Mathieu Milh

Aix-Marseille Université, Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

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Publications (83)246.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: PTEN gene (MIM 601628) is a tumor suppressor gene implicated in PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes (PHTS) including Cowden syndrome, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, and Proteus-like syndrome. Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome is considered as the pediatric form of PHTS. More recently, children presenting autism spectrum disorders with macrocephaly (ASD-M) have been reported. We report clinical data from seven patients diagnosed in childhood with a PTEN germline mutation, excluding cases of familial Cowden syndrome. This study underlines the variability of phenotype associated with PTEN mutations diagnosed at pediatric age. Most of the patients did not fulfill usual criteria of Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome or ASD-M. PTEN testing should be considered in any child presenting with severe macrocephaly (>+4SD) and another feature of PHTS. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    European journal of paediatric neurology: EJPN: official journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society 12/2014; · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathophysiological mechanisms of epileptic spasms are still poorly understood. The role of subcortical structures has been suggested on the basis of non-localized EEG features and from experimental data. The description of asymmetric spasms associated with lateralized EEG patterns has challenged this view and raises the possibility of a cortical origin. This study investigated the cortical organization of partial seizures associated with epileptic spasms in children undergoing intracerebral EEG recordings for presurgical evaluation. Eleven children with drug resistant epileptic spasms and for whom depth electrode recordings were performed were retrospectively studied. In all children several features suggested a focal origin. Cortical involvement was studied using the "Epileptogenicity Index" (EI). A focal origin was finally demonstrated in 10/11 patients. Seven patients demonstrated pre-ictal changes in the seizure onset zone area. EI analysis showed maximal values in the temporal (n=5), parietal (n=1) or frontal (n=5) cortices. EEG changes were also observed in the premotor cortex during spasms in patients with frontal or parietal seizures and in 3/5 patients with temporal lobe seizures. Good surgical outcome (class I or II) was obtained in 7/10 patients. Seizures associated with epileptic spasms may originate from various cortical regions. Premotor/motor cortices are probably involved in determining ictal clinical changes.
    Epilepsy Research 08/2014; · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), caused by dominant mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 tumour suppressor genes is characterized by the presence of brain malformations, the cortical tubers that are thought to contribute to the generation of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Here we report that tuberless heterozygote Tsc1+/− mice show functional upregulation of cortical GluN2C-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in an mTOR-dependent manner and exhibit recurrent, unprovoked seizures during early postnatal life (<P19). Seizures are generated intracortically in the granular layer of the neocortex. Slow kinetics of aberrant GluN2C-mediated currents in spiny stellate cells promotes excessive temporal integration of persistent NMDAR-mediated recurrent excitation and seizure generation. Accordingly, specific GluN2C/D antagonists block seizures in Tsc1+/− mice in vivo and in vitro. Likewise, GluN2C expression is upregulated in TSC human surgical resections, and a GluN2C/D antagonist reduces paroxysmal hyperexcitability. Thus, GluN2C receptor constitutes a promising molecular target to treat epilepsy in TSC patients.
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), caused by dominant mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 tumour suppressor genes is characterized by the presence of brain malformations, the cortical tubers that are thought to contribute to the generation of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Here we report that tuberless heterozygote Tsc1+/− mice show functional upregulation of cortical GluN2C-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in an mTOR-dependent manner and exhibit recurrent, unprovoked seizures during early postnatal life (<P19). Seizures are generated intracortically in the granular layer of the neocortex. Slow kinetics of aberrant GluN2C-mediated currents in spiny stellate cells promotes excessive temporal integration of persistent NMDAR-mediated recurrent excitation and seizure generation. Accordingly, specific GluN2C/D antagonists block seizures in Tsc1+/− mice in vivo and in vitro. Likewise, GluN2C expression is upregulated in TSC human surgical resections, and a GluN2C/D antagonist reduces paroxysmal hyperexcitability. Thus, GluN2C receptor constitutes a promising molecular target to treat epilepsy in TSC patients.
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), caused by dominant mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 tumour suppressor genes is characterized by the presence of brain malformations, the cortical tubers that are thought to contribute to the generation of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Here we report that tuberless heterozygote Tsc1+/− mice show functional upregulation of cortical GluN2C-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in an mTOR-dependent manner and exhibit recurrent, unprovoked seizures during early postnatal life (<P19). Seizures are generated intracortically in the granular layer of the neocortex. Slow kinetics of aberrant GluN2C-mediated currents in spiny stellate cells promotes excessive temporal integration of persistent NMDAR-mediated recurrent excitation and seizure generation. Accordingly, specific GluN2C/D antagonists block seizures in Tsc1+/− mice in vivo and in vitro. Likewise, GluN2C expression is upregulated in TSC human surgical resections, and a GluN2C/D antagonist reduces paroxysmal hyperexcitability. Thus, GluN2C receptor constitutes a promising molecular target to treat epilepsy in TSC patients.
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), caused by dominant mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 tumour suppressor genes is characterized by the presence of brain malformations, the cortical tubers that are thought to contribute to the generation of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Here we report that tuberless heterozygote Tsc1+/− mice show functional upregulation of cortical GluN2C-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in an mTOR-dependent manner and exhibit recurrent, unprovoked seizures during early postnatal life (<P19). Seizures are generated intracortically in the granular layer of the neocortex. Slow kinetics of aberrant GluN2C-mediated currents in spiny stellate cells promotes excessive temporal integration of persistent NMDAR-mediated recurrent excitation and seizure generation. Accordingly, specific GluN2C/D antagonists block seizures in Tsc1+/− mice in vivo and in vitro. Likewise, GluN2C expression is upregulated in TSC human surgical resections, and a GluN2C/D antagonist reduces paroxysmal hyperexcitability. Thus, GluN2C receptor constitutes a promising molecular target to treat epilepsy in TSC patients.
    Nature Communications 08/2014; · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epileptic encephalopathy (EE) refers to a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of severe disorders characterized by seizures, abnormal interictal electro-encephalogram, psychomotor delay, and/or cognitive deterioration. We ascertained two multiplex families (including one consanguineous family) consistent with an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern of EE. All seven affected individuals developed subclinical seizures as early as the first day of life, severe epileptic disease, and profound developmental delay with no facial dysmorphism. Given the similarity in clinical presentation in the two families, we hypothesized that the observed phenotype was due to mutations in the same gene, and we performed exome sequencing in three affected individuals. Analysis of rare variants in genes consistent with an autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance led to identification of mutations in SLC13A5, which encodes the cytoplasmic sodium-dependent citrate carrier, notably expressed in neurons. Disease association was confirmed by cosegregation analysis in additional family members. Screening of 68 additional unrelated individuals with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy for SLC13A5 mutations led to identification of one additional subject with compound heterozygous mutations of SLC13A5 and a similar clinical presentation as the index subjects. Mutations affected key residues for sodium binding, which is critical for citrate transport. These findings underline the value of careful clinical characterization for genetic investigations in highly heterogeneous conditions such as EE and further highlight the role of citrate metabolism in epilepsy.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 07/2014; 95(1):113-20. · 10.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) enables the detection of intragenic rearrangements, such as single exon deletion or duplication. This approach can lead to the identification of new disease genes. We report on the analysis of 54 male patients presenting with intellectual deficiency (ID) and a family history suggesting X-linked (XL) inheritance or maternal skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), using a home-made X-chromosome-specific microarray covering the whole human X-chromosome at high resolution. The majority of patients had whole genome array-CGH prior to the selection and we did not include large rearrangements such as MECP2 and FMR1 duplications. We identified four rearrangements considered as causative or potentially pathogenic, corresponding to a detection rate of 8%. Two CNVs affected known XLID genes and were therefore considered as causative (IL1RAPL1 and OPHN1 intragenic deletions). Two new CNVs were considered as potentially pathogenic as they affected interesting candidates for ID. The first CNV is a deletion of the first exon of the TRPC5 gene, encoding a cation channel implicated in dendrite growth and patterning, in a child presenting with ID and an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The second CNV is a partial deletion of KLHL15, in a patient with severe ID, epilepsy, and anomalies of cortical development. In both cases, in spite of strong arguments for clinical relevance, we were not able at this stage to confirm pathogenicity of the mutations, and the causality of the variants identified in XLID remains to be confirmed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 05/2014; 164(8). · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to assess the cognitive and adaptive profiles of school-aged patients with Dravet syndrome (DS), we proposed to evaluate the intelligence and adaptive scores in twenty-one 6- to 10-year-old patients with DS followed in our institution between 1997 and 2013. Fourteen patients were tested using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS); 6 patients could not be tested with the WISC and were tested with the VABS only, and one was tested with the WISC only. Data regarding the epilepsy were retrospectively collected. Statistical analysis (Spearman rank order and Pearson correlation coefficient) was used to correlate early epilepsy characteristics with the cognitive and adaptive scores. Sodium channel, neuronal alpha-subunit type 1 (SCN1A) was mutated in 19 out of 21 patients. After the age of 6years, none of the DS patients had a normal intelligence quotient (IQ) using WISC (age at the testing period: mean=100±5; median=105months; mean total IQ=47±3; n=15). Only five patients had a verbal and/or a non verbal IQ of more than 60 (points). Their cognitive profile was characterized by an attention deficit, an inability to inhibit impulsive responses, perseverative responses and deficit in planning function. Administering the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales in the same period, we showed that socialization skills were significantly higher than communication and autonomy skills (age at the testing period: mean=100±4; median=100months; n=20). We did not find any significant correlation between the IQ or developmental quotient assessed between 6 and 10years of age and the quantitative and qualitative parameters of epilepsy during the first two years of life in this small group of patients. Despite an overall moderate cognitive deficit in this group of patients, the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales described an adaptive/behavioral profile with low communication and autonomy capacities, whereas the socialization skills were more preserved. This profile was different from the one usually found in young patients with autism and may require specific interventions.
    Epilepsy & Behavior 01/2014; 31C:143-148. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 genes encoding for Kv 7.2 (KCNQ2; Q2) and Kv 7.3 (KCNQ3; Q3) voltage-dependent K(+) channel subunits, respectively, cause neonatal epilepsies with wide phenotypic heterogeneity. In addition to benign familial neonatal epilepsy (BFNE), KCNQ2 mutations have been recently found in families with one or more family members with a severe outcome, including drug-resistant seizures with psychomotor retardation, EEG suppression-burst pattern (Ohtahara syndrome) and distinct neuroradiological features, a condition that was named "KCNQ2 encephalopathy". In the present paper, we describe clinical, genetic and functional data from 17 patients/families whose electro-clinical presentation was consistent with the diagnosis of BFNE. Sixteen different heterozygous mutations were found in KCNQ2, including 10 substitutions, three ins/del and three large deletions. One substitution was found in KCNQ3. Most of these mutations were novel, except for four KCNQ2 substitutions that were shown to be recurrent. Electrophysiological studies in mammalian cells revealed that homomeric or heteromeric KCNQ2 and/or KCNQ3 channels carrying mutant subunits with newly-found substitutions displayed reduced current densities. In addition, we describe, for the first time, that some mutations impair channel regulation by syntaxin-1A, highlighting a novel pathogenetic mechanism for KCNQ2-related epilepsies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Human Mutation 12/2013; · 5.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute necrotizing encephalopathy is a rare neurologic disease most often triggered by a febrile viral event affecting an otherwise healthy infant. The clinical course is characterized by rapid deterioration of the neurological condition that often leads to coma and requires intensive care. The diagnosis is usually suggested by MRI, which shows symmetrical and focal necrotic lesions of thalami. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy has been linked in recent studies to an autosomal-dominant mutation of the gene for the protein RAN-binding protein 2. We report three cases in siblings of Tunisian origin. Two of them presented with acute necrotizing encephalopathy at the age of 9 months in the immediate aftermath of a viral infection. The molecular study conducted in the family showed that both patients and their mother were carriers of the missense mutation gene RAN-binding protein 2. Although the role of Ran BP2 protein is incompletely known, mutation of the RANBP2 gene causes rare, reversible central neurologic disorders. Suspected diagnosis is facilitated by MRI, which shows specific lesions of multifocal, symmetric involvement of the thalami, brainstem tegmentum, supratentorial white matter, and cerebellum. Due to the low frequency of the disease and its non-specific clinical presentation, the diagnosis of acute necrotizing encephalopathy is a major challenge, while preventative measures can be proposed in familial mutation.
    Archives de Pédiatrie 12/2013; · 0.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the premature infant, somatosensory and visual stimuli trigger an immature electroencephalographic (EEG) pattern, "delta-brushes," in the corresponding sensory cortical areas. Whether auditory stimuli evoke delta-brushes in the premature auditory cortex has not been reported. Here, responses to auditory stimuli were studied in 46 premature infants without neurologic risk aged 31 to 38 postmenstrual weeks (PMW) during routine EEG recording. Stimuli consisted of either low-volume technogenic "clicks" near the background noise level of the neonatal care unit, or a human voice at conversational sound level. Stimuli were administrated pseudo-randomly during quiet and active sleep. In another protocol, the cortical response to a composite stimulus ("click" and voice) was manually triggered during EEG hypoactive periods of quiet sleep. Cortical responses were analyzed by event detection, power frequency analysis and stimulus locked averaging. Before 34 PMW, both voice and "click" stimuli evoked cortical responses with similar frequency-power topographic characteristics, namely a temporal negative slow-wave and rapid oscillations similar to spontaneous delta-brushes. Responses to composite stimuli also showed a maximal frequency-power increase in temporal areas before 35 PMW. From 34 PMW the topography of responses in quiet sleep was different for "click" and voice stimuli: responses to "clicks" became diffuse but responses to voice remained limited to temporal areas. After the age of 35 PMW auditory evoked delta-brushes progressively disappeared and were replaced by a low amplitude response in the same location. Our data show that auditory stimuli mimicking ambient sounds efficiently evoke delta-brushes in temporal areas in the premature infant before 35 PMW. Along with findings in other sensory modalities (visual and somatosensory), these findings suggest that sensory driven delta-brushes represent a ubiquitous feature of the human sensory cortex during fetal stages and provide a potential test of functional cortical maturation during fetal development.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79028. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: STXBP1 (MUNC18.1), encoding syntaxin binding protein 1, is a gene causing epileptic encephalopathy. Mutations in STXBP1 have first been reported in early onset epileptic encephalopathy with suppression-bursts, then in infantile spasms and, more recently, in patients with non syndromic mental retardation without epilepsy. We analyzed clinical evolution and brain magnetic resonance imaging in 7 patients (6 females, 1 male) with early onset epileptic encephalopathies associated with STXBP1 mutations. We documented a peculiar brain MRI aspect characterized by frontal hypoplasia and a thin and dysmorphic corpus callosum. The course of the epilepsy was relatively benign. These clinical and neuroradiological features could orient the clinician in selecting patients' candidate to genetic testing for STXBP1 gene.
    European journal of medical genetics 11/2013; · 1.57 Impact Factor
  • M. Milh, N. Villeneuve
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    ABSTRACT: Si se considera que una epilepsia es grave por ser farmacorresistente y/o se asocia a trastornos cognitivos responsables de dificultades escolares, entonces puede pensarse que se trata de una posibilidad nada infrecuente en el niño. En este sentido, sin distinción del tipo de epilepsia, la farmacorresistencia está presente en el 30% de los casos y las dificultades escolares, en más del 50% de los casos. Muy a menudo, los trastornos cognitivos tienen diversas causas, por lo que sería muy simple explicarlas tan sólo por la sucesión de crisis o por las anomalías electroencefalográficas intercríticas. La mayoría de las veces son indicio, al igual que las crisis, de la encefalopatía subyacente. El tratamiento de las epilepsias graves necesita una estructura especializada multidisciplinaria formada por pediatras, electrofisiólogos, neurorradiólogos y a menudo neurocirujanos. El único tratamiento curativo suele quirúrgico, siempre que sea posible; no se trata de una cirugía de la lesión sino funcional, cuyo objetivo no es la extirpación de la lesión (que conduce a la persistencia de la epilepsia en el 50% de los casos) sino la exéresis de la zona epileptógena. La clasificación etiológica actual incluye tres grupos: las epilepsias genéticas, directamente relacionadas con una anomalía genética, las epilepsias estructurales o metabólicas, relacionadas con una anomalía visible (adquirida o constitucional) en la resonancia magnética (RM), y las epilepsias sin causa conocida.
    EMC - Pediatría. 09/2013; 48(3):1–11.
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations of SCN4A encoding the skeletal muscle sodium channel Nav 1.4 cause several types of disease, including sodium channel myotonias. The latter may be responsible for neonatal symptoms, including severe neonatal episodic laryngospasm (SNEL). Establishing the diagnosis of SCN4A-related SNEL early in the neonatal period is crucial because treatment is available that can reduce laryngospasm and improve vital and cerebral outcome. We report 2 new unrelated French patients who presented with SNEL. The first patient was initially diagnosed with laryngomalacia and underwent laryngeal surgery in the neonatal period before being diagnosed with myotonia at 14 months of age. The episodes of laryngospasm disappeared spontaneously, although occasional circumstances such as cold exposure could trigger laryngeal reactions; in addition, he developed myotonia corresponding to an adult myotonia permanens phenotype. This patient is now 24 years old and leading a normal life. The second patient was initially diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux, then SNEL; his condition improved with carbamazepine treatment, and he is now 6 months old. The diagnostic sequence in both patients was the same: first, severe episodic apneic attacks necessitating hospitalization occurring in the first week of life; second, observation of muscle hypertrophy and peripheral hypertonia with a clear myotonic pattern on electromyogram (at 14 and 3 months of age, respectively); third, genetic testing revealing de novo SCN4A G1306E mutation. Both patients have had good therapeutic response to sodium channel blockers (carbamazepine or mexiletine).
    PEDIATRICS 08/2013; · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine what epilepsy types occur after herpetic encephalitis and what are the determinant factors for subsequent infantile spasms. We analyzed retrospectively the clinical history of 22 patients, referred to Necker and Saint Vincent de Paul Hospitals (Paris) through the French pediatric epilepsy network from March 1986 to April 2010 and who developed epilepsy some months after herpetic encephalitis. We focused on seizure semiology with video-electroencephalography (EEG) recording, and on neuroradiology and epilepsy follow-up. Fourteen patients developed pharmacoresistant spasms, and eight developed focal epilepsy, but none had both. The patients who developed spasms were more frequently younger than 30 months at age of onset of epilepsy and had herpetic encephalitis earlier (mean 10.6 months of age) than those who developed focal epilepsy (mean 59.7 and 39.6 months, respectively). Epilepsy follow-up was similar in both groups (8.5 and 11 years, respectively). We found 26 affected cerebral areas; none alone was related to the development of epileptic spasms. Risk factors to develop epileptic spasms were to have had herpetic encephalitis early (mean 10 months); to be significantly younger at onset of epilepsy (mean 22.1 months); and to have cerebral lesions involving the insula, the hippocampus, and the temporal pole.
    Epilepsia 07/2013; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) are dramatic heterogeneous conditions in which aetiology, seizures and/or interictal EEG have a negative impact on neurological development. Several genes have been associated with EOEE and a molecular diagnosis workup is challenging since similar phenotypes are associated with mutations in different genes and since mutations in one given gene can be associated with very different phenotypes. Recently, de novo mutations in KCNQ2, have been found mutated in about 10% of EOEE patients. Our objective was to confirm that KCNQ2 was an important gene to include in the diagnosis workup of EOEEs and to fully describe the clinical and EEG features of mutated patients. METHODS: We have screened KCNQ2 in a cohort of 71 patients with an EOEE, without any brain structural abnormality. To be included in the cohort, patient's epilepsy should begin before three months of age and be associated with abnormal interictal EEG and neurological impairment. Brain MRI should not show any structural abnormality that could account for the epilepsy. RESULTS: Out of those 71 patients, 16 had a de novo mutation in KCNQ2 (23%). Interestingly, in the majority of the cases, the initial epileptic features of these patients were comparable to those previously described in the case of benign familial neonatal epilepsy (BFNE) also caused by KCNQ2 mutations. However, in contrast to BFNE, the interictal background EEG was altered and displayed multifocal spikes or a suppression-burst pattern. The ongoing epilepsy and development were highly variable but overall severe: 15/16 had obvious cognitive impairment, half of the patients became seizure-free, 5/16 could walk before the age of 3 and only 2/16 patient acquired the ability to speak. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that KCNQ2 is frequently mutated in neonatal onset epileptic encephalopathy. We show here that despite a relatively stereotyped beginning of the condition, the evolution is highly variable in terms of epilepsy and of cognitive evolution.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 05/2013; 8(1):80. · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • Archives de Pédiatrie 04/2013; 20(4):429. · 0.41 Impact Factor
  • Archives de Pédiatrie 04/2013; 20(4):426–427. · 0.41 Impact Factor
  • Archives de Pédiatrie 04/2013; 20(4):427–428. · 0.41 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

720 Citations
246.42 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • Aix-Marseille Université
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2008–2014
    • Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille
      • • Service de neurophysiologie clinique
      • • Service de pédiatrie et oncologie pédiatrique
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2013
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2010–2011
    • Hôpital Européen, Marseille
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2009
    • Polytech Marseille
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2007
    • Institut de neurobiologie de la méditerranée INMED
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2005
    • Hungarian Academy of Sciences
      • MTA Institute of Experimental Medicine
      Budapest, Budapest fovaros, Hungary