[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In some patients, heart failure (HF) is associated with increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The magnitude and the reversibility of PVR elevation affect the HF management. Sildenafil has been recently recognized as potent PVR-lowering drug in HF. The aim of the study was to compare hemodynamic effects and pulmonary selectivity of sildenafil to prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)). Right-heart catheterization was performed in 13 euvolemic advanced HF patients with elevated PVR (6.3+/-2 Wood's units). Hemodynamic parameters were measured at the baseline, during i.v. infusion of PGE1 (alprostadil 200 ng · kg(-1) · min(-1)) and after 40 mg oral dose of sildenafil. Both drugs similarly reduced systemic vascular resistance (SVR), but sildenafil had higher effect on PVR (-28 % vs. -49 %, p = 0.05) and transpulmonary pressure gradient than PGE(1). The PVR/SVR ratio--an index of pulmonary selectivity, did not change after PGE(1) (p = 0.7) but it decreased by -32 % (p = 0.004) after sildenafil. Both drugs similarly reduced pulmonary artery mean and wedge pressures and increased cardiac index (+27 % and +28 %). Sildenafil led more often to transplant-acceptable PVR while causing smaller drop of mean systemic pressure than PGE(1). In conclusion, vasodilatatory effects of sildenafil in patients with heart failure are more pronounced in pulmonary than in systemic circulation.
Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca 11/2010; 60(2):303-8. · 1.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to identify factors that discriminate heart failure (HF) patients with normal and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and to elucidate the role of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent vasodilation.
Mechanisms of PVR increase in patients with chronic HF are incompletely understood.
Twenty-two HF patients with high pulmonary vascular resistance (H-PVR) (>200 dyn.s.cm(-5)) were compared with 24 matched low pulmonary vascular resistance (L-PVR) patients of similar age, sex, body size, HF severity, and volume status who were undergoing invasive hemodynamic study. Pulmonary arterial (PA) and venous blood samples from a wedged PA catheter were used to calculate transpulmonary B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) uptake and cGMP release. The H-PVR patients were re-examined 1 h after a 40-mg oral dose of sildenafil.
Although transpulmonary BNP uptake was similar (p = 0.2), cGMP release was diminished in the H-PVR patients (-1.9 vs. 27.8 nmol.min(-1); p = 0.005). Transpulmonary BNP uptake and cGMP release correlated in the L-PVR patients (R = 0.6, p = 0.004) but not in the H-PVR. The H-PVR patients also had lower PA compliance, systemic arterial compliance (by 47% and 20%, p < 0.001 and p < 0.03), and cardiac index. Sildenafil reduced PVR (-47%), systemic resistance (-24%) and heart rate (-8%), increased cardiac index (+24%), and PA compliance (+87%, all p < 0.001), with a parallel increase of cGMP release (from -5.6 to 16.5 nmol.min(-1), p = 0.047), without affecting BNP uptake or norepinephrine(PA). The PVR response was not dependent on PA wedge pressure or pulmonary hypertension reversibility with prostaglandin E(1).
The H-PVR patients have stiffening of both pulmonary and systemic arteries, preserved transpulmonary BNP uptake, but diminished cGMP release, which is reversible by the administration of sildenafil. This study provides in vivo evidence that phosphodiesterase 5A inhibition restores sensitivity of pulmonary vasculature to endogenous cGMP-dependent vasodilators.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 08/2009; 54(7):595-600. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2009.05.021 · 16.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives We sought to identify factors that discriminate heart failure (HF) patients with normal and elevated pulmonary vascu-lar resistance (PVR) and to elucidate the role of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent vasodilation.