E L So

Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

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Publications (131)500.67 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate a trial of immunotherapy as an aid to diagnosis in suspected autoimmune epilepsy. We reviewed the charts of 110 patients seen at our autoimmune neurology clinic with seizures as a chief complaint. Twenty-nine patients met the following inclusion criteria: (1) autoimmune epilepsy suspected based on the presence of ≥1 neural autoantibody (n = 23), personal or family history or physical stigmata of autoimmunity, and frequent or medically intractable seizures; and (2) initiated a 6- to 12-week trial of IV methylprednisolone (IVMP), IV immune globulin (IVIg), or both. Patients were defined as responders if there was a 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency. Eighteen patients (62%) responded, of whom 10 (34%) became seizure-free; 52% improved with the first agent. Of those receiving a second agent after not responding to the first, 43% improved. A favorable response correlated with shorter interval between symptom onset and treatment initiation (median 9.5 vs 22 months; p = 0.048). Responders included 14/16 (87.5%) patients with antibodies to plasma membrane antigens, 2/6 (33%) patients seropositive for glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 antibodies, and 2/6 (33%) patients without detectable antibodies. Of 13 responders followed for more than 6 months after initiating long-term oral immunosuppression, response was sustained in 11 (85%). These retrospective findings justify consideration of a trial of immunotherapy in patients with suspected autoimmune epilepsy. This study provides Class IV evidence that in patients with suspected autoimmune epilepsy, IVMP, IVIg, or both improve seizure control.
    Neurology 04/2014; · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • Elson L So, Ricky W Lee
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    ABSTRACT: This study discusses the challenges of MRI-negative epilepsy surgery, and the strategies in using advanced MRI and functional imaging tests and their associated postsurgical outcome. Several methods for processing MRI postacquisition data have identified either previously undetectable or overlooked MRI abnormalities. The resection of these abnormalities is associated with excellent postsurgical seizure control. There have been major advances in functional imaging as well, one of which is the application of statistical parametric mapping analysis for comparing patient data against normative data. This approach has specifically improved the usefulness of both PET and single-photon emission computed tomography in MRI-negative epilepsy surgery evaluation. One other development of importance is that of PET-MRI coregistration, which has recently been shown to be superior to conventional PET. More recent publications on magnetoencephalography have added to the literature of its use in MRI-negative epilepsy surgery evaluation, which up to now remains somewhat limited. However, recent data now indicate that single magnetoencephalography cluster is associated with better chance of concordance with intracranial EEG localization, and with excellent postsurgical seizure control if completely resected. Advanced MRI and functional imaging and subsequent intracranial EEG confirmation of the seizure-onset zone are essential to make MRI-negative epilepsy surgery possible and worthwhile for the patient.
    Current opinion in neurology 02/2014; · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the benefit of statistical SPECT processing over traditional subtraction methods, we compared ictal-interictal SPECT analyzed by statistical parametric mapping (SPM) (ISAS), statistical ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI (STATISCOM), and subtraction ictal-interictal SPECT coregistered with MRI (SISCOM) in patients with MRI-negative focal temporal lobe epilepsy (nTLE) and extratemporal lobe epilepsy (nETLE). We retrospectively identified 49 consecutive cases of drug-resistant focal epilepsy that had a negative preoperative MRI and underwent interictal and ictal SPECT prior to resective epilepsy surgery. Interictal and ictal SPECT scans were analyzed using SISCOM, ISAS, and STATISCOM to create hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion maps for each patient. Reviewers blinded to clinical data and the SPECT analysis method marked the site of probable seizure origin and indicated their confidence in the localization. In nTLE and nETLE, the hyperperfusions detected by STATISCOM (71% nTLE, 57% nETLE) and ISAS (67% nTLE, 53% nETLE) were more often colocalized with surgery resection site compared to SISCOM (38% nTLE, 36% nETLE). In nTLE, localization of the hyperperfusion to the region of surgery was associated with an excellent outcome for STATISCOM (p = 0.005) and ISAS (p = 0.027), but not in SISCOM (p = 0.071). This association was not present in nETLE for any method. In an unselected group of patients with normal MRI and focal epilepsy, SPM-based methods of SPECT processing showed better localization of SPECT hyperperfusion to surgical resection site and higher interobserver agreement compared to SISCOM. These results show the benefit of statistical SPECT processing methods and further highlight the challenge of nETLE.
    Neurology 02/2014; · 8.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the outcomes of intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) recording and subsequent resective surgery in patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) − negative temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Thirty-two patients were identified from the Mayo Clinic Epilepsy Surgery Database (Arizona, Florida, and Minnesota). Eight (25.0%) had chronic iEEG monitoring that recorded neocortical temporal seizure onsets; 12 (37.5%) had mesial temporal seizure onsets; 5 (15.6%) had independent neocortical and mesial temporal seizure onsets; and 7 (21.9%) had simultaneous neocortical and mesial seizure onsets. Neocortical temporal lobe seizure semiology was the only factor significantly associated with neocortical temporal seizure onsets on iEEG. Only 33.3% of patients who underwent lateral temporal neocorticectomy had an Engel class 1 outcome, whereas 76.5% of patients with iEEG-guided anterior temporal lobectomy that included the amygdala and the hippocampus had an Engel class 1 outcome. Limitations in cohort size precluded statistical analysis of neuropsychological test data.
    Epilepsy research 01/2014; · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in people with chronic refractory epilepsy. Very rarely, SUDEP occurs in epilepsy monitoring units, providing highly informative data for its still elusive pathophysiology. The MORTEMUS study expanded these data through comprehensive evaluation of cardiorespiratory arrests encountered in epilepsy monitoring units worldwide. Between Jan 1, 2008, and Dec 29, 2009, we did a systematic retrospective survey of epilepsy monitoring units located in Europe, Israel, Australia, and New Zealand, to retrieve data for all cardiorespiratory arrests recorded in these units and estimate their incidence. Epilepsy monitoring units from other regions were invited to report similar cases to further explore the mechanisms. An expert panel reviewed data, including video electroencephalogram (VEEG) and electrocardiogram material at the time of cardiorespiratory arrests whenever available. 147 (92%) of 160 units responded to the survey. 29 cardiorespiratory arrests, including 16 SUDEP (14 at night), nine near SUDEP, and four deaths from other causes, were reported. Cardiorespiratory data, available for ten cases of SUDEP, showed a consistent and previously unrecognised pattern whereby rapid breathing (18-50 breaths per min) developed after secondary generalised tonic-clonic seizure, followed within 3 min by transient or terminal cardiorespiratory dysfunction. Where transient, this dysfunction later recurred with terminal apnoea occurring within 11 min of the end of the seizure, followed by cardiac arrest. SUDEP incidence in adult epilepsy monitoring units was 5·1 (95% CI 2·6-9·2) per 1000 patient-years, with a risk of 1·2 (0·6-2·1) per 10 000 VEEG monitorings, probably aggravated by suboptimum supervision and possibly by antiepileptic drug withdrawal. SUDEP in epilepsy monitoring units primarily follows an early postictal, centrally mediated, severe alteration of respiratory and cardiac function induced by generalised tonic-clonic seizure, leading to immediate death or a short period of partly restored cardiorespiratory function followed by terminal apnoea then cardiac arrest. Improved supervision is warranted in epilepsy monitoring units, in particular during night time. Commission of European Affairs of the International League Against Epilepsy.
    The Lancet Neurology 09/2013; · 23.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the pathophysiologic mechanism of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is unknown, autonomic dysfunction is thought to be the most likely. It has been hypothesized that respiratory depression resulting in SUDEP may be secondary to postictal generalized electroencephalography suppression (PGES). We sought to determine the characteristics of PGES in children. This included whether PGES was associated with ictally mediated autonomic changes and potential increased risk of SUDEP. Children admitted to our Pediatric Epilepsy Monitoring Unit between 3/2009 and 10/2011 were prospectively recruited. Clinical and electrophysiological data from children with PGES were compared to those without PGES. Data included the occurrence of peri-ictal tachycardia, bradycardia, and hypoxemia. Potential SUDEP risk was assessed using SUDEP-7 Inventory scores. Thirty seven children with 168 seizures were analyzed. PGES was observed following 27/168 (16.1%) seizures in 12/37 (32.4%) children. Only primary and secondarily generalized tonic clonic seizures were marked by PGES. PGES was significantly associated with peri-ictal tachycardia (p=0.019) and hypoxemia (p=0.005). Children with PGES had significantly higher SUDEP-7 Inventory scores than those without PGES (4.2±1.3 versus 2.8±1.4, p=0.007). SUDEP-7 scores were not significantly different between children with and without peri-ictal tachycardia (3.4±1.3 versus 2.5±1.6, p=0.12), bradycardia (4±2 versus 2.9±1.4, p=0.45), or hypoxemia (3.4±1.5 versus 2.4±1.3, p=0.051). Based on our data, PGES is not rare in children. Children with PGES may be at greater risk for SUDEP as measured by the SUDEP-7 Inventory.
    Epilepsy research 06/2013; · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE A focal lesion detected by use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a favorable prognostic finding for epilepsy surgery. Patients with normal MRI findings and extratemporal lobe epilepsy have less favorable outcomes. Most studies investigating the outcomes of patients with normal MRI findings who underwent (nonlesional) extratemporal epilepsy surgery are confined to a highly select group of patients with limited follow-up. OBJECTIVE To evaluate noninvasive diagnostic test results and their association with excellent surgical outcomes (defined using Engel classes I-IIA of surgical outcomes) in a group of patients with medically resistant nonlesional extratemporal epilepsy. DESIGN A retrospective study. SETTING Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS From 1997 through 2002, we identified 85 patients with medically resistant extratemporal lobe epilepsy who had normal MRI findings. Based on a standardized presurgical evaluation and review at a multidisciplinary epilepsy surgery conference, some of these patients were selected for intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring and epilepsy surgery. EXPOSURE Nonlesional extratemporal lobe epilepsy surgery. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The results of noninvasive diagnostic tests and the clinical variables potentially associated with excellent surgical outcome were examined in patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year (mean follow-up, 9 years). RESULTS Based on the noninvasive diagnostic test results, a clear hypothesis for seizure origin was possible for 47 of the 85 patients (55%), and 31 of these 47 patients (66%) proceeded to intracranial EEG monitoring. For 24 of these 31 patients undergoing long-term intracranial EEG (77%), a seizure focus was identified and surgically resected. Of these 24 patients, 9 (38%) had an excellent outcome after resective epilepsy surgery. All patients with an excellent surgical outcome had at least 10 years of follow-up. Univariate analysis showed that localized interictal epileptiform discharges on scalp EEGs were associated with an excellent surgical outcome. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Scalp EEG was the most useful test for identifying patients with normal MRI findings and extratemporal lobe epilepsy who were likely to have excellent outcomes after epilepsy surgery. Extending outcome analysis beyond the resective surgery group to the entire group of patients who were evaluated further highlights the challenge that these patients pose. Although 9 of 24 patients undergoing resective surgery (38%) had excellent outcomes, only 9 of 31 patients undergoing intracranial EEG (29%) and only 9 of 85 patient with nonlesional extratemporal lobe epilepsy (11%) had long-term excellent outcomes.
    JAMA neurology. 06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral oximetry has not been explored in patients experiencing seizures in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the feasibility of periictal measurement of cerebral oxygenation using noninvasive cerebral tissue oximetry and to determine whether there was evidence of cerebral hypoxemia during generalized seizures. Cerebral oxygen saturation findings were subsequently correlated with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) risk factors. We prospectively evaluated six patients admitted to our EMU with histories of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) with prolonged scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and two regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2) ) sensors. Minimum rSO(2) values were recorded in the 5 min preceding seizure onset, during the seizure, and in the 5 min following seizure offset. SUDEP risk was assessed using the SUDEP-7 Inventory. Cerebral oximetry was well tolerated, with a mean duration of rSO(2) monitoring of 81.1 h. Cerebral oxygen saturation data were available from at least one sensor in 9 (90%) of 10 seizures; only 6 (60%) of 10 seizures had useable periictal digital pulse oximetry data. GTCS were associated with significantly lower minimum ictal (p = 0.003) and postictal (p = 0.004) %rSO(2) values than the minimum preictal value. Patients with at least one seizure with a %rSO(2) decrease of ≥20% tended to have higher SUDEP-7 Inventory scores (mean SUDEP-7 Inventory score 7 ± 2.8) versus patients without recorded desaturations (4.3 ± 0.5, p = 0.08). Larger studies are needed to determine the value of cerebral oximetry in the identification of patients at risk of SUDEP.
    Epilepsia 10/2012; · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical characteristics and immunotherapy responses in patients with autoimmune epilepsy. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective case series. SETTING: Mayo Clinic Health System. Patients Thirty-two patients with an exclusive (n = 11) or predominant (n = 21) seizure presentation in whom an autoimmune etiology was suspected (on the basis of neural autoantibody [91%], inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid [31%], or magnetic resonance imaging suggesting inflammation [63%]) were studied. All had partial seizures: 81% had failed treatment with 2 or more antiepileptic drugs and had daily seizures and 38% had seizure semiologies that were multifocal or changed with time. Head magnetic resonance imaging was normal in 15 (47%) at onset. Electroencephalogram abnormalities included interictal epileptiform discharges in 20; electrographic seizures in 15; and focal slowing in 13. Neural autoantibodies included voltage-gated potassium channel complex in 56% (leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 specific, 14; contactin-associated proteinlike 2 specific, 1); glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 in 22%; collapsin response-mediator protein 5 in 6%; and Ma2, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, and ganglionic acetylcholine receptor in 1 patient each. Intervention Immunotherapy with intravenous methylprednisolone; intravenous immune globulin; and combinations of intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immune globulin, plasmapheresis, or cyclophosphamide. Main Outcome Measure Seizure frequency. RESULTS: After a median interval of 17 months (range, 3-72 months), 22 of 27 (81%) reported improvement postimmunotherapy; 18 were seizure free. The median time from seizure onset to initiating immunotherapy was 4 months for responders and 22 months for nonresponders (P < .05). All voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody-positive patients reported initial or lasting benefit (P < .05). One voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody-positive patient was seizure free after thyroid cancer resection; another responded to antiepileptic drug change alone. CONCLUSION: When clinical and serological clues suggest an autoimmune basis for medically intractable epilepsy, early-initiated immunotherapy may improve seizure outcome.
    Archives of neurology 03/2012; · 7.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. To investigate EEG and SPECT in the surgical outcome of patients with normal MRI (nonlesional) and extratemporal lobe epilepsy. Methods. We retrospectively identified 41 consecutive patients with nonlesional extratemporal epilepsy who underwent epilepsy surgery between 1997 and 2007. The history, noninvasive diagnostic studies (scalp EEG, MRI, and SPECT) and intracranial EEG (iEEG) monitoring was reviewed. Scalp and iEEG ictal onset patterns were defined. The association of preoperative studies and postoperative seizure freedom was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard. Results. Thirty-six of 41 patients had adequate information with a minimum of 1-year followup. Favorable surgical outcome was identified in 49% of patients at 1 year, and 35% at 4-year. On scalp EEG, an ictal onset pattern consisting of focal beta-frequency discharge (>13-125 Hz) was associated with favorable surgical outcome (P = 0.02). Similarly, a focal fast-frequency oscillation (>13-125 Hz) on iEEG at ictal onset was associated with favorable outcome (P = 0.03). Discussion. A focal fast-frequency discharge at ictal onset identifies nonlesional MRI, extratemporal epilepsy patients likely to have a favorable outcome after resective epilepsy surgery.
    ISRN neurology. 01/2012; 2012:942849.
  • Elson L So, Terrence J O'Brien
    Handbook of Clinical Neurology 01/2012; 107:425-36.
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    ABSTRACT: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a category of death in people with epilepsy occurring in the absence of a known structural cause of death and is most likely heterogeneous with regard to mechanisms and circumstances. SUDEP is particularly difficult to investigate in research studies for several reasons, including its relatively low incidence, its unpredictable occurrence often in unwitnessed settings, and its low rate of complete autopsy examinations. Over the past two decades, two complementary definitions have been used in most SUDEP studies, but often with variations. We propose here a unified SUDEP definition and classification to resolve current ambiguities and to retrieve cases that would not have been further studied if the previous definitions were used. The proposed Unified SUDEP Definition and Classification contains, in addition to concepts inherent in the previous definitions, nine main recommendations. (1) The word "unexpected," and not the word "unexplained," should be uniformly used in the term SUDEP. (2) The SUDEP category should be applied when appropriate, whether or not a terminal seizure is known to have occurred. (3) The "Possible SUDEP" category should be used only for cases with competing causes of death, with cases left unclassified when data are insufficient to reasonably permit their classification. (4) Cases that would otherwise fulfill the definition of SUDEP should be designated as "SUDEP Plus" when evidence indicates that a preexisting condition, known before or after autopsy, could have contributed to the death, which otherwise is classified as SUDEP (e.g., coronary insufficiency with no evidence of myocardial infarction or long-QT syndrome with no documented primary ventricular arrhythmia leading to death). (5) To be considered SUDEP, the death should have occurred within 1 h from the onset of a known terminal event. (6) For status epilepticus as an exclusion criterion for SUDEP, the duration of seizure activity should be 30 min or more. (7) A specific category of SUDEP due to asphyxia should not be designated, the distinction being largely impractical on circumstantial or autopsy evidence, with more than one mechanism likely to be contributory in many cases. (8) Death occurring in water but without circumstantial or autopsy evidence of submersion should be classified as "Possible SUDEP." If any evidence of submersion is present, the death should not be classified as SUDEP. (9) A category of "Near-SUDEP" should be agreed to include cases in which cardiorespiratory arrest was reversed by resuscitation efforts with subsequent survival for more than 1 h. Scenarios that demonstrate the basis for each SUDEP category are described. If disagreement exists about which category fits a particular case, we suggest the use of consensus decision by a panel of informed reviewers to adjudicate the classification of the case.
    Epilepsia 12/2011; 53(2):227-33. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate diethylester (ECD) and Tc-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) are commonly used for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies of a variety of neurologic disorders. Although these tracers have been very helpful in diagnosing and guiding treatment of neurologic disease, data describing the distribution and laterality of these tracers in normal resting brain are limited. Advances in quantitative functional imaging have demonstrated the value of using resting studies from control populations as a baseline to account for physiologic fluctuations in cerebral perfusion. Here, we report results from 30 resting Tc-99m ECD SPECT scans and 14 resting Tc-99m HMPAO scans of normal volunteers with no history of neurologic disease. Scans were analyzed with regions of interest and with statistical parametric mapping, with comparisons performed laterally (left vs. right), as well as for age, gender, and handedness. The results show regions of significant asymmetry in the normal controls affecting widespread areas in the cerebral hemispheres, but most marked in superior parietotemporal region and frontal lobes. The results have important implications for the use of normal control SPECT images in the evaluation of patients with neurologic disease.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 09/2011; 32(1):190-8. · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine whether seizure semiology is reliable in localizing and distinguishing seizures at 2 independent brain foci in the same patient. DESIGN: Two masked reviewers localized seizures from 2 foci by their clinical semiology and intracranial electroencephalograms (EEGs). SETTING: Epilepsy monitoring unit of referral comprehensive epilepsy program. PATIENTS: Seventeen consecutive patients (51 seizures) with sufficient video and intracranial EEG data were identified by reviewing medical records of 366 patients older than 10 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measures were interobserver agreement between the 2 masked reviewers; the proportion of seizures localized by semiology; the proportion of localized seizures concordant with intracranial EEG localization; and comparison between concordant and nonconcordant seizures in latency of intracranial EEG seizure spread. RESULTS: Interobserver agreement was 41% (kappa score, 0.16). Only 30 of 51 seizures (59%) were localized by seizure semiology. The focus localized by semiology was concordant with the location of intracranial EEG seizure onset in 16 of 30 seizures (53%). No significant difference was observed between concordant and nonconcordant seizures in relation to the speed with which the EEG discharge spread from the location of seizure onset to another lobar region (P = .09, Wilcoxon rank sum test). CONCLUSION: Clinical seizure semiology is not as useful as intracranial EEG in localizing seizure onset in patients with dual seizure foci
    Arch.Neurol. 06/2011; 68(6).
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether seizure semiology is reliable in localizing and distinguishing seizures at 2 independent brain foci in the same patient. Two masked reviewers localized seizures from 2 foci by their clinical semiology and intracranial electroencephalograms (EEGs). Epilepsy monitoring unit of referral comprehensive epilepsy program. Seventeen consecutive patients (51 seizures) with sufficient video and intracranial EEG data were identified by reviewing medical records of 366 patients older than 10 years. The primary outcome measures were interobserver agreement between the 2 masked reviewers; the proportion of seizures localized by semiology; the proportion of localized seizures concordant with intracranial EEG localization; and comparison between concordant and nonconcordant seizures in latency of intracranial EEG seizure spread. Interobserver agreement was 41% (κ score, 0.16). Only 30 of 51 seizures (59%) were localized by seizure semiology. The focus localized by semiology was concordant with the location of intracranial EEG seizure onset in 16 of 30 seizures (53%). No significant difference was observed between concordant and nonconcordant seizures in relation to the speed with which the EEG discharge spread from the location of seizure onset to another lobar region (P = .09, Wilcoxon rank sum test). Clinical seizure semiology is not as useful as intracranial EEG in localizing seizure onset in patients with dual seizure foci.
    Archives of neurology 06/2011; 68(6):775-8. · 7.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a devastating complication of epilepsy and is not rare. The NIH and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke sponsored a 3-day multidisciplinary workshop to advance research into SUDEP and its prevention. Parallel sessions were held: one with a focus on the science of SUDEP, and the other with a focus on issues related to the education of health care practitioners and people with epilepsy. This report summarizes the discussions and recommendations of the workshop, including lessons learned from investigations of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), sudden cardiac death, autonomic and respiratory physiology, medical devices, genetics, and animal models. Recommendations include educating all people with epilepsy about SUDEP as part of their general education on the potential harm of seizures, except in extenuating circumstances. Increasing awareness of SUDEP may facilitate improved seizure control, possibly decreasing SUDEP incidence. There have been significant advances in our understanding of the clinical and physiologic features of SIDS, sudden cardiac death, and SUDEP in both people and animals. Research should continue to focus on the cardiac, autonomic, respiratory, and genetic factors that likely contribute to the risk of SUDEP. Multicenter collaborative research should be encouraged, especially investigations with direct implications for the prevention of SUDEP. An ongoing SUDEP Coalition has been established to facilitate this effort. With the expansion of clinical, genetic, and basic science research, there is reasonable hope of advancing our understanding of SUDEP and ultimately our ability to prevent it.
    Neurology 05/2011; 76(22):1932-8. · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • Elson L. So
    03/2011: pages 67 - 81; , ISBN: 9780470975039
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    ABSTRACT: To compare long-term outcome in a population-based group of children with cryptogenic versus symptomatic focal epilepsy diagnosed from 1980 to 2004 and to define the course of epilepsy in the cryptogenic group. We identified all children residing in Olmsted County, MN, 1 month through 17 years, with newly diagnosed, nonidiopathic focal epilepsy from 1980 to 2004. Children with idiopathic partial epilepsy syndromes were excluded. Medical records were reviewed to determine etiology, results of imaging and EEG studies, treatments used, and long-term outcome. Children were defined as having symptomatic epilepsy if they had a known genetic or structural/metabolic etiology, and as cryptogenic if they did not. Of 359 children with newly diagnosed epilepsy, 215 (60%) had nonidiopathic focal epilepsy. Of these, 206 (96%) were followed for > 12 months. Ninety-five children (46%) were classified as symptomatic. Median follow-up from diagnosis was similar in both groups, being 157 months (25%, 75%: 89, 233) in the cryptogenic group versus 134 months (25%, 75%: 78, 220) in the symptomatic group (p = 0.26). Of 111 cryptogenic cases, 66% had normal cognition. Long-term outcome was significantly better in those with cryptogenic versus symptomatic etiology (intractable epilepsy at last follow-up, 7% vs. 40%, p < 0.001; seizure freedom at last follow-up, 81% vs. 55%, p < 0.001). Of those who achieved seizure freedom at final follow-up, 68% of the cryptogenic group versus only 46% of the symptomatic group were off antiepileptic medications (p = 0.01). One-third of the cryptogenic group had a remarkably benign disorder, with no seizures seen after initiation of medication, or in those who were untreated, after the second afebrile seizure. A further 5% had seizures within the first year but remained seizure-free thereafter. With the exception of perinatal complications, which predicted against seizure remission, no other factors were found to significantly predict outcome in the cryptogenic group. More than half of childhood nonidiopathic localization-related epilepsy is cryptogenic. This group has a significantly better long-term outcome than those with a symptomatic etiology, and should be distinguished from it.
    Epilepsia 02/2011; 52(4):738-45. · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • Elson L So
    Journal of clinical neurophysiology: official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society 01/2011; · 1.47 Impact Factor
  • Elson L So
    Journal of clinical neurophysiology: official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society 10/2010; · 1.47 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
500.67 Total Impact Points

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Institutions

  • 2014
    • Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1993–2012
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Diagnostic Radiology
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • Royal Melbourne Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • Phoenix Children's Hospital
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 1994–2011
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 2006–2009
    • Drexel University College of Medicine
      • Department of Neurology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 1993–1994
    • Marshfield Clinic
      Marshfield, Wisconsin, United States