E Galli

INO - Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Florens, Tuscany, Italy

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Publications (8)22.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Oxytetracycline (OTC) is administered in high doses to livestocks and enters the environmental compartments as a consequence of animal waste disposal. As a first step in setting up a useful mycoremediation technique, an OTC lab degradation test was performed in liquid medium using the ligninolytic fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. OTC disappearance in culture medium was clearly evident as early as the third day of exposure onwards, with an almost complete removal after 14d. The drug removal was mediated by fungal absorption in the mycelia, where the OTC molecule underwent a degradation step, as demonstrated by mass spectrometry analyses. A putative degradation product, ADOTC (2-acetyl-2-decarboxamido-oxytetracycline) is proposed. Experimental conditions excluded OTC abiotic degradation; the degradation by extracellular laccase was also experimentally discarded.
    Journal of hazardous materials 03/2012; 215-216:227-32. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.02.056 · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxytetracycline (OTC) is administered in high doses to livestocks and enters the environmental compartments as a consequence of animal waste disposal. As a first step in setting up a useful mycoremediation technique, an OTC lab degradation test was performed in liquid medium using the ligninolytic fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. OTC disappearance in culture medium was clearly evident as early as the third day of exposure onwards, with an almost complete removal after 14 d. The drug removal was mediated by fungal absorption in the mycelia, where the OTC molecule underwent a degradation step, as demonstrated by mass spectrometry analyses. A putative degradation product, ADOTC (2-acetyl-2-decarboxamido-oxytetracycline) is proposed. Experimental conditions excluded OTC abiotic degradation; the degradation by extracellular laccase was also experimentally discarded.
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 01/2012; · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of chopped wheat straw (CWS), ground corn cobs (GCC) and commercial pellets (CP), as inoculum carriers, on both growth and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) degradation performances of Dichomitus squalens, Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus comatus. A historically-contaminated soil (HCS) and creosote-treated shavings (CTS) from the Sobeslav wood preservation plant, characterized by different relative abundances of the PAH bioavailable fractions, were used to assess the contaminated matrix effect and its interaction with both carrier and fungal strain. In HCS, best results were obtained with CP-immobilized P. ostreatus, which was able to deplete benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by 69.1%, 29.7%, 39.7%, 32.8% and 85.2%, respectively. Only few high-molecular mass PAHs such as BbF, BkF and BaP were degraded beyond their respective bioavailable fractions and this effect was confined to a limited number of inoculants. In CTS, only phenanthrene degradation exceeded its respective bioavailability from 1.42 to 1.86-fold. Regardless of both inoculum carrier and fungal species, degradation was positively and significantly (P<0.001) correlated with bioavailability in fungal microcosms on HCS and CTS and such correlation was very similar in the two matrices (R(adj)(2) equal to 0.60 and 0.59, respectively). The ability of white-rot fungi to degrade certain PAHs beyond their bioavailability was experimentally proven by this study. Although CTS and HCS considerably differed in their physico-chemical properties, PAH contents and contaminant aging, the relationship between degradation and bioavailability was not significantly affected by the type of matrix.
    Chemosphere 03/2010; 79(8):855-64. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.02.038 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A bioremediation system for creosote-treated wood is proposed, based on the detoxifying capability of Pleurotus ostreatus, a ligninolythic fungus. Non-sterilized chipped contaminated wood was mixed at various ratios with wheat straw on which Pleurotus mycelia was grown. At 1:2 initial ratio contaminated wood:wheat straw, chemical analyses demonstrated an almost complete degradation of creosote oil components after 44 days, also confirmed by a significant reduction of ecotoxicity. Lower ratios, i.e. higher amount of contaminated wood, lower system efficiency, although a better creosote degradation was obtained by a stepped up wood addition.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 09/2008; 81(2):180-4. DOI:10.1007/s00128-008-9394-9 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tolerance of wood decay fungi of the genera Agrocybe, Armillaria, Auricularia, Daedalea, Pleurotus, Trametes to the presence of various amounts of creosote-treated wood (CTW) in the growth medium was compared. In the case of the most tolerant strain, Pleurotus ostreatus SMR 684, extracellular laccase and peroxidase specific activities were monitored during growth in the presence of CTW. Degradation of various creosote-constituting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by this strain was evaluated by GC-MS and the ecotoxicity of treated and untreated CTW was compared by Microtox test.
    Chemosphere 08/2008; 72(7):1069-72. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.04.014 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chitinous material was isolated from the mycelium of seven species of Basidiomycetes to evaluate the possibility of using fungal biomass as a source of chitin and chitosan. Such material was characterised for its purity, degree of acetylation and crystallinity. Chitin yields ranged between 8.5 and 19.6% dry weight and the chitosan yield was approximately 1%. The characteristics of the fungal chitins were similar to those of commercial chitin. Chitosans, with a low degree of acetylation, comparable with that of commercial chitosan, were obtained by the chemical deacetylation of fungal chitins.
    International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 08/2008; 43(1):8-12. DOI:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2007.10.005 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The detoxification of creosote-treated wood is an actual problem that should be faced in a short time, since the law imposes the removal of the polluted materials. Biotechnologies based on the use of white-rot fungal species can be a suitable way, since their mycelia are able to grow on ligninocellulosic materials and to oxidize aromatic organic molecules through extracellular enzymes. The mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus SMR 684 was grown in Petri dishes on different mixtures of creosotetreated wood and wheat straw. Although in a different extent due to the creosote concentration, mycelium grew rapidly producing abundant biomass. Results obtained after 30 days from mycelium inoculation show a remarkable decrease of total phenols (greater than 75%), heterocyclic compounds (from 40 to 85%, depending on the molecular structure) and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (65%).
    Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 01/2006; 15(8):720-723. · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum conditions for copper (Cu) biosorption by Auricularia polytricha mycelium in view of its immobilization in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The adsorption of Cu(II) onto A. polytricha was studied in batch with respect to initial pH, temperature, adsorption time, initial metal ion and biomass concentration. At optimal adsorption conditions, biomass was immobilized in PVA in column and a biosorption capacity of about 90% was obtained. Auricularia polytricha strain could successfully be used as Cu biosorbent. The low cost and simplicity of the technique make it suitable for the detoxification of contaminated effluents before their environmental discharge.
    Letters in Applied Microbiology 02/2003; 37(2):133-7. DOI:10.1046/j.1472-765X.2003.01354.x · 1.75 Impact Factor