[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The enumeration of absolute CD4 counts is of primary importance for many medical conditions especially HIV infection where therapeutic initiation depends on the count. These ranges tend to vary across populations. However, these ranges have not been comprehensively established in the Kenyan population. Therefore, this study aimed at establishing the reference ranges for the CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in normal healthy individuals in Kenya.
A total of 315 individuals of the ages between 16 and 60 years old, in 5 different regions of the country, were recruited into the study. They were screened for diseases that potentially cause lymphocyte homeostasis perturbation. CD4/CD8 Counts were performed by use of a FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton-Dickinson, NJ) equipped with automated acquisition and analysis software. Results were analysed according to age, sex and region.
Results were presented as means and ranges (in parenthesis) generated non parametrically as 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles as follows; In general population; CD3 1655 (614-2685 cells/muL ), CD4 920 (343-1493cells/muL), and CD8 646 (187-1139cells/muL), while according to sex, females; CD3 1787 (697-2841 cells/muL), CD4 1010 (422-1572 cells/muL), CD8 659 (187-1180 cells/muL); males; CD3 1610 (581-2641 cells/muL), CD4 889(320-1459 cells/muL) and CD8 644 (185-1140 cells/muL). The general reference ranges for CD4/CD8 ratios were as follows; general population 1.57(0.50-2.74), males 1.51(0.49-2.64) and females 1.69(0.55-2.95).
The lymphocyte reference ranges for the Kenyan population are fairly comparable to those established in other African populations. The ranges also differ appreciably from those established in Germany, Italy and Switzerland. Furthermore, the study reported significant differences in the ranges of different population clusters within Kenya, as well us between males and females.
AIDS Research and Therapy 11/2013; 10(1):24. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infections among HIV-1 infected individuals are growing worldwide health problems characterized by lack of effective vaccines, need for expensive treatment, chronicity of morbidity and associated mortality. Their prevalence and distribution patterns continue to vary across geographical locations with high prevalence being detected among high risk populations. To determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV among HIV-1 infected individuals, blood samples were collected from consenting study subjects visiting comprehensive HIV clinics in Nairobi during the period between October and December 2009.
Blood samples from volunteers were screened with ELISA tests for detecting HIV, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies.
In a total of three (300) hundred infected individuals consisting of 129 (43%) males and 171 (57%) females 15.3% (46/300) were HIV-1 co-infected with either HBV or HCV or both, 10.3% (31/300) with HIV-1 and HCV and 6% (18/300) with HIV-1 and HBV infections. However, only three individuals (1%) were coinfected with the three viruses (HIV/HBV/HCV).
Though, low levels of co-infection with all three viruses were reported, there could be higher prevalence rates than reported here especially among high risk populations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV genetic recombination and high mutation rate increase diversity allowing it to escape from host immune response or antiretroviral drugs. This diversity has enabled specific viral subtypes to be predominant in specific regions. To determine HIV-1 subtypes among seropositive antenatal clinic attendees in Kenya's North Rift Valley, a cross-sectional study was carried out on 116 HIV-1-positive blood samples. Proviral DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by DNAzol lysis and ethanol precipitation. Polymerase chain reactions using specific primers for HIV-1 gag and population sequencing on resulting amplicons were carried out. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 81 (70%) were subtype A1, 13 (11%) subtype D, 8 (7%) subtype C, 3 (3%) subtype A2, 1 (1%) subtype G, and 10 showed possible recombinants: 5 (4%) subtype A1D, 4 (3%) subtype A1C, and 1 (1%) subtype A2C. These data support the need to establish circulating subtypes for better evaluation of effective HIV diagnostic and treatment options in Kenya.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 08/2011; 28(5):523-6. · 2.18 Impact Factor