L Sutton

Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (12)16.83 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims The physiological and clinical importance of body composition is part of public health, nutrition and sports medicine. Common methods for estimating total body adiposity are hydrodensitometry, whole-body potassium counting, plethysmography, bioelectrical impedance analysis and laboratory based dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), nuclear magnetic resonance and computed tomography. The aim of this study is to verify the suitability of 157 out of more than 600 existing anthropometry equations estimating percent adipose tissue in a cross-validation with DXA, bioelectrical impedance analysis and hydrodensitometry on 74 British male subjects (mean age: 34.4 ± 14.1 years) with different lifestyles corresponding to a maximum of populations the original formula was developed for. Methods and results Pearson correlation coefficients (r ≥ 0.70), paired sample t test and Bland and Altman plots where used for analyses. From the tested formulae, 19 correlated well and showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) with bioelectrical impedance analysis, 15 with DXA and 12 with hydrodensitometry. The results show a better match of the predicted percent adipose tissue by anthropometric equations with bioelectrical impedance analysis then with DXA and hydrodensitometry. Conclusion All results and conditions considered, this study suggests not to use hydrodensitometry and anthropometric equations to assess percent adipose tissue in men for an individual diagnosis.
    Science & Sports - SCI SPORT. 01/2011; 26(3):131-142.
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    09/2010; , ISBN: 978-953-307-193-0
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    ABSTRACT: Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) assesses the health of the vascular endothelium. Despite widespread adoption of scaling practices in cardiac research, scaling for body size or composition has not been used for FMD. The present study investigated the relationships between brachial FMD and body composition in 129 children aged 9-10 (75 female symbol, 54 male symbol), and 50 men aged 16-49. Body composition variables (total, lean, fat mass in the whole body, arm, forearm) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, FMD was measured in the brachial artery using high-resolution ultrasound. FMD was scaled using simple ratios (y/x) and allometric approaches (y/x ( b )) after log-log least squares linear regression produced allometric exponents (b). Size independence was confirmed via bivariate correlations (x:y/x; x:y/x ( b )). No relationships were evident between FMD and body composition variables in adults. Small correlations existed between FMD and measures of segmental fat mass in children (r = -0.18 to -0.19, p < 0.05), there were no significant relationships between FMD and measures of lean or total mass in children. For all significant relationships, b-exponents were different from 1 (CIs -0.36 to 0.07), suggesting ratio scaling approaches were flawed. This was confirmed when ratio scaling produced negative residual size correlations, whereas allometric scaling produced size-independent indices. Correlations between FMD and body composition were weak in children and insignificant in adults. As the results of this study are limited to the populations examined, our findings do not support the adoption of scaling procedures to correct FMD.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 05/2010; 110(1):171-6. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Professional boxing is a combat sport categorized into a series of weight classes. Given the sport's underpinning culture, boxers' typical approach to "making weight" is usually via severe acute and/or chronic energy restriction and dehydration. Such practices have implications for physical performance and also carry health risks. This article provides a case-study account outlining a more structured and gradual approach to helping a professional male boxer make weight for the 59-kg superfeatherweight division. Over a 12-week period, the client athlete adhered to a daily diet approximately equivalent to his resting metabolic rate (6-7 MJ; 40% carbohydrate, 38% protein, 22% fat). Average body-mass loss was 0.9 + or - 0.4 kg/wk, equating to a total loss of 9.4 kg. This weight loss resulted in a decrease in percent body fat from 12.1% to 7.0%. In the 30 hr between weigh-in and competition, the client consumed a high-carbohydrate diet (12 g/kg body mass) supported by appropriate hydration strategies and subsequently entered the ring at a fighting weight of 63.2 kg. This nutritional strategy represented a major change in the client's habitual weight-making practices and did not rely on any form of intended dehydration during the training period or before weighing in. The intervention demonstrates that a more gradual approach to making weight in professional boxing can be successfully achieved via a combination of restricted energy intake and increased energy expenditure, providing there is willingness on the part of the athlete and coaches involved to adopt novel practices.
    International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 02/2010; 20(1):80-5. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arterial measurements are commonly undertaken to assess acute and chronic adaptations to exercise. Despite the widespread adoption of scaling practices in cardiac research, the relevance of scaling for body size and/or composition has not been addressed for arterial measures. We therefore investigated the relationships between brachial artery diameter and body composition in 129 children aged 9 to 10 yr (75 girls and 54 boys), and 50 men aged 16-49 yr. Body composition variables (total, lean, and fat mass in the whole body, arm, and forearm) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and brachial artery diameter was measured using high-resolution ultrasound. Bivariate correlations were performed, and arterial diameter was then scaled using simple ratios (y/x) and allometric approaches after log-log least squares linear regression and production of allometric exponents (b) and construction of power function ratios (y/xb). Size independence was checked via bivariate correlations (x:y/x; x:y/xb). As a result, significant correlations existed between brachial artery diameter and measures of body mass and lean mass in both cohorts (r=0.21-0.48, P<0.05). There were no significant relationships between diameter and fat mass. All b exponents were significantly different from 1 (0.08-0.50), suggesting that simple ratio scaling approaches were likely to be flawed. This was confirmed when ratio scaling produced negative residual size correlations, whereas allometric scaling produced size-independent indexes (r=0.00 to 0.03, P>0.05). In conclusion, when between- or within-group comparisons are performed under circumstances where it is important to control for differences in body size or composition, allometric scaling of artery diameter should be adopted rather than ratio scaling. Our data also suggest that scaling for lean or total mass may be more appropriate than scaling for indexes of fat mass.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 10/2009; 297(6):H2182-7. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Body composition is a key consideration in the physical make-up of professional soccer players. The aims of the present study were to determine whether the body composition of professional soccer players varied according to playing position, international status or ethnicity, and to establish which variables best distinguished the soccer players from a reference group. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 64 male professional soccer players. Measured variables included bone mineral density and the relative amounts of lean and fat mass. Data were analysed using analysis of variance and stepwise discriminant function. The soccer players recorded better values than a reference group (n = 24) for all body composition compartments. Percent lean mass and bone mineral density were the variables best able to identify the soccer players (95.5% correctly classified). Differences in body composition were evident between goalkeepers and outfield players, but not between outfield playing positions. No differences were found on the basis of international status. The non-Caucasian players demonstrated significantly lower percent body fat (9.2 +/- 2.0%) than the Caucasian players (10.7 +/- 1.8%). It was concluded that body composition is important for elite soccer players, but that homogeneity between players at top professional clubs results in little variation between individuals.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 08/2009; 27(10):1019-26. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wheelchair users undergo changes in body composition as a result of disability. In this study the distribution of bone mineral, lean and fat mass was assessed in highly-trained female wheelchair athletes and a reference group by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The transferability of anthropometric equations commonly used in female groups was examined in order to establish a suitable field method of body composition assessment. The DXA total-body results indicated no difference between groups, but segmental analyses uncovered regional differences. The wheelchair athletes had greater BMD (p=0.088), more lean mass (p<0.001) and a lower percent fat (p=0.050) in their arms. The reverse was true of the legs (p< or =0.001). The trunk as a whole did not differ between groups. In general, the anthropometric equations showed a lack of transferability to the wheelchair group and tended to underestimate total percent body fat. Anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist girth showed strong correlations with body fat in the wheelchair group (BMI: r=0.90, p=0.001; waist: r=0.83, p=0.001), but weaker results in the reference group. It is recommended that specific anthropometric equations be developed for use in the absence of a 'gold standard' measure of body composition such as DXA.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 05/2009; 30(4):259-65. · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • D Barr, W Gregson, L Sutton, T Reilly
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to establish whether a practical cooling strategy reduces the physiological strain during simulated firefighting activity in the heat. On two separate occasions under high ambient temperatures (49.6 +/- 1.8 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) 13 +/- 2%), nine male firefighters wearing protective clothing completed two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km/h, 7.5% gradient) separated by a 15-min recovery period, during which firefighters were either cooled (cool) via application of an ice vest and hand and forearm water immersion ( approximately 19 degrees C) or remained seated without cooling (control). There was no significant difference between trials in any of the dependent variables during the first bout of exercise. Core body temperature (37.72 +/- 0.34 vs. 38.21 +/- 0.17 degrees C), heart rate (HR) (81 +/- 9 vs. 96 +/- 17 beats/min) and mean skin temperature (31.22 +/- 1.04 degrees C vs. 33.31 +/- 1 degrees C) were significantly lower following the recovery period in cool compared with control (p < 0.05). Core body temperature remained consistently lower (0.49 +/- 0.02 degrees C; p < 0.01) throughout the second bout of activity in cool compared to control. Mean skin temperature, HR and thermal sensation were significantly lower during bout 2 in cool compared with control (p < 0.05). It is concluded that this practical cooling strategy is effective at reducing the physiological strain associated with demanding firefighting activity under high ambient temperatures.
    Ergonomics 05/2009; 52(4):413-20. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of generic equations for estimating percent body fat from skinfold thicknesses can be criticised when applied to specific sports. The present aims were to compare existing methods of using skinfold data and to derive an equation for predicting body fat values in professional soccer players. Forty-five professional soccer players (24.2 +/- 5.0 years; 82.0 +/- 8.5 kg; 1.82 +/- 0.07 m) participated. Skinfold thicknesses were assessed at eight sites for the application of existing prediction equations. Skinfold data were also utilised to determine a novel soccer-specific equation. All players had a reference estimate of percent fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The existing skinfold equations differed from the DXA-referenced values by varying degrees, the equation of Withers et al. (1987) demonstrating the lowest bias and highest relationship and agreement with DXA. Regression analysis resulted in an equation incorporating anterior thigh, abdominal, triceps and medial calf sites, accounting for 78.4% variance in DXA criterion values.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 04/2009; 30(8):607-13. · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • Biom Hum Anthropol. 02/2009; 27(1-2):17-28.
  • 01/2009;
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2009; 41:63-64.