Zhi-Min Hao

Agricultural University Of Hebei, Pao-ting-shih, Hebei, China

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Publications (5)6.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In filamentous fungi, the pathogenic mitogen-activated protein kinase (PMK) pathway performs an important function in plant infection. STE12-like genes found in higher eukaryotes encode transcription factors and are regulated by the PMK pathway. However, the functions of STE12-like genes in foliar pathogens remain poorly understood. In this study, we cloned StSTE12 from Setosphaeria turcica and investigated its functions by RNA interference. Transformants ste12-3, ste12-2 and, ste12-1, in which the StSTE12 silencing efficiency increased in order, were confirmed by real time PCR. Compared with the wild-type (WT) strain, the transformants showed reduced growth rate, lighter colony color, and obviously decreased conidium production. More importantly, different to WT strain and ste12-3 with lower StSTE12silencing efficiency, ste12-1 and ste12-2 with higher StSTE12 silencing efficiency were nonpathogenic on intact leaves, but pathogenic on wounded leaves. However, the biological activity of HT-toxin from all transformants showed no difference on corn leaves. Furthermore, ste12-1 and ste12-2 did not penetrate artificial cellophane membrane and showed abnormal and delayed development appressoria. Although it could penetrate the cellophane membranes, ste12-3 formed appressoria after 48 h of inoculation more than WT. Therefore, StSTE12 was involved in vegetative growth, conidiation, appressorial development, penetration as well as the pathogenicity, but it was not related to HT-toxin biosynthesis. More interestingly, all the results suggested that StSTE12 was crucial for pathogenicity due to involvement in regulating appressoria development and penetration.
    Microbiological Research 11/2014; · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Setosphaeria turcica, an essential phytopathogenic fungus, is the primary cause of serious yield losses in corn; however, its pathogenic mechanism is poorly understood. We cloned STK2, a newly discovered mitogen-activated protein kinase gene with a deduced amino acid sequence that is 96% identical to MAK2 from Phaeosphaeria nodorum, 56% identical to KSS1 and 57% identical to FUS3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To deduce Stk2 function in S. turcica and to identify the genetic relationship between STK2 and KSS1/FUS3 from S. cerevisiae, a restructured vector containing the open reading frame of STK2 was transformed into a fus3/kss1 double deletion mutant of S. cerevisiae. The results show that the STK2 complementary strain clearly formed pseudohyphae and ascospores, and the strain grew on the surface of the medium after rinsing with sterile water and the characteristics of the complementary strain was the same as the wild-type strain. Moreover, STK2 complemented the function of KSS1 in filamentation and invasive growth, as well as the mating behavior of FUS3 in S. cerevisiae, however, its exact functions in S. turcica will be studied in the future research.
    Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 12/2013; 12(12):2209–2216.
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclic adenosine mono phosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is an important mediator of signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. Thus, identifying its function is necessary to understand the cAMP signaling network. StPKA-c, the PKA catalytic subunit gene in Setosphaeria turcica, was investigated by RNA interference technology. Transformant strains M3, M5, and M9 with diverse StPKA-c silencing efficiency were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and northern blot. Compared with the wild-type strain 01-23, the transformant strains exhibited increased growth rate and significantly decreased conidium production. In addition, the ratios of spore germination and appressorium formation and penetration were slightly reduced. Relative to the wild-type strain, the transformants demonstrated different colony color, greatly reduced pathogenicity, and similar HT-toxin activity. Further studies showed that the content of intracellular melanin in the transformants significantly decreased and the transcription of transcriptional factor StMR was down-regulated correspondingly. The transcription and enzyme activity of xylanase was also impaired. Thus, we proposed that StPKA-c was mainly involved in the mycelium growth, conidiation, and pathogenesis of S. turcica. Furthermore, it was positively correlated with the biosyntheses of melanin and xylanase but dispensable for the activity of HT-toxin. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 04/2013; · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The proteins of Ras family are a large group of monomeric GTPases and act as molecular switches transducing extracellular signals into the cell in higher eukaryotes. However, little is known about roles of Ras family in the foliar pathogens. In this research, we cloned the gene named StRas2 encoding Ras in Setosphaeria turcica and investigated its function by RNA interference technology. We found that the growth rate of RNAi transformants named as R1, R2, R3, R4, R5 and R6, in which the StRas2 silencing efficiency fell in turn. With the highest silencing efficiency, the transformant R1 showed anomalistic hyphae morphology, indicating its growth was significantly affected. The transformants with a middle-silencing efficiency, such as R3, R4, displayed a delay when forming appressoria and invasive hyphae. R1 could not form conidia and appressoria. However, the conidial formation in R5 and R6 was significantly reduced, and these two transformants could form appressoria and penetrate the artificial cellophane, only that its invasive hyphae were fascicular and rarely branched. The HT-toxin biological activity of all transformants showed no difference. All results suggested that StRas2 is involved in the morphogenesis, conidiation, and appressorium development and is not related to the biosynthesis of HT-toxin.
    Microbiological Research 03/2012; 167(8):478-86. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A Setosphaeria turcica gene encoding the catalytic subunit of calcineurin was cloned using degenerated primers corresponding to conserved domains of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases and its complete cDNA (GenBank accession No. EF 407562) was obtained with RACE method. It's validated single copied model by southern hybridization. Furthermore, the CNA inhibitor Cyclosporin A (CsA) exhibited potent antifungal activity against conidial germination and appressorium formation of S. turcica. The inhibition ratio was positively correlated to CsA concentration. However, appressorium formation was more sensitive than conidium germination to the inhibitor at the same concentration. It was suggested that CNA might play an important role in the pathogenicity of S. turcica.
    Hereditas (Beijing) 10/2009; 31(10):1059-64.