroke 2.6% (expected 3.5%), renal failure 5.8% (expected 12%), sternal wound infection 0.64% (expected 0.33%), and prolonged length of stay 26% (expected 18%). However, calibration of observed events in this relatively small sample was poor. Survival at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years was 75%, 68%, 57%, and 44%, respectively, lower than 90%, 81%, 73%, and 65%, respectively, in the US population, but higher than 53%, 32%, 21%, and 14%, respectively, in patients without aortic valve replacement. Risk factors for death included smaller body mass index, lower albumin, history of cancer, and prosthesis-patient mismatch. Within this high-risk aortic valve replacement group, only the 8% of patients with the poorest risk profiles had estimated 1-year survival less than that of similar patients treated without aortic valve replacement. PARTNER selection criteria for surgical aortic valve replacement, with a few caveats, may be more appropriate, realistic indications for surgery than those of the past, reflecting contemporary surgical management of severe aortic stenosis in high-risk patients at experienced sites. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.05.073 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the Placement of AoRTic TraNscathetER Valve (PARTNER) randomized controlled trial (RCT), which represented the first exposure to transapical transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TA-TAVR) for many clinical sites, high-risk patients undergoing TA-TAVR derived similar health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes when compared with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). With increasing experience, it is possible that HRQoL outcomes of TA-TAVR may have improved. We evaluated HRQoL outcomes at 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups among 875 patients undergoing TA-TAVR in the PARTNER nonrandomized continued access (NRCA) registry and compared these outcomes with those of the TA-TAVR and SAVR patients in the PARTNER RCT. HRQoL was assessed with the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 12, and the EuroQoL-5D, with the KCCQ overall summary score serving as the primary end point. The NRCA TA-TAVR and RCT TA-TAVR and SAVR groups were generally similar. The primary outcome, the KCCQ summary score, did not differ between the NRCA TA-TAVR and the RCT TA-TAVR group at any follow-up timepoints, although there were small differences in favor of the NRCA cohort on several KCCQ subscales at 1 month. There were no significant differences in follow-up HRQOL between the NRCA-TAVR and the RCT SAVR cohorts on the KCCQ overall summary scale or any of the disease-specific or generic subscales. Despite greater experience with TA-TAVR in the NRCA registry, HRQoL outcomes remained similar to those of TA-TAVR in the original RCT cohort and no better than those with SAVR. These findings have important implications for patient selection for TAVR when transfemoral access is not an option. URL: Unique identifier: NCT00530894. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 06/2015; DOI:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.114.001335 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: sec> Objectives Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common entity in patients with aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), but its influence on outcomes remains controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the clinical impact of and changes in significant (moderate–severe) MR in patients undergoing TAVR, overall and according to valve design (self-expandable (SEV) vs balloon-expandable (BEV)). Methods All national registries and randomised trials were pooled using meta-analytical guidelines to establish the impact of moderate–severe MR on mortality after TAVR. Studies reporting changes in MR after TAVR on an individual level were electronically searched and used for the analysis. Results Eight studies including 8015 patients (SEV: 3474 patients; BEV: 4492 patients) were included in the analysis. The overall 30-day and 1-year mortality was increased in patients with significant MR (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.92; HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.55, respectively), but a significant heterogeneity across studies was observed (p<0.05). The impact of MR on mortality was not different between SEV and BEV in meta-regression analysis for 30-day (p=0.360) and 1-year (p=0.388) mortality. Changes in MR over time were evaluated in nine studies including 1278 patients. Moderate–severe MR (SEV: 326 patients; BEV: 192 patients) improved in 50.5% of the patients at a median follow-up of 180 (30–360) days after TAVR, and the degree of improvement was greater in patients who had received a BEV (66.7% vs 40.8% in the SEV group, p=0.001). Conclusions Concomitant moderate–severe MR was associated with increased early and late mortality following TAVR. A significant improvement in MR severity was detected in half of the patients following TAVR, and the degree of improvement was greater in those patients who had received a BEV. </sec
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 06/2015; 64(11). DOI:10.1136/heartjnl-2014-307120 · 6.02 Impact Factor
  • EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 05/2015; 11(V):V145-V146. DOI:10.4244/EIJV11SVA33 · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The renal nerves contribute to hypertension through effects in the kidney that enhance sodium retention and renin secretion, and by effects in the central nervous system that increase systemic sympathetic activity. Therefore, targeting the renal nerves provides a logical basis for treating hypertension. Several trials of renal denervation--achieved by applying radiofrequency energy through catheters placed in the renal arteries-- have been completed. Clinical results have been inconsistent, however, partly because of factors related to the ablation technique and partly because these studies have been performed in patients with the inadequately defined clinical condition of "treatment-resistant hypertension." This statement now explains our conclusion that future studies of renal denervation should be guided by the established randomized, controlled clinical trial designs used for studying antihypertensive drugs and other treatments for hypertension. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Clinical Hypertension 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/jch.12590 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transcatheter mitral interventions has been developed to address an unmet clinical need and may be an alternative therapeutic option to surgery with the intent to provide symptomatic and prognostic benefit. Beyond MitraClip therapy, alternative repair technologies are being developed to expand the transcatheter intervention armamentarium. Recently, the feasibility of transcatheter mitral valve implantation in native non-calcified valves has been reported in very high-risk patients. Acknowledging the lack of scientific evidence to date, it is difficult to predict what the ultimate future role of transcatheter mitral valve interventions will be. The purpose of the present report is to review the current state-of-the-art of mitral valve intervention, and to identify the potential future scenarios, which might benefit most from the transcatheter repair and replacement devices under development. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email:
    European Heart Journal 04/2015; 36(26). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv123 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Results of the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 (Renal Denervation in Patients With Uncontrolled Hypertension) trial confirmed the safety but not the efficacy of renal denervation for treatment-resistant hypertension at 6 months post procedure. This study sought to analyze the 12-month SYMPLICITY HTN-3 results for the original denervation group, the sham subjects who underwent denervation after the 6-month endpoint (crossover group), and the sham subjects who did not undergo denervation after 6 months (non-crossover group). Eligible subjects were randomized 2:1 to denervation or sham procedure. Subjects were unblinded to their treatment group after the 6-month primary endpoint was ascertained; subjects in the sham group meeting eligibility requirements could undergo denervation. Change in blood pressure (BP) at 12 months post randomization (6 months for crossover subjects) was analyzed. The 12-month follow-up was available for 319 of 361 denervation subjects and 48 of 101 non-crossover subjects; 6-month denervation follow-up was available for 93 of 101 crossover subjects. In denervation subjects, the 12-month office systolic BP (SBP) change was greater than that observed at 6 months (-15.5 ± 24.1 mm Hg vs. -18.9 ± 25.4 mm Hg, respectively; p = 0.025), but the 24-h SBP change was not significantly different at 12 months (p = 0.229). The non-crossover group office SBP decreased by -32.9 ± 28.1 mm Hg at 6 months, but this response regressed to -21.4 ± 19.9 mm Hg (p = 0.01) at 12 months, increasing to 11.5 ± 29.8 mm Hg. These data support no further reduction in office or ambulatory BP after 1-year follow-up. Loss of BP reduction in the non-crossover group may reflect decreased medication adherence or other related factors. (Renal Denervation in Patients With Uncontrolled Hypertension [SYMPLICITY HTN-3]; NCT01418261). Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/2015; 65(13):1314-21. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.01.037 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Valve thrombosis has yet to be fully evaluated after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. This study aimed to report the prevalence, timing, and treatment of transcatheter heart valve (THV) thrombosis. THV thrombosis was defined as follows (1) THV dysfunction secondary to thrombosis diagnosed based on response to anticoagulation therapy, imaging modality or histopathology findings, or (2) mobile mass detected on THV suspicious of thrombus, irrespective of dysfunction and in absence of infection. Between January 2008 and September 2013, 26 (0.61%) THV thromboses were reported out of 4266 patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation in 12 centers. Of the 26 cases detected, 20 were detected in the Edwards Sapien/Sapien XT cohort and 6 in the Medtronic CoreValve cohort. In patients diagnosed with THV thrombosis, the median time to THV thrombosis post-transcatheter aortic valve implantation was 181 days (interquartile range, 45-313). The most common clinical presentation was exertional dyspnea (n=17; 65%), whereas 8 (31%) patients had no worsening symptoms. Echocardiographic findings included a markedly elevated mean aortic valve pressure gradient (40.5±14.0 mm Hg), presence of thickened leaflets or thrombotic apposition of leaflets in 20 (77%) and a thrombotic mass on the leaflets in the remaining 6 (23%) patients. In 23 (88%) patients, anticoagulation resulted in a significant decrease of the aortic valve pressure gradient within 2 months. THV thrombosis is a rare phenomenon that was detected within the first 2 years after transcatheter aortic valve implantation and usually presented with dyspnea and increased gradients. Anticoagulation seems to have been effective and should be considered even in patients without visible thrombus on echocardiography. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions 04/2015; 8(4). DOI:10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.114.001779 · 6.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: -Higher risk of adverse outcomes after transapical (TA) vs. transfemoral (TF) transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) could be due to TA-TAVR being an open surgical procedure or to clinical differences between TA- and TF-TAVR patients. We compared outcomes after neutralizing patient differences using propensity-score matching. -From 4/2007-2/2012, 1100 PARTNER-I patients underwent TA-TAVR and 1521 TF-TAVR using Edwards SAPIEN balloon-expandable bioprostheses. Propensity matching based on 111 pre-procedural variables, exclusive of femoral access morphology, identified 501 well-matched patient pairs (46% of possible matches), 95% of whom had peripheral arterial disease. Matched TA-TAVR patients experienced more adverse procedural events, longer length of stay (5 vs. 8 days, p<0.0001), and slower recovery (New York Heart Association class I 31% vs. 38% at 30 days, equalizing by 6 months at 51% vs. 47%); stroke risk was similar (3.4% vs. 3.3% at 30 days and 6.0% vs. 6.7% at 3 years); mortality was elevated for the first 6 post-procedure months (19% vs. 12%, p=0.01), but aortic regurgitation was less (34% vs. 52% mild and 8.9% vs. 12% moderate-severe at discharge, p=0.001; 36% vs. 50% mild and 10% vs. 15% moderate-severe at 6 months, p<0.0001). -Likelihood of adverse periprocedural events and prolonged recovery is greater after TA-TAVR than TF-TAVR in vasculopathic patients after accounting for differences in cardiovascular risk factors, although stroke risk is equivalent and aortic regurgitation less. As smaller delivery systems permit TF-TAVR in many of these patients, we recommend a TF-first access strategy for TAVR when anatomically feasible. Clinical Trial Identifier: NCT00530894.
    Circulation 04/2015; 131(22). DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.012525 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction adversely affect outcomes in patients with heart failure or mitral valve disease, but their impact on outcomes in patients with aortic stenosis treated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement has not been well characterized. Among 542 patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis treated in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) II trial (inoperable cohort) with a Sapien or Sapien XT valve via a transfemoral approach, baseline TR severity, right atrial and RV size and RV function were evaluated by echocardiography according to established guidelines. One-year mortality was 16.9%, 17.2%, 32.6%, and 61.1% for patients with no/trace (n=167), mild (n=205), moderate (n=117), and severe (n=18) TR, respectively (P<0.001). Increasing severity of RV dysfunction as well as right atrial and RV enlargement were also associated with increased mortality (P<0.001). After multivariable adjustment, severe TR (hazard ratio, 3.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-6.82; P=0.003) and moderate TR (hazard ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.52; P=0.042) remained associated with increased mortality as did right atrial and RV enlargement, but not RV dysfunction. There was an interaction between TR and mitral regurgitation severity (P=0.04); the increased hazard of death associated with moderate/severe TR only occurred in those with no/trace/mild mitral regurgitation. In inoperable patients treated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement, moderate or severe TR and right heart enlargement are independently associated with increased 1-year mortality; however, the association between moderate or severe TR and an increased hazard of death was only found in those with minimal mitral regurgitation at baseline. These findings may improve our assessment of anticipated benefit from transcatheter aortic valve replacement and support the need for future studies on TR and the right heart, including whether concomitant treatment of TR in operable but high-risk patients with aortic stenosis is warranted. URL: Unique identifier: NCT01314313. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions 04/2015; 8(4). DOI:10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.114.002073 · 6.98 Impact Factor

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39k Citations
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  • 2004–2015
    • Columbia University
      • • Division of Cardiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      New York, New York, United States
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
    • Methodist Hospitals
      Gary, Indiana, United States
    • PinnacleHealth Harrisburg Hospital in Harrisburg
      Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Allegheny General Hospital
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Deutsches Herzzentrum München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2003–2015
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      • Department of Cardiology
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1999–2015
    • Cardiovascular Research Foundation
      New York, New York, United States
    • The Washington Hospital
      Washington, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2014
    • Stanford Medicine
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 2006–2014
    • Mid-Columbia Medical Center
      DLS, Oregon, United States
  • 2013
    • Durham University
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
    • Cleveland Clinic
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
    • Inselspital, Universitätsspital Bern
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
  • 2012
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Cardiology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • Mount Sinai Medical Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2003–2011
    • Gracie Square Hospital, New York, NY
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Hamburg
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2001–2006
    • Lenox Hill Hospital
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2005
    • Chiba University
      Tiba, Chiba, Japan
  • 2002–2004
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 2000–2004
    • Cornell University
      Итак, New York, United States
  • 1996–2004
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Surgery
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • University of California, San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1995–2003
    • William Beaumont Army Medical Center
      El Paso, Texas, United States
    • Arizona Heart Foundation
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
    • Ajou University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1991–2002
    • Washington Hospital Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 1997–2001
    • Kokura Memorial Hospital
      Kitakyūshū, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 1998–1999
    • Washington Research Foundation
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Carolinas Pain Institute
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 1997–1999
    • University of Ulsan
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • College of Medicine
      Ulsan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 1993–1997
    • Washington DC VA Medical Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1994
    • Emory University
      • Division of Cardiology
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 1981–1994
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
  • 1988–1991
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      • Hematology Branch
      Maryland, United States