[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a conserved lysosomal self-digestion process used for the breakdown of long-lived proteins and damaged organelles, and it is associated with a number of pathological processes, including cancer. Phospholipase D (PLD) isozymes are dysregulated in various cancers. Recently, we reported that PLD1 is a new regulator of autophagy and is a potential target for cancer therapy. Here, we investigated whether PLD2 is involved in the regulation of autophagy. A PLD2-specific inhibitor and siRNA directed against PLD2 were used to treat HT29 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells, and both inhibition and genetic knockdown of PLD2 in these cells significantly induced autophagy, as demonstrated by the visualization of light chain 3 (LC3) puncta and autophagic vacuoles as well as by determining the LC3-II protein level. Furthermore, PLD2 inhibition promoted autophagic flux via the canonical Atg5-, Atg7- and AMPK-Ulk1-mediated pathways. Taken together, these results suggest that PLD2 might have a role in autophagy and that its inhibition might provide a new therapeutic basis for targeting autophagy.
Experimental and Molecular Medicine 12/2014; 46(12):e124. DOI:10.1038/emm.2014.74 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Binding of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) to its specific cell surface receptor, N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR), triggers different cascades of biochemical events, eventually leading to cellular activation. However, the physiological role of fMLP and FPR during differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is unknown. In this study, we attempted to determine whether fMLP regulates differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow. Analysis by quantitative-PCR and flow cytometry showed significantly increased expression of FPR1, but not FPR2 and FPR3, during osteoblastic differentiation. fMLP, a specific ligand of FPR1, promotes osteoblastic commitment and suppresses adipogenic commitment under differentiation conditions. Remarkably, fMLP-stimulated osteogenesis is associated with increased expression of osteogenic markers and mineralization, which were blocked by cyclosporine H, a selective FPR1 antagonist. In addition, fMLP inhibited expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ1, a major regulator of adipocytic differentiation. fMLP-stimulated osteogenic differentiation was mediated via FPR1-phospholipase C/phospholipase D-Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent kinase II-ERK-CREB signaling pathways. Finally, fMLP promoted bone formation in zebrafish and rabbits, suggesting its physiological relevance in vivo. Collectively, our findings provide novel insight into the functional role of fMLP in bone biology, with important implications for its potential use as a therapeutic agent for treatment of bone-related disorders.