[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) precursors. Differentiating between high-risk IPMNs that warrant surgical resection and low-risk IPMNs that can be monitored is a significant clinical problem, and we sought to discover a panel of mi(cro)RNAs that accurately classify IPMN risk status.
In a discovery phase, genome-wide miRNA expression profiling was performed on 28 surgically-resected, pathologically-confirmed IPMNs (19 high-risk, 9 low-risk) using Taqman MicroRNA Arrays. A validation phase was performed in 21 independent IPMNs (13 high-risk, 8 low-risk). We also explored associations between miRNA expression level and various clinical and pathological factors and examined genes and pathways regulated by the identified miRNAs by integrating data from bioinformatic analyses and microarray analysis of miRNA gene targets. Six miRNAs (miR-100, miR-99b, miR-99a, miR-342-3p, miR-126, miR-130a) were down-regulated in high-risk versus low-risk IPMNs and distinguished between groups (P<10-3, area underneath the curve (AUC) = 87%). The same trend was observed in the validation phase (AUC = 74%). Low miR-99b expression was associated with main pancreatic duct involvement (P = 0.021), and serum albumin levels were positively correlated with miR-99a (r = 0.52, P = 0.004) and miR-100 expression (r = 0.49, P = 0.008). Literature, validated miRNA:target gene interactions, and pathway enrichment analysis supported the candidate miRNAs as tumor suppressors and regulators of PDAC development. Microarray analysis revealed that oncogenic targets of miR-130a (ATG2B, MEOX2), miR-342-3p (DNMT1), and miR-126 (IRS-1) were up-regulated in high- versus low-risk IPMNs (P<0.10).
This pilot study highlights miRNAs that may aid in preoperative risk stratification of IPMNs and provides novel insights into miRNA-mediated progression to pancreatic malignancy. The miRNAs identified here and in other recent investigations warrant evaluation in biofluids in a well-powered prospective cohort of individuals newly-diagnosed with IPMNs and other pancreatic cysts and those at increased genetic risk for these lesions.
PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0116869. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated whether annexin A8 (A-A8), a Ca-binding protein overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, plays a role in cell growth and migration and investigated its association with pancreatic cancer prognosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Senescence-associated genes (SAGs) are responsible for the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, linked in turn to cellular aging, the aging brain, and the pathogenesis of cancer.
Journal of Geriatric Oncology 09/2014; · 1.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune dysregulation is a mechanism contributing to ineffective hematopoiesis in a subset of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. We report the first US multicenter non-randomized, Phase 2 trial examining the efficacy of rabbit(r)-anti-thymocyte globulin using 2.5 mg/kg/day administered daily for 4 doses. The primary endpoint was hematological response; secondary endpoints included duration of response, time to response, time to progression, and tolerance. Nine (33%;95% confidence interval=17%-54%) of the 27 patients treated experienced durable hematologic improvement in an intent-to-treat analysis with a median time to response and median response duration of 75 and 245 days, respectively. While younger age is the most significant factor favoring equine(e)-anti-thymocyte globulin response, treatment outcome on this study was independent of age (p=0.499). A shorter duration between diagnosis and treatment showed a positive trend(p=0.18), but International Prognostic Scoring System score(p=0.150), karyotype(p=0.319), and age-adjusted bone marrow cellularity(p=0.369) were not associated with response classification. Since activated T-lymphocytes are the primary cellular target of anti-thymocyte globulin, a T-cell expression profiling was conducted in a cohort of 38 patients consisting of rabbit and equine-antithymocyte globulin-treated patients. A model containing disease duration, CD8 terminal memory T-cells and T-cell proliferation-associated-antigen expression predicted response with the greatest accuracy using a leave-one-out cross validation approach. This profile categorized patients independent of other covariates, including treatment type and age using a leave-one-out-cross-validation approach (75.7%). Therefore, rabbit-anti-thymocyte globulin has hematologic remitting activity in myelodysplastic syndrome and a T-cell activation profile has potential utility classifying those who are more likely to respond (NCT00466843 clinicaltrial.gov).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous work has shown that vitamin E δ-tocotrienol (VEDT) prolongs survival and delays progression of pancreatic cancer in the LSL-KrasG12D/+;Pdx-1-Cre mouse model of pancreatic cancer. However, the effect of VEDT alone or in combination with gemcitabine in the more aggressive LSL-KrasG12D/+;LSL-Trp53R172H/+;Pdx-1-Cre (KPC) mouse model is unknown. Here, we studied the effects of VEDT and the combination of VEDT and gemcitabine in the KPC mice. KPC mice were randomized into 4 groups: 1) vehicle (olive oil, 1.0 mL/kg PO twice/day and PBS 1.0 mL/kg IP twice/week), 2) gemcitabine (100 mg/kg IP twice/week), 3) VEDT (200 mg/kg PO twice/day), and 4) gemcitabine + VEDT. Mice received treatment until they displayed symptoms of impending death from pancreatic cancer, at which point animals were euthanized. At 16 weeks, survival was 10% in the vehicle group, 30% in the gemcitabine group, 70% in the VEDT group (P<0.01), and 90% in the VEDT combined with gemcitabine group (P<0.05). VEDT alone and combined with gemcitabine resulted in reversal of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in tumors. Biomarkers of apoptosis (plasma CK18), PARP1 cleavage, and Bax expression were more greatly induced in tumors subjected to combined treatment versus individual treatment. Combined treatment induced cell cycle inhibitors (p27Kip1 and p21Cip1) and inhibited VEGF, vascularity (CD31), and oncogenic signaling (pAKT, pMEK, and pERK) greater than individual drugs. No significant differences in body weight gain between drug treatment and control mice were observed. These results strongly support further investigation of VEDT alone and in combination with gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment.
Cancer Prevention Research 08/2013; · 4.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Cytoplasmic clusterin (Clusterin), a ubiquitous multifunctional secretory sulfated glycoprotein, plays a role in apoptosis and is reportedly overexpressed in a variety of tumors. The role of Clusterin in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) has not been investigated. In this study, Clusterin expression was evaluated in a subset of PNETs, and the results were correlated with the clinical-pathological features of the tumors. METHODS: Fifty-nine surgical cases were used to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Clusterin in PNETs. Using the avidin-biotin complex method, tissue sections from each case were stained with a rabbit anticlusterin antibody (Abcam, Cambridge, Mass). The immunohistochemical reactions were qualitatively and semiquantitatively evaluated by 2 pathologists. RESULTS: Strong Clusterin reactivity was identified in 36 (61%) of 59 PNETs. In 23 (39%) of 59 cases, the Clusterin score was 3 or less. Clusterin expression scores significantly associated with tumor size (P = 0.03) and with tumor stage (P = 0.02). The immunohistochemical score index did not correlate with tumor grade (P = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: We report the expression of Clusterin in PNETs. The correlation of Clusterin with tumor size and stage suggests involvement of this molecule in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor progression. Clusterin may represent a new target of therapy for PNETs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NF-κB is constitutively activated in many cancer types and is a potential key mediator of tumor-associated inflammation, tumor growth, and metastasis. We investigated the role of cancer cell NF-κB activity in T cell-mediated antitumor responses. In tumors rendered immunogenic by model antigen expression or following administration of antitumor vaccines, we found that high NF-κB activity leads to tumor rejection and/or growth suppression in mice. Using a global RNA expression microarray, we demonstrated that NF-κB enhanced expression of several T cell chemokines, including Ccl2, and decreased CCL2 expression was associated with enhanced tumor growth in a mouse lung cancer model. To investigate NF-κB function in human lung tumors, we identified a gene expression signature in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines that was associated with NF-κB activity level. In patient tumor samples, overall lung tumor NF-κB activity was strongly associated with T cell infiltration but not with cancer cell proliferation. These results therefore indicate that NF-κB activity mediates immune surveillance and promotes antitumor T cell responses in both murine and human lung cancer.
The Journal of clinical investigation 05/2013; · 15.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are one of the major factors limiting the efficacy of immune therapy. In a clinical trial of patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), we tested the possibility that targeting MDSC can improve the induction of immune responses by a cancer vaccine. Forty-one patients with extensive stage SCLC were randomized into three arms: arm A-control, arm B-vaccination with dendritic cells transduced with wild-type p53, and arm C-vaccination in combination with MDSC targeted therapy with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). Interim results of the ongoing clinical trial are presented. Pre-treatment levels of MDSC populations in patients from all three arms were similar. Vaccine alone did not affect the proportion of MDSC, whereas in patients treated with ATRA, the MDSC decreased more than twofold (p = 0.02). Before the start of treatment, no patients had detectable p53-specific responses in IFN-γ ELISPOT. Sequential measurements did not show positive p53 responses in any of the 14 patients from arm A. After immunization, only 3 out of 15 patients (20 %) from arm B developed a p53-specific response (p = 0.22). In contrast, in arm C, 5 out of 12 patients (41.7 %) had detectable p53 responses (p = 0.012). The proportion of granzyme B-positive CD8(+) T cells was increased only in patients from arm C but not in arm B. Depletion of MDSC substantially improved the immune response to vaccination, suggesting that this approach can be used to enhance the effect of immune interventions in cancer.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 04/2013; · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis has been shown to be associated with prostate cancer development. The majority of prostate cancer studies focused on individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) while SNP-SNP interactions are suggested having a great impact on unveiling the underlying mechanism of complex disease. Using 1,151 prostate cancer patients in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) dataset, 2,651 SNPs in the angiogenesis genes associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness were evaluated. SNP-SNP interactions were primarily assessed using the two-stage Random Forests plus Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (TRM) approach in the CGEMS group, and were then re-evaluated in the Moffitt group with 1,040 patients. For the identified gene pairs, cross-evaluation was applied to evaluate SNP interactions in both study groups. Five SNP-SNP interactions in three gene pairs (MMP16+ ROBO1, MMP16+ CSF1, and MMP16+ EGFR) were identified to be associated with aggressive prostate cancer in both groups. Three pairs of SNPs (rs1477908+ rs1387665, rs1467251+ rs7625555, and rs1824717+ rs7625555) were in MMP16 and ROBO1, one pair (rs2176771+ rs333970) in MMP16 and CSF1, and one pair (rs1401862+ rs6964705) in MMP16 and EGFR. The results suggest that MMP16 may play an important role in prostate cancer aggressiveness. By integrating our novel findings and available biomedical literature, a hypothetical gene interaction network was proposed. This network demonstrates that our identified SNP-SNP interactions are biologically relevant and shows that EGFR may be the hub for the interactions. The findings provide valuable information to identify genotype combinations at risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer and improve understanding on the genetic etiology of angiogenesis associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness.
PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e59688. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol has been shown to have antitumor activity, but the precise molecular mechanism by which it inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that δ-tocotrienol exerted significant cell growth inhibition pancreatic ductal cancer (PDCA) cells without affecting normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell growth. We also showed that δ-tocotrienol-induced growth inhibition occurred concomitantly with G(1) cell-cycle arrest and increased p27(Kip1) nuclear accumulation. This finding is significant considering that loss of nuclear p27(Kip1) expression is a well-established adverse prognostic factor in PDCA. Furthermore, δ-tocotrienol inactivated RAF-MEK-ERK signaling, a pathway known to suppress p27(Kip1) expression. To determine whether p27(Kip1) induction is required for δ-tocotrienol inhibition of PDCA cell proliferation, we stably silenced the CDKN1B gene, encoding p27(Kip1), in MIAPaCa-2 PDCA cells and demonstrated that p27(Kip1) silencing suppressed cell-cycle arrest induced by δ-tocotrienol. Furthermore, δ-tocotrienol induced p27(Kip1) mRNA expression but not its protein degradation. p27(Kip1) gene promoter activity was induced by δ-tocotrienol through the promoter's E2F-1 binding site, and this activity was attenuated by E2F-1 depletion using E2F-1 small interfering RNA. Finally, decreased proliferation, mediated by Ki67 and p27(Kip1) expression by δ-tocotrienol, was confirmed in vivo in a nude mouse xenograft pancreatic cancer model. Our findings reveal a new mechanism, dependent on p27(Kip1) induction, by which δ-tocotrienol can inhibit proliferation in PDCA cells, providing a new rationale for p27(Kip1) as a biomarker for δ-tocotrienol efficacy in pancreatic cancer prevention and therapy.
PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e52526. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The highly lethal nature of pancreatic cancer and the increasing recognition of high-risk individuals have made research into chemoprevention a high priority. Here, we tested the chemopreventive activity of δ-tocotrienol, a bioactive vitamin E derivative extracted from palm fruit, in the LSL-KrasG12D/+;Pdx-1-Cre pancreatic cancer mouse model. At 10 weeks of age, mice (n = 92) were randomly allocated to three groups: 1) no treatment, 2) vehicle, and 3) δ-tocotrienol (200 mg/kg x 2/day, PO). Treatment was continued for 12 months. Mice treated with δ-tocotrienol showed increased median survival from the onset of treatment (11.1 months) compared to vehicle-treated mice (9.7 months) and non-treated mice (8.5 months) (P<0.025). Importantly, none of the mice treated with δ-tocotrienol harbored invasive cancer compared with 10% and 8% in vehicle-treated and non-treated mice, respectively. Furthermore, δ-tocotrienol treatment also resulted in significant suppression of mouse pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm (mPanIN) progression compared to vehicle-treated and non-treated mice: mPanIN-1: 47-50% (P<0.09), mPanIN-2: 6-11% (P<0.001), mPanIN-3: 3-15% (P<0.001), and invasive cancer: 0-10% (P<0.001). δ-Tocotrienol treatment inhibited mutant Kras-driven pathways such as MEK/ERK, PI3K/AKT, and NF-kB/p65, as well as Bcl-xL and induced p27. δ-Tocotrienol also induced biomarkers of apoptosis such as Bax and activated caspase 3 along with an increase in plasma levels of CK18. In summary, δ-tocotrienol's ability to interfere with oncogenic Kras pathways coupled with the observed increase in median survival and significant delay in PanIN progression highlight the chemopreventative potential of δ-tocotrienol and warrant further investigation of this micronutrient in individuals at high risk for pancreatic cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trim28 is a poorly understood transcriptional co-factor with pleiotropic biological activities. Although Trim28 mRNA is found in many studies to be upregulated in both lung and breast cancer tissues relative to normal adjacent tissue, we found that within a panel of early-stage lung adenocarcinomas high levels of Trim28 protein correlate with better overall survival. This surprising observation suggests that Trim 28 may have anti-proliferative activity within tumors. To test this hypothesis, we used shRNAi to generate Trim28-knockdown breast and lung cancer cell lines and found that Trim28 depletion led to increased cell proliferation. Likewise, overexpression of Trim28 led to decreased cell proliferation. Confocal microscopy indicated co-localization of E2F3 and E2F4 with Trim28 within the cell nucleus, and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that Trim28 can bind both E2F3 and E2F4. Trim28 overexpression inhibited the transcriptional activity of E2F3 and E2F4, whereas Trim28 deficiency enhanced their activity. Co-immunoprecipitations further indicated that Trim28 bridges an interaction between E2Fs 3 and 4 and HDAC1. Promoter-reporter assays demonstrated that the ability of HDAC1 to repress E2F3 and E2F4-driven transcription is dependent on Trim28. Trim28 depletion increased E2F3 and E2F4 DNA binding activity, as measured by chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays while simultaneously reducing HDAC1 binding. Finally, ChIP-ReChIP experiments demonstrated that Trim/E2F complexes exist on several E2F-regulated promoters. Taken together, these results suggest that Trim28 has anti-proliferative activity in lung cancers via repression of members of the E2F family that are critical for cell proliferation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2012; · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Of great interest in cancer prevention is how nutrient components affect gene pathways associated with the physiological events of puberty. Nutrient-gene interactions may cause changes in breast or prostate cells and, therefore, may result in cancer risk later in life. Analysis of gene pathways can lead to insights about nutrient-gene interactions and the development of more effective prevention approaches to reduce cancer risk. To date, researchers have relied heavily upon experimental assays (such as microarray analysis, etc.) to identify genes and their associated pathways that are affected by nutrient and diets. However, the vast number of genes and combinations of gene pathways, coupled with the expense of the experimental analyses, has delayed the progress of gene-pathway research. The development of an analytical approach based on available test data could greatly benefit the evaluation of gene pathways, and thus advance the study of nutrient-gene interactions in cancer prevention. In the present study, we have proposed a chain reaction model to simulate gene pathways, in which the gene expression changes through the pathway are represented by the species undergoing a set of chemical reactions. We have also developed a numerical tool to solve for the species changes due to the chain reactions over time. Through this approach we can examine the impact of nutrient-containing diets on the gene pathway; moreover, transformation of genes over time with a nutrient treatment can be observed numerically, which is very difficult to achieve experimentally. We apply this approach to microarray analysis data from an experiment which involved the effects of three polyphenols (nutrient treatments), epigallo-catechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), genistein, and resveratrol, in a study of nutrient-gene interaction in the estrogen synthesis pathway during puberty. RESULTS: In this preliminary study, the estrogen synthesis pathway was simulated by a chain reaction model. By applying it to microarray data, the chain reaction model computed a set of reaction rates to examine the effects of three polyphenols (EGCG, genistein, and resveratrol) on gene expression in this pathway during puberty. We first performed statistical analysis to test the time factor on the estrogen synthesis pathway. Global tests were used to evaluate an overall gene expression change during puberty for each experimental group. Then, a chain reaction model was employed to simulate the estrogen synthesis pathway. Specifically, the model computed the reaction rates in a set of ordinary differential equations to describe interactions between genes in the pathway (A reaction rate K of A to B represents gene A will induce gene B per unit at a rate of K; we give details in the "method" section). Since disparate changes of gene expression may cause numerical error problems in solving these differential equations, we used an implicit scheme to address this issue. We first applied the chain reaction model to obtain the reaction rates for the control group. A sensitivity study was conducted to evaluate how well the model fits to the control group data at Day 50. Results showed a small bias and mean square error. These observations indicated the model is robust to low random noises and has a good fit for the control group. Then the chain reaction model derived from the control group data was used to predict gene expression at Day 50 for the three polyphenol groups. If these nutrients affect the estrogen synthesis pathways during puberty, we expect discrepancy between observed and expected expressions. Results indicated some genes had large differences in the EGCG (e.g., Hsd3b and Sts) and the resveratrol (e.g., Hsd3b and Hrmt12) groups. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we have presented (I) experimental studies of the effect of nutrient diets on the gene expression changes in a selected estrogen synthesis pathway. This experiment is valuable because it allows us to examine how the nutrient-containing diets regulate gene expression in the estrogen synthesis pathway during puberty; (II) global tests to assess an overall association of this particular pathway with time factor by utilizing generalized linear models to analyze microarray data; and (III) a chain reaction model to simulate the pathway. This is a novel application because we are able to translate the gene pathway into the chemical reactions in which each reaction channel describes gene-gene relationship in the pathway. In the chain reaction model, the implicit scheme is employed to efficiently solve the differential equations. Data analysis results show the proposed model is capable of predicting gene expression changes and demonstrating the effect of nutrient-containing diets on gene expression changes in the pathway. One of the objectives of this study is to explore and develop a numerical approach for simulating the gene expression change so that it can be applied and calibrated when the data of more time slices are available, and thus can be used to interpolate the expression change at a desired time point without conducting expensive experiments for a large amount of time points. Hence, we are not claiming this is either essential or the most efficient way for simulating this problem, rather a mathematical/numerical approach that can model the expression change of a large set of genes of a complex pathway. In addition, we understand the limitation of this experiment and realize that it is still far from being a complete model of predicting nutrient-gene interactions. The reason is that in the present model, the reaction rates were estimated based on available data at two time points; hence, the gene expression change is dependent upon the reaction rates and a linear function of the gene expressions. More data sets containing gene expression at various time slices are needed in order to improve the present model so that a non-linear variation of gene expression changes at different time can be predicted.
Translational Cancer Research 08/2012; 1(2):61-73.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most women with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (OVCA) ultimately develop chemoresistant recurrent disease. Therefore, a great need to develop new, more active, and less toxic agents and/or to optimize the efficacy of existing agents exists.
In this study, we investigated the activity of Avemar, a natural, nontoxic, fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE), against a range of OVCA cell lines, both alone and in combination with cisplatin chemotherapy and delineated the molecular signaling pathways that underlie FWGE activity at a genome-wide level.
We found that FWGE exhibited significant antiproliferative effects against 12 human OVCA cell lines and potentiated cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Pearson correlation of FWGE sensitivity and gene expression data identified 2142 genes (false discovery rate < 0.2) representing 27 biologic pathways (P < 0.05) to be significantly associated with FWGE sensitivity. A parallel analysis of genomic data for 59 human cancer cell lines matched to chemosensitivity data for 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone, a proposed active component of FWGE, identified representation of 13 pathways common to both FWGE and 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone sensitivity.
Our findings confirm the value of FWGE as a natural product with anticancer properties that may also enhance the activity of existing therapeutic agents. Furthermore, our findings provide substantial insights into the molecular basis of FWGE's effect on human cancer cells. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS:
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 07/2012; 22(6):960-7. · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a Phase 1/2 study of bortezomib administered in combination with high-dose melphalan followed by tandem autologous transplants in patients with primary resistant multiple myeloma. Thirty patients received two cycles of salvage bortezomib followed by stem cell mobilization with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and harvest. Melphalan 100 mg/m(2) per day on two consecutive days was administered, immediately followed by one dose of bortezomib (dose escalation) and stem cell infusion. The median beta 2-microglobulin was 4·35 mg/l (range: 1·8-11·4); albumin was 37 g/l (range: 3·1-4·9); high-risk karyotypes were noted in 45% of patients. The maximum planned dose of bortezomib at 1·3 mg/m(2) was well tolerated and a formal maximum tolerated dose was not determined. The peak of best overall response (≥partial response) and complete response rates after tandem transplants were 84% and 36%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 48 months, the median progression-free survival was 15 [95% confidence interval (CI): 11-21] months and the median overall survival was 35 (95% CI: 22-43) months. Correlative studies demonstrated decreased expression of BRCA2 (P = 0·0072) and FANCF (P = 0·0458) mRNA following bortezomib treatment. Bortezomib combined with high-dose melphalan is a well-tolerated conditioning with some activity in patients with resistant myeloma.
British Journal of Haematology 03/2012; 157(5):553-63. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess the role of SLC5A8 expression in the survival of pancreatic cancer.
We determined SLC5A8 expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and adjacent non-neoplastic pancreas (NNP) obtained from 110 patients who underwent pancreatectomy. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded core sections in a tissue microarray were immunostained using polyclonal anti-SLC5A8 antibody, and a semiquantitative measure of SLC5A8 expression was determined.
SLC5A8 expression was low in 56% (62/110) of pancreatic cancers as compared to NNP that had low expression in only 9% (10/107) of specimens (P < 0.0001). All cells expressing SLC5A8 did so in the cytoplasm, whether they are neoplastic or not. Nuclear expression of SLC5A8 occurred in 38% (42/110) of cancers, but it was uncommon in NNP (7%, 8/107) (P < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier estimates showed that survival in patients whose cancers had low SLC5A8 expression, and/or nuclear expression, was significantly worse than in patients whose cancers had none of these abnormalities (P = 0.02). For the 88 patients whose cancers had abnormal SLC5A8 expression, median survival was 1.4 years, as compared to 3.9 years in patients whose cancers both expressed high levels of SLC5A8 and lacked nuclear expression.
SLC5A8 nuclear translocation and loss of expression are associated with poor outcome in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Altered expression of specific microRNAs (miRNA) is known to occur during colorectal carcinogenesis. However, little is known about the genome-wide alterations in miRNA expression during the neoplastic progression of primary colorectal cancers.
Using a miRNA array platform, we evaluated the expression of 668 miRNA in primary colonic adenocarcinomas. Biological functions of selected miRNA were evaluated with in vitro invasion assays.
RNA was extracted for miRNA analysis from 65 primary colon cancers. We identified a seven-miRNA expression signature that differentiated stage I and stage IV primary colon cancers. We then demonstrated this signature was able to discriminate between stage II and III primary colon cancers. Six differentially expressed miRNA were downregulated in association with the development of metastases, and all 7 miRNA were complementary strand miRNA. We transfected HCT-116, a highly invasive colon cancer cell line, with corresponding downregulated miRNA and demonstrated that overexpression of three miRNA (miR200c*, miR143*, and miR424*) significantly abrogated invasive potential.
We have identified a seven-miRNA signature that is associated with metastatic potential in the primary tumor. Forced overexpression of three downregulated miRNA resulted in attenuation of in vitro invasion, suggesting direct tumor suppressive function and further supporting the biological importance of complementary strand miRNA.
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 02/2012; 16(5):905-12; discussion 912-3. · 2.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The malignancy-risk gene signature is composed of numerous proliferative genes and has been applied to predict breast cancer risk. We hypothesized that the malignancy-risk gene signature has prognostic and predictive value for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
The ability of the malignancy-risk gene signature to predict overall survival (OS) of early-stage NSCLC patients was tested using a large NSCLC microarray dataset from the Director's Challenge Consortium (n = 442) and two independent NSCLC microarray datasets (n = 117 and 133, for the GSE13213 and GSE14814 datasets, respectively). An overall malignancy-risk score was generated by principal component analysis to determine the prognostic and predictive value of the signature. An interaction model was used to investigate a statistically significant interaction between adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) and the gene signature. All statistical tests were two-sided.
The malignancy-risk gene signature was statistically significantly associated with OS (P < .001) of NSCLC patients. Validation with the two independent datasets demonstrated that the malignancy-risk score had prognostic and predictive values: Of patients who did not receive ACT, those with a low malignancy-risk score had increased OS compared with a high malignancy-risk score (P = .007 and .01 for the GSE13212 and GSE14814 datasets, respectively), indicating a prognostic value; and in the GSE14814 dataset, patients receiving ACT survived longer in the high malignancy-risk score group (P = .03), and a statistically significant interaction between ACT and the signature was observed (P = .02).
The malignancy-risk gene signature was associated with OS and was a prognostic and predictive indicator. The malignancy-risk gene signature could be useful to improve prediction of OS and to identify those NSCLC patients who will benefit from ACT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antiapoptotic protein survivin has been demonstrated to play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. However it is unclear whether the upregulation of survivin is maintained through progressive stages of disease, or if other apoptosis-related genes are coexpressed and/or repressed. We sought to evaluate survivin expression in colonic neoplasia and identify relationships with additional regulators of apoptosis.
Tissue samples from 168 patients with primary colorectal cancer were profiled using the GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) and evaluated for survivin expression. Immunohistochemical staining for survivin and a panel of apoptosis-associated proteins were used in 86 patients with tissue microarray (TMA) blocks; scoring was by stain intensity and percentage of positive cells (range, 0-9).
Survivin mRNA was upregulated (1.8-fold increase) in primary colon cancers- irrespective of American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage- and metastases compared with normal colonic tissue (P < .0001). Survivin staining was positive in 93% of adenocarcinomas (median immunohistochemistry [IHC] score: 2 [range, 1-6]), 100% of adenomas (1 [range,1-2]), and 43% of normal colonic mucosa (1, [range 1-2]) (P = .006). Survivin expression increased with worsening tumor grade (P < .05). In colon cancers, survivin expression positively correlated with the coexpression of PUMA (P < .001), TACE (P = .003), and MCL1 (P = .01), and trended toward an inverse correlation with BAX (P = .058).
Survivin expression increases during the normal mucosa-adenoma-carcinoma sequence and is maintained throughout progression of disease, which strengthens its appeal as a therapeutic target. Furthermore, we have demonstrated co-overexpression of several other apoptosis-related genes, which may in turn serve as additional and potentially synergistic therapeutic targets.
Clinical Colorectal Cancer 09/2011; 10(3):188-93. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite initial sensitivity to chemotherapy, ovarian cancers (OVCA) often develop drug resistance, which limits patient survival. Using specimens and/or genomic data from 289 patients and a panel of cancer cell lines, we explored genome-wide expression changes that underlie the evolution of OVCA chemoresistance and characterized the BCL2 antagonist of cell death (BAD) apoptosis pathway as a determinant of chemosensitivity and patient survival.
Serial OVCA cell cisplatin treatments were performed in parallel with measurements of genome-wide expression changes. Pathway analysis was carried out on genes associated with increasing cisplatin resistance (EC(50)). BAD-pathway expression and BAD protein phosphorylation were evaluated in patient samples and cell lines as determinants of chemosensitivity and/or clinical outcome and as therapeutic targets.
Induced in vitro OVCA cisplatin resistance was associated with BAD-pathway expression (P < 0.001). In OVCA cell lines and primary specimens, BAD protein phosphorylation was associated with platinum resistance (n = 147, P < 0.0001) and also with overall patient survival (n = 134, P = 0.0007). Targeted modulation of BAD-phosphorylation levels influenced cisplatin sensitivity. A 47-gene BAD-pathway score was associated with in vitro phosphorylated BAD levels and with survival in 142 patients with advanced-stage (III/IV) serous OVCA. Integration of BAD-phosphorylation or BAD-pathway score with OVCA surgical cytoreductive status was significantly associated with overall survival by log-rank test (P = 0.004 and P < 0.0001, respectively).
The BAD apoptosis pathway influences OVCA chemosensitivity and overall survival, likely via modulation of BAD phosphorylation. The pathway has clinical relevance as a biomarker of therapeutic response, patient survival, and as a promising therapeutic target.
Clinical Cancer Research 08/2011; 17(19):6356-66. · 8.19 Impact Factor