Steve A Livesey

University of Southampton, Southampton, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (41)99.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background and aim of the study: Triple-valve surgery is a challenging and complex procedure with significant risk, even at centers experienced at performing such operations. The study aim was to investigate the early and late outcomes of this surgery, performed at a single center for the past 11 years. Methods: A total of 45 consecutive patients (19 males, 26 females; mean age 69.42 +/- 12.72 years) underwent triple-valve surgery at the authors' institution between 2000 and 2011. The mean logistic EuroSCORE was 22.46 +/- 12.8%. The most common aortic valve pathology was calcific degeneration (40%), while the mitral valves were mostly rheumatic (31%) or degenerative (26%). The tricuspid valve pathology was functional regurgitation in 64% of patients. The aortic valve procedures were all replacements, while the mitral valves were either repaired (n = 20) or replaced (n = 25). The tricuspid valves were almost exclusively repaired (n = 43). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to highlight predictors of mortality. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was also performed. Results: The operative mortality was 8.9% (n = 4). Survival at one, three, and five years was 91%, 85.5% and 66.4%, respectively. Morbidity was not particularly high: the incidence of all postoperative neurological complications was 13%, that of transient renal impairment was 18%, and pacemaker implantation 8.9%. Conclusion: The results of triple-valve surgery were considerably improved compared to historical reports. Early mortality was close to that occurring after less complex procedures, while late survival was comparable to that after single-valve surgery. It is believed that the best results are achieved by centers experienced in valve procedures. Compared to older studies, rheumatic disease was not the most frequent requirement for of triple-valve surgery among the present patients.
    The Journal of heart valve disease 03/2014; 23(2):240-5. · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    AA Badran · HA Vohra · SA Livesey
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    ABSTRACT: Severe symptomatic aortic stenosis is associated with a poor prognosis, with most patients dying 2-3 years after diagnosis. We analysed the proportion of patients with severe aortic stenosis not referred for aortic valve replacement (AVR) in a UK-based population and the clinical factors contributing to this. Retrospective analysis of patients with echocardiographic evidence of severe aortic stenosis was performed at a university teaching hospital. A total of 178 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis (AVA: <1 cm(2), mean pressure gradient: ≥40 mmHg, or visually severe on echocardiography) were included in the study. Eighty-three patients did not have AVR (95% confidence interval: 39-54%). The cohort included 146 symptomatic patients (82%) and 32 (18%) who were asymptomatic. The most common reason for non-referral in symptomatic patients was 'high operative risk' and in asymptomatic patients 'no symptoms'. Of the patients who did not have AVR, only 19% (n=16) were referred for a surgical opinion. None of the patients in the asymptomatic group underwent echocardiographic stress imaging. The thirty-day operative mortality rate in the AVR group was 2.3%. Symptomatic patients who underwent AVR had superior survival, even after adjusting for co-morbidities (p<0.001). A considerable proportion of patients with severe aortic stenosis are not referred for surgery although they have a clear indication for AVR. Patients are often estimated as being too high risk or having prohibitive co-morbidities. Among asymptomatic patients, stress imaging was rarely used despite its useful role prognostically and in deciding the best time for intervention.
    Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England 09/2012; 94(6):416-21. DOI:10.1308/003588412X13171221591817 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine short- and long-term outcomes after repair of type A aortic dissection, we reviewed data of 100 consecutive patients (64 men; mean age, 63 ± 12.2 years) who underwent acute type A aortic dissection repair between January 2000 and June 2008. They were divided into group A, open anastomosis (circulatory arrest; n = 59) and group B, closed anastomosis (no circulatory arrest; n = 41). Aortic valve re-suspension or replacement was performed in 77 patients, aortic root replacement in 29, and aortic arch procedures in 31. The median follow-up was 2.8 years (range, 0-8.6 years). The 30-day mortality was 14%; 16.9% in group A and 9.8% in group B. None of the 23 variables analyzed to determine predictors of death or stroke was significant on multivariate analysis. Postoperatively, there was no difference between the 2 groups with respect to stroke, sepsis, renal failure, multiorgan failure, or reoperation. Overall actuarial survival at 1, 3, 5, and 8 years was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Considerable morbidity is still associated with repair of type A aortic dissection, despite a significant improvement in mortality.
    Asian cardiovascular & thoracic annals 04/2012; 20(2):160-7. DOI:10.1177/0218492311434592
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    ABSTRACT: Significant mitral regurgitation (MR) may arise from isolated annular dilatation secondary to lone atrial fibrillation (AF) and associated atrial remodelling. The aim of the present study is to assess the outcome of surgery for this condition. Between November 2007 and July 2011, 20 patients underwent mitral valve (MV) repair for severe MR secondary to AF. The median age of patients was 77.5 years (45-82 years) and the mean pre-operative duration of AF was 84.6 ± 92 months. The left ventricle was moderately (ejection fraction 30-50%; n = 6) or severely (<30%; n = 1) impaired in seven patients pre-operatively. Mean logistic EuroSCORE was 8.1 ± 5.9 and mean follow-up was 18.0 ± 12.5 months. All operations were elective. Concomitant anti-arrhythmic procedures (maze procedure, pulmonary vein isolation) or left atrial (LA) appendage amputation were performed in all patients; tricuspid valve repair was undertaken in 12 patients and coronary artery bypass grafting in 2 patients. Ring annuloplasty was performed in all patients. The median ring size was 30 mm (range 24-36 mm). On-table transoesophageal echocardiography post-repair showed mild residual MR in two patients and no MR in the remainder. There were no cases of systolic anterior motion. There was one re-exploration for bleeding. No patients required haemofiltration or suffered from stroke and deep sternal wound infections. There was no in-hospital mortality. At discharge mean left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic diameter was 4.8 ± 0.7 cm compared with 5.6 ± 0.7 cm pre-operatively (P < 0.005), while mean LV end-systolic diameter was 3.2 ± 0.8 cm when compared with 4.0 ± 0.7 cm pre-operatively (P < 0.005). The mean LA size was 5.2 ± 1.0 cm when compared with 6.1 ± 1.6 cm pre-operatively (P = 0.03). There was mild MR in two patients, but none in the rest. The mean MV area was 3.0 ± 0.7 cm(2). The mean systolic pulmonary artery pressure was 40.4 ± 15.5 mmHg when compared with 54.1 ± 12.2 mmHg pre-operatively (P = 0.02). Seventeen patients (85%) were in NYHA class I/II at latest follow-up (P < 0.0001 vs pre-operatively). During follow-up, there were no thrombo-embolic complications, re-operation, endocarditis or deaths. MV annuloplasty for annular dilatation secondary to AF has a good mid-term outcome.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 02/2012; 42(4):634-7. DOI:10.1093/ejcts/ezs029 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the overall outcome of adult patients undergoing redo-mitral valve replacement (redo-MVR) at our institution. Forty-nine patients (24 males) underwent redo-MVR with either bioprosthetic (n = 24) or mechanical valves (n = 25) between January 2000 and 2010. Median age of patients was 63 years (range 21-80 years), and the mean additive EuroSCORE was 12 ± 4. Median time to re-operation was 8.2 ± 6.6 years for first time redo-MVR and 6.4 ± 5.6 years for second-time redo-MVR. Indications included prosthetic endocarditis (n = 22), para-prosthetic leak (n = 12), structural valve degeneration (n = 8), prosthetic valve thrombosis (n = 6) and malignancy (n = 1). The mean follow-up was 47.5 ± 37.0 months (range 0.1-112.3 months). In-hospital mortality was 12% (n = 6). Mean hospital stay was 17 ± 11 days (range 8-50 days). Actuarial survival at 1 and 5 years was 81 ± 5% and 72 ± 6%, respectively. Three patients required re-intervention: two for prosthetic valve endocarditis and one for para-prosthetic leak. Multivariate analysis showed that overall survival was associated with the LVEF < 50% (P < 0.001), concomitant AVR (P < 0.001) and urgent surgery (P = 0.03).
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 01/2012; 14(5):575-9. DOI:10.1093/icvts/ivs005 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES; This study aimed to investigate the early and late outcomes of patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) with previous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and patent grafts. Between January 2000 and March 2010, 104 patients (87 males) with previous CABG ± concomitant surgery and patent grafts underwent AVR. The median age of the patients was 75 years (range: 37-90 years; inter-quartile range: 69-79 years) and the mean logistic EuroScore was 25.37 ± 16.8. The median time since the previous operation was 9 years (range 1-25; inter-quartile range: 7-14 years). The left internal mammary artery (LIMA) had been used in 75 patients (72.1%) and remained patent in 72 cases (96.0%). Thirty-day mortality was 7.7% (n = 8), which is less than the predicted mean logistic EuroScore. Isolated AVR was performed in 66 patients (63.5%). The LIMA was dissected and isolated (clamped or blocked with balloon) in 60 patients. The median hospital stay was 10 days (range: 4-183 days; inter-quartile range: 7-15.25 days). Nineteen patients (18.3%) had pulmonary complications, while 12 (11.5%) had acute kidney injury. Seven patients (6.7%) required permanent pacemaker. Six LIMAs (8.3%) were injured and repaired. Prolonged aortic cross-clamp (AXC) time (P = 0.038) and the presence of a previous LIMA graft (P = 0.045) were identified as independent predictors of 30-day mortality. The actuarial survival at 1 and 5 years was 89.4 ± 0.3 and 81.5 ± 0.5%, respectively. Perioperative intra-aortic balloon pump use (P = 0.036), prolonged AXC time (P = 0.004) and prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time (P = 0.022) were associated with worse long-term overall survival on multivariate analysis. AVR post-CABG with patent grafts can be performed in high-risk patients with excellent short- and long-term outcomes and appears to be superior to published catheter-based interventions. In the absence of randomized trial data, we believe that open AVR remains the treatment of choice for aortic valve disease following prior CABG.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 12/2011; 41(3):e1-6. DOI:10.1093/ejcts/ezr212 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During recent years there has been an increase in the referral pattern for surgery for non-rheumatic calcific mitral stenosis (CMS). Valve replacement for this condition presents some unique challenges, yet the management of CMS remains inadequately described. Herein are discussed the techniques and outcomes of surgery for CMS.
    The Journal of heart valve disease 11/2011; 20(6):624-6. · 0.73 Impact Factor
  • Article: Reply.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 10/2011; 92(4):1552-3. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.07.040 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aging of the population has resulted in an increasing number of elderly patients undergoing cardiac operations. We reviewed our experience in patients over the age of 80 undergoing primary aortic valve replacement (AVR) with or without CABG. Between 2000 and 2008, 345 patients (226 male) ≥80 years underwent primary AVR in our unit. The notes of these patients were retrospectively reviewed and follow-up information was obtained from their general practitioners. They had a mean age of 82.9 ± 2.3 years and a median logistic EuroSCORE of 13.4 (IQR 9.4, 19.1). Isolated AVR was performed in 161 patients (45.5%), and 184 (51.6%) patients underwent combined AVR and CABG. A quality of life questionnaire was sent to all survivors. Hospital mortality occurred in 17 patients (4.9%), which was significantly lower than the mortality predicted by logistic EuroSCORE (16.2%, p < 0.01). Hospital mortality was comparable between patients undergoing isolated AVR and those undergoing additional CABG (4.3% vs. 5.4%, respectively). Actuarial survival at one and five years was 90.1 ± 1.6% and 77.2 ± 2.9%, respectively. There was a 62% response on the questionnaire showing 70% of the patients were NYHA I and 83.7% were satisfied with the operation outcome. AVR can be undertaken with excellent results in octogenarians and the current risk is significantly lower than what is predicted with conventional risk-scoring systems. Patients with advanced age should not necessarily be excluded from being candidates for AVR. 
    Journal of Cardiac Surgery 09/2011; 26(5):466-71. DOI:10.1111/j.1540-8191.2011.01299.x · 0.89 Impact Factor
  • 01/2011: pages 127; Dendrite Clinical Systems Ltd., ISBN: 1903968291
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the early and late outcomes of patients undergoing pulmonary embolectomy for acute massive pulmonary embolus. Twenty-one patients (15 male, 6 female) underwent pulmonary embolectomy at our institution between March 2001 and July 2010. The median age was 55 years (range, 24 to 70 years). Of these, 9 patients presented with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and 8 presented with New York Heart Association class III or IV. Sixteen patients underwent preoperative transthoracic echocardiography, which showed evidence of right ventricular dilatation in all, whereas in 14 patients (66.6%) pulmonary artery pressures were significantly elevated with moderate to severe tricuspid regurgitation. The median preoperative Euroscore was 9 (range, 3 to 16), and 11 patients (52.1%) received systemic thrombolysis preoperatively. There were 6 salvage (28.5%), 10 emergency (47.6%), and 5 urgent (23.8%) procedures. Concomitant procedures were performed in 3 patients (14.2%), and surgery was performed without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass in 3 patients (14.2%). The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 0 to 114 months). The in-hospital mortality was 19% (n = 4). Postoperative complications included stroke (n = 3, 14.2%), lower respiratory tract infection (n = 6, 28.5%), wound infection (n = 3, 14.2%), acute renal failure requiring hemofiltration (n = 4, 19%), and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (n = 4, 19%). At discharge, transthoracic echocardiography showed mild to moderate right ventricular dysfunction and dilatation in 11 survivors (64.7%). Two patients died during follow-up, and actuarial survival at 5 years was 76.9% ± 10.1% and at 8 years was 51.2% ± 22.0%. At final follow-up, 11 of the 15 survivors (73.3%) were New York Heart Association class I, and no patients required further intervention. Patients who undergo surgery for massive pulmonary embolism have an acceptable outcome despite being high-risk.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 12/2010; 90(6):1747-52. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2010.08.002 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The Carpentier-Edwards (CE) Physio II ring is a new prosthetic ring designed to accommodate the changing pathology seen in the spectrum of degenerative valve disease, particularly the larger anterior leaflet in repair of the Barlow valve. The aim of our study was to assess the safety and efficacy of mitral valve (MV) repair with the CE Physio II ring. METHODS: Between April 2009 and March 2010, 100 patients underwent MV repair using the Physio II ring. Median age of patients was 70 years (54-85 years). The left ventricle (LV) was moderately (30-50%; n=21) or severely (<30%; n=6) impaired in 27 patients preoperatively. Mitral regurgitation (MR) was due to degenerative disease in 87 patients (bileaflet prolapse: 34 patients). Mean logistic EuroSCORE was 10.07 ± 8.9 and mean follow-up was 6.3 ± 2.4 months. Results: Seventeen patients were non-elective (eight emergencies), five were re-do operations and 23 Maze ± pulmonary vein isolations, and 14 tricuspid annuloplasties were performed. Neo-chordae were inserted in 50 patients (50%), whereas sliding annuloplasty was performed only in three patients. The median ring size was 32 mm (range 26-40 mm). On-table trans-oesophageal echocardiography (TOE) showed trivial/no MR in 87 patients, and mild in 13 patients, and there were no cases of systolic anterior motion (SAM). There were two re-explorations for bleeding and two patients required haemofiltration. There were no strokes or deep sternal wound infections (DSWIs). There was one hospital death (1%). At discharge, mean left ventricular end-diastolic (LVEDD) was 4.8 ± 0.7 cm compared with 5.5 ± 0.8 cm preoperatively (p=0.03) and mean left ventricular end-systolic (LVESD) was 3.3 ± 0.5 cm as compared with 3.6 ± 0.8 preoperatively (p=0.4). There was no MR in 87 patients and mild MR in 13 patients. The mean mitral valve area (MVA) was 2.8 ± 0.7 cm(2). The mean systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) was 26.6 ± 7.3 mmHg as compared with 50.9 ± 17.2 mmHg preoperatively (p=0.02). During follow-up, there were no thrombo-embolic complications, re-operation, endocarditis or deaths. Conclusions: MV repair with the Physio II ring has excellent short-term results, including subgroups with large anterior mitral valve leaflet (AMVL). Moreover, the dimensional ratios of the ring may allow it to be used for MV repair for degenerative MV disease, irrespective of anterior leaflet size.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 11/2010; 39(6):881-5. DOI:10.1016/j.ejcts.2010.10.004 · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Radiology 07/2009; 64(6):637-40. DOI:10.1016/j.crad.2009.01.006 · 1.66 Impact Factor
  • Abdul Nasir · Nicola Viola · Steve A Livesey
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudoaneurysms of the internal mammary artery (IMA) following median sternotomy are very uncommon and were first reported in 1973. Presentation and treatment of such a complication has been variable. We are presenting a case of a patient with pseudoaneurysm of IMA after mitral valve replacement. Selective embolization of the branches of right IMA was performed. Hematoma was evacuated after a week without any complication. Patient was reviewed in the clinic after 6 weeks and she was doing very well.
    Journal of Cardiac Surgery 05/2009; 24(3):355-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1540-8191.2009.00838.x · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    Amit Modi · Narain Moorjani · David Pontefract · Steve Livesey
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    ABSTRACT: Papillary endothelial hyperplasia (PEH) of the heart is extremely rare. This report describes a case of left atrial appendage PEH discovered by intraoperative palpation during mitral valve repair in a 69-year-old woman. The lesion was treated successfully by surgical excision of the left atrial appendage. Immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed the diagnosis and the patient was discharged without any complications.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 10/2008; 7(6):1204-6. DOI:10.1510/icvts.2008.187229 · 1.11 Impact Factor
  • Rajan Sharma · Jon Mann · Linda Drummond · Steve A Livesey · Iain A Simpson
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to compare the feasibility and accuracy of transthoracic real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (RT-3DE) with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for the preoperative functional assessment of patients with mitral valve prolapse. In 44 patients with severe mitral regurgitation caused by type 2 valve dysfunction, TEE and RT-3DE were performed 24 hours before surgery and analyzed by two separate observers. TEE and RT-3DE images were acquired digitally and stored for offline analysis. The echocardiographic results were validated intraoperatively. Five patients did not have image quality suitable for analysis with RT-3DE and were excluded from analysis, leaving a sample size of 39. In total, 54 of 334 analyzed mitral valve segments were diseased. Prolapse of a single mitral valve segment was present in 25 patients and 14 patients had complex disease involving two or more segments. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for TEE in identification of diseased segments were 94%, 100%, and 96%, respectively. The same values for RT-3DE were 91%, 100%, and 94%, respectively. The differences were not statistically significant. Accuracies were not significantly different according to segment location. Interobserver agreement was 92% for TEE and 88% for RT-3DE (P = nonsignificant). RT-3DE is feasible with comparative accuracy to TEE for precise anatomic localization of prolapsing mitral valve segments. However, the technique is limited by poor image quality in 11% of patients.
    Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 09/2007; 20(8):934-40. DOI:10.1016/j.echo.2007.01.028 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 07/2007; 93(6):761-5. DOI:10.1136/hrt.2006.092130 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To define best practice standards for mitral valve repair surgery. Development of standards for process and outcome by consensus. Multidisciplinary panel of surgeons, anaesthetists, and cardiologists with interests and expertise in caring for patients with severe mitral regurgitation. Standards for best practice were defined including the full spectrum of multidisciplinary aspects of care. 19 criteria for best practice were defined including recommendations on surgical training, intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography, surgery for atrial fibrillation, audit, and cardiology and imaging issues. Standards for best practice in mitral valve repair were defined by multidisciplinary consensus. This study gives centres undertaking mitral valve repair an opportunity to benchmark their care against agreed standards that are challenging but achievable. Working towards these standards should act as a stimulus towards improvements in care.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 08/2006; 92(7):939-44. DOI:10.1136/hrt.2005.076109 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute papillary muscle rupture (PMR) is a rare but fatal complication of myocardial infarction (MI). Surgery represents the best treatment option, but carries a high risk. Our experience of emergency mitral valve surgery in patients with acute PMR following MI during the past 22 years is reviewed. Between 1978 and 2000, 33 patients (20 males, 13 females; mean age 64 years; range: 46-80) underwent emergency surgery for acute post-infarct PMR in our institution. The site of MI was anterior in three patients and inferior in 30. Preoperatively, 17 patients had an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) inserted, 26 were on inotropic support, and 17 were ventilated. Twenty patients (61%) underwent concomitant coronary bypass grafting (CABG). The valve was replaced in 31 patients and repaired in two. Mean (+/- SD) duration of follow up was 63+/-54 months (range: 0-183 months). Early mortality (in-hospital) was 21% (n = 7). Factors associated with significant risk of early mortality included raised preoperative serum creatinine (p = 0.02), need for preoperative inotropic support (p = 0.03) and preoperative ventilation (p = 0.03). Raised preoperative serum creatinine remained significant on multiple logistic regression (p = 0.04). Postoperatively, 21 patients required an IABP. Mean duration of intensive care unit stay was 4+/-2.5 days (range: 0-10 days). Survival, including in-hospital mortality, at one, five and 10 years was 75+/-7.4, 65+/-8.6 and 32+/-9.7%, respectively. Four patients required valve-related reoperation (three for a paraprosthetic leak, one for failed repair). Patients with acute post-infarct PMR present in a severely compromised state. Early mortality is high, but the intermediate outcome is encouraging for operative survivors.
    The Journal of heart valve disease 02/2002; 11(1):27-31. · 0.73 Impact Factor