[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is being increasingly recognized as a leading public health problem. However, there are limited data available with respect to prevalence of CKD in Pakistan, a developing South Asian country. The study presents the baseline findings of prevalence and risk factors for adult kidney disease in a Pakistani community cohort.
A total of 667 households were enrolled between March 2010 and August 2011 including 461 adults, aged 15 and older. Mild kidney disease was defined as estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) >=60 ml/min with microalbuminuria >= 30 mg/dl and moderate kidney disease was defined as eGFR <60 ml/min (with or without microalbuminuria).
The overall prevalence of kidney disease was 16.6% with 8.6% participants having mild kidney disease and 8% having moderate kidney disease. Age was significantly associated with kidney disease (p < 0.0001). The frequency of diabetes, hypertension and smoking differed significantly among the three groups, i.e., no kidney disease, mild kidney disease and moderate kidney disease.
Our study results suggest that the burden of kidney disease in this population is found considerable and comparable to neighboring developing countries. We believe that these results have critical implications on health and economics of these countries and due to the epidemic of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, smoking and association with worsening poverty, further rapid growth is expected. There is an urgent need for early recognition and prevention strategies based on risk factors and disease trends determined through longitudinal research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pakistan is a densely populated country in South Asia with a high burden of genetic disease. A dearth of medical genetic services exists and master's level trained genetic counselors (GCs) are currently not a part of the healthcare system. This study is the first to determine the views of Pakistani medical doctors (MDs) towards genetic counseling services in Pakistan, including what manner a master's level genetic counselor might be incorporated into the healthcare system. Fifty-one MDs practicing in the city of Karachi completed a self-administered survey of twenty questions. Of the 49 respondents who answered a specific question, 100 % (49/49) felt that they would refer at least some, if not all, of their relevant patients to a genetic's clinic if one existed in Karachi. Overall, the respondents showed a positive attitude towards the provision of genetic counseling services as a part of the healthcare system of Pakistan. Some of the proposed roles identified specifically for GCs included: explaining how Down syndrome occurs (66.1 %), discussing genes associated with breast cancer (77.4 %), and explaining the inheritance pattern of β-thalassemia (65.5 %). In contrast, the review of medical and family history and discussion of medical procedures such as ultrasound and amniocentesis were typically seen as the role of a physician. A majority of the respondents (98 %) were in favor of premarital carrier screening for thalassemia and would refer patients to a GC to describe the importance of carrier screening (84.3 %) and to help explain carrier screening results (94.1 %). Many respondents selected GCs as the ideal provider of education and support for people with inherited conditions (43.8 %), followed by specialist MDs (26 %) and general physicians (22.9 %). Considering the high burden of genetic disease in the country, we encourage the development of genetic counseling services in Pakistan.
Journal of Genetic Counseling 03/2013; · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The management of children with drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis (TB) is challenging and it is likely that in many places the roll-out of molecular diagnostic testing will lead to more children being diagnosed. There is a limited evidence base to guide optimal treatment and follow-up in the pediatric population; in existing DR-TB guidelines the management of children is often relegated to small 'special populations' sections. This article seeks to address this gap by providing clinicians with practical advice and guidance. This is achieved through review of the available literature on pediatric DR-TB, including research studies and international guidelines, combined with consensus opinion from a team of experts who have extensive experience in the management of children with DR-TB in a wide variety of contexts and with varying resources. The review covers treatment initiation, regimen design and treatment duration, management of co-morbid conditions, treatment monitoring, adverse events, adherence promotion, and infection control, all within a multidisciplinary environment.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 09/2012; · 11.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In many countries with a high burden of tuberculosis, most patients receive treatment in the private sector. We evaluated a multifaceted case-detection strategy in Karachi, Pakistan, targeting the private sector.
A year-long communications campaign advised people with 2 weeks or more of productive cough to seek care at one of 54 private family medical clinics or a private hospital that was also a national tuberculosis programme (NTP) reporting centre. Community laypeople participated as screeners, using an interactive algorithm on mobile phones to assess patients and visitors in family-clinic waiting areas and the hospital's outpatient department. Screeners received cash incentives for case detection. Patients with suspected tuberculosis also came directly to the hospital's tuberculosis clinic (self-referrals) or were referred there (referrals). The primary outcome was the change (from 2010 to 2011) in tuberculosis notifications to the NTP in the intervention area compared with that in an adjacent control area.
Screeners assessed 388,196 individuals at family clinics and 81,700 at Indus Hospital's outpatient department from January-December, 2011. A total of 2416 tuberculosis cases were detected and notified via the NTP reporting centre at Indus Hospital: 603 through family clinics, 273 through the outpatient department, 1020 from self-referrals, and 520 from referrals. In the intervention area overall, tuberculosis case notification to the NTP increased two times (from 1569 to 3140 cases) from 2010 to 2011--a 2·21 times increase (95% CI 1·93-2·53) relative to the change in number of case notifications in the control area. From 2010 to 2011, pulmonary tuberculosis notifications at Indus Hospital increased by 3·77 times for adults and 7·32 times for children.
Novel approaches to tuberculosis case-finding involving the private sector and using laypeople, mobile phone software and incentives, and communication campaigns can substantially increase case notification in dense urban settings.
TB REACH, Stop TB Partnership.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 06/2012; 12(8):608-16. · 19.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a critical need for improved diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, particularly in young children with intrathoracic disease as this represents the most common type of tuberculosis in children and the greatest diagnostic challenge. There is also a need for standardized clinical case definitions for the evaluation of diagnostics in prospective clinical research studies that include children in whom tuberculosis is suspected but not confirmed by culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A panel representing a wide range of expertise and child tuberculosis research experience aimed to develop standardized clinical research case definitions for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children to enable harmonized evaluation of new tuberculosis diagnostic technologies in pediatric populations. Draft definitions and statements were proposed and circulated widely for feedback. An expert panel then considered each of the proposed definitions and statements relating to clinical definitions. Formal group consensus rules were established and consensus was reached for each statement. The definitions presented in this article are intended for use in clinical research to evaluate diagnostic assays and not for individual patient diagnosis or treatment decisions. A complementary article addresses methodological issues to consider for research of diagnostics in children with suspected tuberculosis.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2012; 205 Suppl 2:S199-208. · 5.85 Impact Factor