[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viral vector-based vaccines that induce protective CD8+ T cell immunity can prevent or control pathogenic SIV infections, but issues of preexisting immunity and safety have impeded their implementation in HIV-1. Here, we report the development of what we believe to be a novel antigen-targeting DNA vaccine strategy that exploits the binding of programmed death-1 (PD1) to its ligands expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) by fusing soluble PD1 with HIV-1 GAG p24 antigen. As compared with non-DC-targeting vaccines, intramuscular immunization via electroporation (EP) of the fusion DNA in mice elicited consistently high frequencies of GAG-specific, broadly reactive, polyfunctional, long-lived, and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and robust anti-GAG antibody titers. Vaccination conferred remarkable protection against mucosal challenge with vaccinia GAG viruses. Soluble PD1-based vaccination potentiated CD8+ T cell responses by enhancing antigen binding and uptake in DCs and activation in the draining lymph node. It also increased IL-12-producing DCs and engaged antigen cross-presentation when compared with anti-DEC205 antibody-mediated DC targeting. The high frequency of durable and protective GAG-specific CD8+ T cell immunity induced by soluble PD1-based vaccination suggests that PD1-based DNA vaccines could potentially be used against HIV-1 and other pathogens.
The Journal of clinical investigation 05/2013; · 15.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regardless of the route of transmission, R5-tropic HIV-1 predominates early in infection, rendering C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) antagonists as attractive agents not only for antiretroviral therapy but also for prevention. Here, we report the specificity, potency, and underlying mechanism of action of a novel small molecule CCR5 antagonist, TD-0680. TD-0680 displayed the greatest potency against a diverse group of R5-tropic HIV-1 and SIV strains when compared with its prodrug, TD-0232, the Food and Drug Administration-approved CCR5 antagonist Maraviroc, and TAK-779, with EC(50) values in the subnanomolar range (0.09-2.29 nm). Importantly, TD-0680 was equally potent at blocking envelope-mediated cell-cell fusion and cell-mediated viral transmission as well as the replication of a TAK-779/Maraviroc-resistant HIV-1 variant. Interestingly, TD-0232 and TD-0680 functioned differently despite binding to a similar transmembrane pocket of CCR5. Site-directed mutagenesis, drug combination, and antibody blocking assays identified a novel mechanism of action of TD-0680. In addition to binding to the transmembrane pocket, the unique exo configuration of this molecule protrudes and sterically blocks access to the extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) region of CCR5, thereby interrupting the interaction between virus and its co-receptor more effectively. This mechanism of action was supported by the observations of similar TD-0680 potency against CD4-dependent and -independent SIV strains and by molecular docking analysis using a CCR5 model. TD-0680, therefore, merits development as an anti-HIV-1 agent for therapeutic purposes and/or as a topical microbicide for the prevention of sexual transmission of R5-tropic HIV-1.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2012; 287(20):16499-509. · 4.65 Impact Factor