[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundChronic constipation is a common condition, but the exact impact on healthcare budgets in Western Europe is poorly documented.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to (a) investigate chronic constipation-related direct medical costs in patients with newly diagnosed chronic constipation and (b) study differences in costs according to natural history.Patients and methodsWe identified 16 887 patients newly diagnosed with chronic constipation in a Dutch health insurance database (∼1.3 million patients) in 2006–2009. Individuals with chronic constipation were selected on the basis of chronic laxative use (≥90 days/year) and diagnostic related groups for chronic constipation. On the basis of the episodes of laxative use and diagnostic related groups, individuals were categorized as having persistent, episodic, and nonrecurrent disease. Unadjusted costs for laxatives and hospital care for chronic constipation and constipation-related comorbidities were assessed and compared between patients with nonrecurrent, episodic, and persistent disease. Factors associated with costs were identified using Cox regression analyses.ResultsThe mean total chronic constipation-related direct medical costs in the first year after diagnosis were €310±845 and consisted of laxatives (45%) and hospital care for chronic constipation (26%) as well as constipation-related comorbidities (29%). Costs were highest in patients with persistent disease (€367±882) compared with patients with episodic (€292±808) and nonrecurrent (€263±613) disease (P<0.01). Male sex was associated with higher costs, whereas increasing age, diabetes, and use of opioids were associated with lower costs.ConclusionPharmacy costs and hospital care costs for chronic constipation-related comorbidities were the largest cost drivers for total constipation-related direct medical costs in patients with newly diagnosed chronic constipation. Direct medical costs differed according to patient characteristics.
European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 09/2014; 26(11). · 2.15 Impact Factor
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background We investigated whether prediagnostic reported intake of dairy products and dietary calcium are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Methods Data from 3,859 subjects with CRC (42.1% male, mean age at diagnosis 64.2 ± 8.1 years) in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort were analyzed. Intake of dairy products and dietary calcium was assessed at baseline (1992-2000) using validated, country-specific dietary questionnaires. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%-CI) for CRC specific death (n=1,028) and all-cause death (n=1,525) for different quartiles of intake. Results The consumption of total dairy products was not statistically significantly associated with risk of CRC-specific death (adjusted HR Q4 vs. Q1: 1.17 95%-CI 0.97-1.43) nor of all-cause death (Q4 vs. Q1: 1.16 95%-CI 0.98-1.36). Multivariable adjusted HRs for CRC-specific death (Q4 vs. Q1) were 1.21 (95%-CI 0.99-1.48) for milk, 1.09 (95%-CI 0.88-1.34) for yoghurt and 0.93 (95%-CI 0.76-1.14) for cheese. The intake of dietary calcium was not associated with the risk of CRC-specific (adjusted HR Q4 vs. Q1: 1.01 95%-CI 0.81-1.26) nor of all-cause death (Q4 vs. Q1: 1.01 95%-CI 0.84-1.21). Conclusions The prediagnostic reported intake of dairy products and dietary calcium are not associated with disease-specific or all-cause risk of death in patients diagnosed with CRC. Impact The impact of diet on cancer survival is largely unknown. This study shows that despite it's inverse association with CRC risk, the prediagnostic intake of dairy and dietary calcium do not affect CRC survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Up to a quarter of polyps and adenomas are missed during colonoscopy due to poor visualization behind folds and the inner curves of flexures, and the presence of flat lesions that are difficult to detect. These numbers may however be conservative because they mainly come from back-to-back studies performed with standard colonoscopes, which are unable to visualize the entire mucosal surface. In the past several years, new endoscopic techniques have been introduced to improve the detection of polyps and adenomas. The introduction of high definition colonoscopes and visual image enhancement technologies have been suggested to lead to better recognition of flat and small lesions, but the absolute increase in diagnostic yield seems limited. Cap assisted colonoscopy and water-exchange colonoscopy are methods to facilitate cecal intubation and increase patients comfort, but show only a marginal or no benefit on polyp and adenoma detection. Retroflexion is routinely used in the rectum for the inspection of the dentate line, but withdrawal in retroflexion in the colon is in general not recommended due to the risk of perforation. In contrast, colonoscopy with the Third-Eye Retroscope(®) may result in considerable lower miss rates compared to standard colonoscopy, but this technique is not practical in case of polypectomy and is more time consuming. The recently introduced Full Spectrum Endoscopy™ colonoscopes maintains the technical capabilities of standard colonoscopes and provides a much wider view of 330 degrees compared to the 170 degrees with standard colonoscopes. Remarkable lower adenoma miss rates with this new technique were recently demonstrated in the first randomized study. Nonetheless, more studies are required to determine the exact additional diagnostic yield in clinical practice. Optimizing the efficacy of colorectal cancer screening and surveillance requires high definition colonoscopes with improved virtual chromoendoscopy technology that visualize the whole colon mucosa while maintaining optimal washing, suction and therapeutic capabilities, and keeping the procedural time as low and patient discomfort as optimal as possible.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2014; 20(9):2200-2211. · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although colonoscopy is the accepted standard for detection of colorectal adenomas and cancers, many adenomas and some cancers are missed. To avoid interval colorectal cancer, the adenoma miss rate of colonoscopy needs to be reduced by improvement of colonoscopy technique and imaging capability. We aimed to compare the adenoma miss rates of full-spectrum endoscopy colonoscopy with those of standard forward-viewing colonoscopy.
We did an international, multicentre, randomised trial at three sites in Israel, one site in the Netherlands, and two sites in the USA between Feb 1, 2012, and March 31, 2013. Patients aged 18-70 years referred for colorectal cancer screening, polyp surveillance, or diagnostic assessment underwent same-day, back-to-back tandem colonoscopy with standard forward-viewing colonoscope and the full-spectrum endoscopy colonoscope. The patients were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated randomisation with block size of 20, to which procedure was done first. The endoscopist was masked to group allocation until immediately before the start of colonoscopy examinations; patients were not masked. The primary endpoint was adenoma miss rates. We did per-protocol analyses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01549535.
197 participants were enrolled. 185 participants were included in the per-protocol analyses: 88 (48%) were randomly assigned to receive standard forward-viewing colonoscopy first, and 97 (52%) to receive full-spectrum endoscopy colonoscopy first. By per-lesion analysis, the adenoma miss rate was significantly lower in patients in the full-spectrum endoscopy group than in those in the standard forward-viewing procedure group: five (7%) of 67 vs 20 (41%) of 49 adenomas were missed (p<0·0001). Standard forward-viewing colonoscopy missed 20 adenomas in 15 patients; of those, three (15%) were advanced adenomas. Full-spectrum endoscopy missed five adenomas in five patients in whom an adenoma had already been detected with first-pass standard forward-viewing colonoscopy; none of these missed adenomas were advanced. One patient was admitted to hospital for colitis detected at colonoscopy, whereas five minor adverse events were reported including vomiting, diarrhoea, cystitis, gastroenteritis, and bleeding.
Full-spectrum endoscopy represents a technology advancement for colonoscopy and could improve the efficacy of colorectal cancer screening and surveillance.
The Lancet Oncology 02/2014; · 25.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whole-grain intake has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of several lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, CVD and some types of cancers. As measurement errors in self-reported whole-grain intake assessments can be substantial, dietary biomarkers are relevant to be used as complementary tools for dietary intake assessment. Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids found almost exclusively in whole-grain wheat and rye products among the commonly consumed foods and are considered as valid biomarkers of the intake of these products. In the present study, we analysed the plasma concentrations of five AR homologues in 2845 participants from ten European countries from a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. High concentrations of plasma total AR were found in participants from Scandinavia and Central Europe and lower concentrations in those from the Mediterranean countries. The geometric mean plasma total AR concentrations were between 35 and 41 nmol/l in samples drawn from fasting participants in the Central European and Scandinavian countries and below 23 nmol/l in those of participants from the Mediterranean countries. The whole-grain source (wheat or rye) could be determined using the ratio of two of the homologues. The main source was wheat in Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK, whereas rye was also consumed in considerable amounts in Germany, Denmark and Sweden. The present study demonstrates a considerable variation in the plasma concentrations of total AR and concentrations of AR homologues across ten European countries, reflecting both quantitative and qualitative differences in the intake of whole-grain wheat and rye.
The British journal of nutrition 02/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have investigated the association between whole-grain intake and colorectal cancer. Because whole-grain intake estimation might be prone to measurement errors, more objective measures (eg, biomarkers) could assist in investigating such associations.
The association between alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain rye and wheat intake, and colorectal cancer incidence were investigated using prediagnostic plasma samples from colorectal cancer case patients and matched control subjects nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. We included 1372 incident colorectal cancer case patients and 1372 individual matched control subjects and calculated the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for overall and anatomical subsites of colorectal cancer using conditional logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. Regional differences (Scandinavia, the Mediterranean, Central Europe) were also explored.
High plasma total alkylresorcinol concentration was associated with lower incidence of distal colon cancer; the adjusted incidence rate ratio of distal colon cancer for the highest vs lowest quartile of plasma total alkylresorcinols was 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.28 to 0.83). An inverse association between plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations and colon cancer was found for Scandinavian participants (IRR per doubling = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.70 to 0.98). However, plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations were not associated with overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, or rectal cancer. Plasma alkylresorcinols concentrations were associated with colon and distal colon cancer only in Central Europe and Scandinavia (ie, areas where alkylresorcinol levels were higher).
High concentrations of plasma alkylresorcinols were associated with a lower incidence of distal colon cancer but not with overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, and rectal cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis and fractures are frequently encountered in patients with Crohn's disease. In order to prevent fractures, treatment with bone protecting drugs appears warranted early in the course of bone disease when bone loss is not yet prominent. We therefore aimed to demonstrate a beneficial effect on bone density of the bisphosphonate risedronate in osteopenic Crohn's disease patients.
This double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial of risedronate with calcium and vitamin D supplementation was performed in osteopenic Crohn's disease patients. Patients were treated for 2 years with follow-up after 3 and after every 6 months. Disease characteristics and activity and bone turnover markers were assessed at all visits; dual x-ray absorptiometry was performed at baseline, 12 and 24 months; radiographs of the spine at baseline and 24 months.
Of 132 consenting patients, 131 were randomised (67 placebo and 64 risedronate). Patient characteristics were similar in both groups, although the risedronate group was slightly heavier (body mass index 24.3 vs 23.0 kg/m(2)). Bone mineral density at lumbar spine increased 0.04 g/cm(2) on average in the risedronate group versus 0.01 g/cm(2) in the placebo group (p=0.007). The mean increase in total hip bone mineral density was 0.03 versus 0.01 g/cm(2), respectively (p=0.071). Fracture prevalence and incidence were similar. Change of T-scores and concentrations of bone turnover markers were consistent with a beneficial effect of risedronate when compared with placebo. The effect of risedronate was primarily demonstrated in the first 12 months of treatment. No serious unexpected suspected adverse events were observed.
A 24-month treatment course with risedronate 35 mg once weekly, concomitant with calcium and vitamin D supplementation, in osteopenic Crohn's disease patients improved bone density at lumbar spine.NTR 163 Dutch Trial Register.
Gut 10/2013; 63(9):142-1430. · 13.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few modifiable risk factors have been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic cancer. There is little evidence for the effects of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or tea intake on risk of pancreatic cancer. We investigated the association of total coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption with risk of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: This study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) cohort, comprising male and female participants from 10 European countries. Between 1992 and 2000, 477,312 participants without cancer completed a dietary questionnaire, and were followed to determine pancreatic cancer incidence. Coffee and tea intakes were calibrated with a 24-hour dietary recall. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were computed using multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 11.6 y, 865 first incidences of pancreatic cancers were reported. When divided into fourths, neither total intake of coffee (HR,1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.27; high vs low intake), decaffeinated coffee (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.76-1.63; high vs low), nor tea were associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (HR, 1.22, 95% CI, 0.95-1.56; high vs low). Moderately low intake of caffeinated coffee was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.02-1.74), compared to low intake. However, no graded dose response was observed, and the association attenuated following restriction to histologically confirmed pancreatic cancers. CONCLUSION: Based on analysis of data from the EPIC cohort, total coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption are not related to the risk of pancreatic cancer.
Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 06/2013; · 5.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prospective studies have consistently reported lower colorectal cancer risks associated with higher intakes of total dairy products, total milk and dietary calcium. However, less is known about whether the inverse associations vary for individual dairy products with differing fat contents.
In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we investigated the associations between intakes of total milk and milk subtypes (whole-fat, semi-skimmed and skimmed), yoghurt, cheese, and dietary calcium with colorectal cancer risk amongst 477,122 men and women. Dietary questionnaires were administered at baseline. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for relevant confounding variables.
During the mean 11 years of follow-up, 4,513 incident cases of colorectal cancer occurred. After multivariable adjustments, total milk consumption was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 g/day 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98). Similar inverse associations were observed for whole-fat (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82-0.99) and skimmed milk (HR per 200 g/day 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79-1.02) in the multivariable models. Inverse associations were observed for cheese and yoghurt in the categorical models; although in the linear models, these associations were non-significant. Dietary calcium was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-0.99); this association was limited to dairy sources of calcium only (HR per 200 mg/day 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91-0.99), with no association observed for non-dairy calcium sources (HR per 200 mg/day 1.00, 95% CI: 0.81-1.24).
Our results strengthen the evidence for a possible protective role of dairy products on colorectal cancer risk. The inverse associations we observed did not differ by the fat content of the dairy products considered.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e72715. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) is common in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. This paper reports on the prevalence of decreased BMD in a referral cohort study of CD-patients next to the change of BMD over time in relation with CD-associated clinical characteristics. METHODS: 205 CD patients of a referral hospital were enrolled between januari 1998-January 2010 when measurement of BMD by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was available. Follow-up DXA scan was performed in subjects with known risk factors besides Crohn indicative for low BMD. Treatment of CD patients was according to a protocol which is comparable to the current (inter)national guidelines. In osteopenic patients, supplemental vitamin D (800IU) and Calcium (500-1000mg) were prescribed. RESULTS: Mean BMD at baseline was 0.97±0.16gram/cm(2) in lumbar spine and 0.87±0.12gram/cm(2) in the total hip. At baseline, higher age and low Body Mass Index (BMI), were negatively correlated with BMD. Eighty-four patients underwent a second BMD assessment with a median interval period of 4years (IQR 3-6). A mean annual increase of +0.76% (95%CI: -2.63%; +3.87%) in lumbar spine and +0.43% (95%CI: -2.65% ; +1.11%) in total hip was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Higher age, male sex, low BMI, and a higher age at diagnosis of CD were associated with low BMD. Follow-up of BMD in CD patients showed a contraintuitive small increase of BMD at lumbar spine and total hip in CD patients only using supplemental vitamin D and calcium next to strict treatment of CD.
Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 06/2012; 7(5):377-384. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund Report concluded that there was limited and inconsistent evidence for an effect of coffee and tea consumption on the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we aimed to investigate whether coffee intakes, tea intakes, or both are associated with the risk of EOC.
All women participating in the EPIC (n = 330,849) were included in this study. Data on coffee and tea consumption were collected through validated food-frequency questionnaires at baseline. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models. Furthermore, we performed an updated meta-analysis of all previous prospective studies until April 2011 by comparing the highest and lowest coffee- and tea-consumption categories as well as by using dose-response random-effects meta-regression analyses.
During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 1244 women developed EOC. No association was observed between the risk of EOC and coffee consumption [HR: 1.05 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.46) for the top quintile compared with no intake] or tea consumption [HR: 1.07 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.45) for the top quintile compared with no intake]. This lack of association between coffee and tea intake and EOC risk was confirmed by the results of our meta-analysis.
Epidemiologic studies do not provide sufficient evidence to support an association between coffee and tea consumption and risk of ovarian cancer.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 03/2012; 95(5):1172-81. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antipsychotic drugs can cause a wide and varied range of side -effects because of their affinity for serotonergic, dopaminergic, adrenergic and histaminergic receptors. Priapism is a rare and serious side-effect of antipsychotic drugs and is probably caused by their alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blocking activity.
A 13-year-old boy with a history of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome was presented to the urologist with a history of a penile erection for more than 24 hours, since waking the previous morning. He had used pipamperone and clonidine for a long period of time and he reported that he regularly had prolonged erections since one year. An ischaemic priapism was diagnosed. Underlying pathology as the cause of the priapism was ruled out and the diagnosis of pipamperone-induced priapism was made per exclusionem.
The use of antipsychotic drugs should be discontinued in the occurrence of this side-effect. If necessary, an alternative drug with a low alpha 1-adrenergic receptor affinity should be given.
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 01/2011; 155(42):A3132.