[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With China's rapid economic growth in the past few decades, there is currently an emerging focus on happiness. Cross-cultural validity studies have indicated that the four-item Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) has high internal consistency and stable reliability. However, the psychometric characteristics of the SHS in broader Chinese community samples are unknown.
We evaluated the factor structure and psychometric properties of the SHS in the Hong Kong general population.
The Chinese SHS was derived using forward-backward translation. Of the Cantonese-speaking participants aged ≥15 years, 2,635 were randomly selected from the random sample component of the FAMILY Cohort, a territory-wide cohort study in Hong Kong. In addition to the SHS, a single-item overall happiness scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve (APGAR) scale, and the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item short-form version 2 (SF-12) mental and physical health scales were administered.
Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a single factor with high loadings for the four SHS items. Multiple group analyses indicated factor invariance across sex and age groups. Cronbach's alpha was 0.82, and 2-week test-retest reliability (n = 191) was 0.70. The SHS correlated significantly with single-item overall happiness (Spearman's rho [ρ] = 0.57), Family APGAR (ρ = 0.26), PHQ-9 (ρ = -0.34), and mental health-related quality of life (ρ = 0.40) but showed a lower correlation with physical health (ρ = 0.15). A regression model that included the PHQ-9 and Family APGAR scores explained 37 % of the variance in SF-12 mental health scores; adding the SHS raised the variance explained to 41 %.
Our results support the reliability and validity of the SHS as a relevant component in the measurement battery for mental well-being in a Chinese general population.
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 02/2014; · 2.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. Hormonal and reproductive factors are implicated in the aetiology of RA, but results of previous studies have been mixed. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationships between RA, use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and history of breastfeeding in a population of older women from South China.Methods. We used baseline data from 7349 women ≥50 years of age in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort. Questionnaires were used to obtain socio-demographic, lifestyle and obstetric history data, including parity, OC use and breastfeeding practices. The main outcome was RA. Women were asked about history of RA and were examined to assess joint swelling. RF levels were measured. The presence of RA was defined in two ways: (i) as reporting physician-diagnosed RA or pain and swelling in at least three joints (including the wrist), and (ii) also having at least one of the following: positive RF, morning stiffness or objective swelling of the small joints of the hands.Results. Compared with those who had never breastfed, breastfeeding was associated with half the risk of RA. The risk was lower with increasing duration of breastfeeding [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.54 (95% CI 0.29, 1.01) for breastfeeding at least 36 months; P for trend = 0.04]. OC use had no relationship with RA.Conclusion. Breastfeeding (especially longer duration) but not OC use is associated with a lower risk of RA. This has potentially important implications for future RA disease burden, given the declining rates of breastfeeding and the one-child policy in China. Further research is needed to explain the biological mechanism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immigration occurs globally, and immigrants are vulnerable to the development of adaptation difficulties. Little evidence is available for effective programs to enhance immigrant adaptation outside of the West. This pilot randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of two interventions used to decrease adaptation difficulties by (a) providing knowledge of resources that are relevant to the Hong Kong context or (b) enhancing personal resilience in immigrants to Hong Kong from Mainland China. A total of 220 participants were randomly assigned to three conditions: information, resilience, or control arms. They completed measures on adaptation difficulties, knowledge, and personal resilience at baseline, immediately after the intervention (postintervention), and at a 3-month follow-up. The information intervention resulted in higher increases postintervention in knowledge than did the other two arms. The resilience intervention reported greater increases in personal resilience than did the control arm at both postintervention and 3months later; it also reported greater increases than the information arm did at the 3-month follow-up. Although both interventions reported greater decreases in adaptation difficulties than the control arm did at postintervention and 3months later, no significant differences were found when they were compared with each other at both time points. Both programs had high acceptability and were feasible to implement in the community. Change in knowledge had no significant mediation effect on adaption difficulties, but change in personal resilience from baseline to postintervention mediated the effect of the intervention on the outcome of adaptation difficulties at the 3-month follow-up. These findings indicate evidence for benefits of the information and resilience interventions, and they inform further development of our programs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is increasing dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region particularly China. The population of Hong Kong was exposed to modernization far earlier than the rest of China, reflecting conditions that are likely to be replicated as other Chinese cities undergo rapid change. This study examined the relationship between television viewing and obesity in a Hong Kong sample. Information about the relationship between a key sedentary behavior, TV viewing, and obesity, and its moderation by demographic characteristics may identify sectors of the population at highest risk for excess weight.
Data were from Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey (2009-2010), a population-based survey on the public's use of media for health information and family communication by telephone interviews with 3,016 Hong Kong adults (age≥18 years). TV viewing time, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and other lifestyle variables were analyzed.
Viewing time was longer in women, increased with age but decreased with education level and vigorous physical activity (all P<0.01). Longer TV viewing time was significantly associated with higher BMI (Coefficients B = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.24) after adjusting for age, gender, employment status, marital status, education level, smoking activity and vigorous physical activity. This association was stronger in women than men (Coefficients B: 0.19 versus 0.15) and strongest in those aged 18 to 34 years (Coefficients B = 0.35). Furthermore, an hour increase in daily TV viewing was associated with 10% greater odds of being obese.
A significant socioeconomic gradient in television viewing time was observed. TV viewing time positively associated with BMI and obesity. The TV viewing - BMI associations were strongest in women and young adults, suggesting vulnerable groups to target for obesity prevention by decreasing TV viewing.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85440. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dairy products consumption is increasingly common globally. Most of the evidence concerning dairy products comes from observational studies in western populations which are inevitably open to confounding. To triangulate the evidence concerning dairy products, we examined the associations of whole cow's milk consumption with cardiovascular risk factors in a non-Western setting with a different pattern of milk consumption and cardiovascular diseases from Western populations.
We used multivariable censored linear or logistic regression to examine cross-sectionally the adjusted associations of whole cow's milk consumption (none (n = 14892), 1-3/week (n = 2689) and 3+/week (n = 2754)) with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese (≥50 years) in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.
Whole cow's milk consumption was negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (3+/week compared to none -2.56 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.63 to -1.49), diastolic blood pressure (-1.32 mmHg, 95% CI -1.87 to -0.77) and triglycerides (-0.06 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.11 to -0.002), but was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol (0.02 mmol/L,95% CI 0.01 to 0.04) and fasting glucose (0.08 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.16) adjusted for age, sex, phase of study, socio-economic position, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol use and physical activity) and adiposity, but had no obvious association with LDL-cholesterol or the presence of diabetes.
Whole cow's milk consumption had heterogeneous associations with cardiovascular risk factors. Higher whole cow's milk consumption was associated with lower levels of specific cardiovascular risk factors which might suggest risk factor specific biological pathways with different relations to blood pressure and lipids than glucose.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84813. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adolescence is a critical risk period for negative academic and behavioral outcomes, but a strong parent-child relationship can be a powerful protective factor. Our previous pilot of an academic-community agency collaborative randomized controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated initial evidence of benefit for a parenting intervention with preadolescents in Hong Kong. The present RCT assessed the effect of brief training in positive discipline parenting skills on parental satisfaction with the parent-child relationship. A community sample of 461 Hong Kong Chinese parents of children aged 10-13 years were randomized to (a) the Harmony@Home intervention, (b) an attention control, or (c) a third active intervention that shared the control group. Participants were followed for 12 months and multiple methods of assessment were used. Compared with the control group, the Harmony@Home group reported an increase in the primary outcome of satisfaction with the parent-child relationship at 3 months' postintervention. Although results are mixed, this study demonstrates how a culturally adaptive community intervention can improve the parental behaviors that serve as protective factors against negative academic and behavioral outcomes for Chinese adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Journal of Family Psychology 12/2013; · 1.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Observationally lower testosterone is associated with an unhealthier cardiovascular (CVD) risk profile, but this association is open to confounding and reverse causality. The authors examined the association of testosterone with well-established cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)cholesterol and fasting glucose) and the Framingham score using a Mendelian randomization analysis with a separate-sample instrumental variable estimator.
To minimize reverse causality, a genetic score predicting testosterone was developed in 289 young Chinese men from Hong Kong, based on three selected testosterone-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs10046, rs1008805 and rs1256031). Multivariable censored and linear regressions were used to examine the association of genetically predicted testosterone levels with CVD risk factors and Framingham score among 4212 older Chinese men from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.
Predicted testosterone was unrelated to systolic blood pressure [-0.11 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.70 to 0.48], diastolic blood pressure (0.04 mmHg, 95% CI -0.27 to 0.36), fasting glucose (0.02 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.06) or Framingham score (0.02, 95% CI -0.0001 to 0.03) but associated with higher LDL-cholesterol (0.02 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.04) and lower HDL-cholesterol (-0.01 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.02 to -0.001), after adjustment for potential confounders (age, education, smoking status, use of alcohol and body mass index).
Our findings did not corroborate observed protective effects of testosterone on cardiovascular risk factors or risk of ischaemic heart disease among men, but raises the possibility that higher testosterone may be associated with an unhealthier lipid profile.
International Journal of Epidemiology 12/2013; · 6.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Entering primary school is an important childhood milestone, marking the beginning of a child's formal education. Yet the change creates a time of vulnerability for the child, the parents and the parent--child relationship. Failure to adjust to the transition may place the family in a psychologically devastating position. The aims of this study were to test the effectiveness of a parental training programme in enhancing the parent--child relationship and decreasing parental stress by reducing harsh parenting in preparing children for the transition to primary school.
A randomised controlled trial incorporating a two-group pre-test and repeated post-test was conducted in one of the largest public housing estates in Hong Kong. A total of 142 parents were recruited, with 72 parents randomly assigned to the experimental group and 70 to the control group. Harsh parenting practices, parent--child relationships and parental stress were assessed.
In comparison to parents in the control group, those in the experimental group engaged in less harsh parenting practices and reported better parent--child relationships. However, parental stress scores did not differ significantly between the two groups.
This study addressed a gap in the literature by examining the effectiveness of the training programme for enhancing parent--child relationship and decreasing parental stress at the time of a child's transition to primary school. The findings from this study provide empirical evidence of the effectiveness of the parental training programme and highlight the significance of parenting in promoting a smooth transition for children from kindergarten to primary 1.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01845948.
BMC Public Health 11/2013; 13(1):1079. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Green tea consumption has been associated with many prophylactic health benefits. This study examined for the first time associations between tea consumption and renal function in a Chinese population.
Cross-sectional baseline data including demographics, and lifestyle and weekly consumption of green, black, and oolong tea were analyzed from 12,428 ambulatory subjects aged 50 to 85 years (67.3% female) that were randomly selected from the membership list of a community social and welfare association in Guangzhou, China.
Associations between tea consumption and renal function were assessed using regression analyses to adjust for potential confounding factors.
Renal function was assessed using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and in a subcohort of 1,910 participants using a spot urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio.
Six thousand eight hundred and seventy-two participants drank at least 1 type of tea. Oolong tea consumption was negatively associated with eGFR (β-coefficient -0.019, P = .025), but in a gender-stratified analysis this was not the case. In men, black tea was positively associated with eGFR (β-coefficient 0.037, P = .013), but not in women (β-coefficient -0.002, P = .856). Otherwise, no statistically significant consistent associations between the measures of renal function and consumption of green tea, black tea, or oolong tea individually or total tea consumption were identified.
Overall there was no clear evidence to suggest any consistent association between renal function and tea consumption in this large population-based study of older Chinese individuals.
Journal of Renal Nutrition 11/2013; · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The risk of stroke is high in men among both Asian and non-Asian populations, despite differences in risk factor profiles; whether risk factors act similarly in these populations is unknown.
To study the associations between five major risk factors and stroke risk, comparing Asian with non-Asian men.
We obtained data from the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration, a pooled analysis of individual participant data from 44 studies involving 386 411 men with 9·4 years follow-up. Using cohorts from Asia and Australia/New Zealand Cox models were fitted to estimate risk factor associations for ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke.
We identified significant, positive associations between all five risk factors and risk of ischemic stroke. The associations between body mass index, smoking, and diabetes with ischemic stroke were comparable for men from Asia and Australia/New Zealand. The association between systolic blood pressure and ischemic stroke was stronger for Asian than Australia/New Zealand cohorts, whereas the reverse was true for total cholesterol. For haemorrhagic stroke, only systolic blood pressure and smoking were associated with increased risk, although the relationship with systolic blood pressure was significantly stronger for men from Asia than Australia/New Zealand (P interaction = 0·03), whereas the reverse was true for smoking (P interaction = 0·001). There was an inverse trend of total cholesterol with haemorrhagic stroke, significant only for Asian men.
Men from the Asia-Pacific region share common risk factors for stroke. Strategies aimed at lowering population levels of systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, body mass index, smoking, and diabetes are likely to be beneficial in reducing stroke risk, particularly for ischemic stroke, across the region.
International Journal of Stroke 10/2013; · 2.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study aims to determine HPV vaccine uptake (≥1 dose) amongst adolescent girls in Hong Kong and to explore the reasons for non-acceptance of the vaccine.
A total of 1832 secondary school girls (15.5±2.0 years) were randomly surveyed. Their HPV vaccine uptake was estimated, and their reasons for non-vaccination summarised.
A total of 131 (7.2%, 95% CI: 6.0-8.4%) adolescent girls had received the HPV vaccine (≥1 dose). Vaccine uptake was positively associated with a higher maternal education level and locally born status. Amongst the non-vaccinated girls, 20.6% had never heard of or knew little about the vaccine, 20.2% 'did not know where to receive', and 17.8% were concerned about the cost.
The HPV vaccine uptake amongst adolescent girls in Hong Kong is very low. A school-based education and service programme is needed to improve uptake and prevent disparities in the Chinese population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined how common physicians assess various weight-related variables and patient characteristics that predict such assessments based on adolescents' reports. To examine how common adolescents received weight-related physical measurements and lifestyle enquiries (dietary habits and physical activity) from private practitioners and to identify factors associated with these assessments.
In the Hong Kong Student Obesity Surveillance (HKSOS) project, 33692 students (44.9% boys; mean age 14.8, SD 1.9 years, age range 11--18) from 42 randomly selected schools completed an anonymous questionnaire. The students were asked "In the past 12 months, has any private practitioners (or their nurses) measured or asked about these items?" Response options included height, weight, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), BMI, diet, and physical activity. Weight status was based on self-reported weight and height. Logistic regression was used to identify student characteristics associated with each assessment. Analyses were conducted using STATA 10.0.
Among 13283 students who had doctor consultations in the past 12 months, 37.9% received physical measurements or lifestyle enquiries, with weight (20.8%), height (16.8%) and blood pressure (11.5%) being the most common, followed by diet (8.1%), BMI (6.3%), WC and physical activity (both 4.6%). In general, adolescents who were female, older, underweight or overweight/obese, had parents with higher education level, and had actively asked private practitioners for advice about weight were more likely to receive assessments of weight-related factors.
Weight-related factors in adolescents were infrequently assessed by private practitioners in Hong Kong. Generally, unhealthy weight, higher parental education and advice-seeking by adolescents predicted these assessments.
BMC Family Practice 09/2013; 14(1):141. · 1.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Western settings, moderate drinking is negatively associated with respiratory disease. However, moderate drinking is socially patterned, making this association vulnerable to contextual biases. Evidence from other contexts where the typical drinking pattern is different may clarify such observations.
Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted associations of alcohol use with death from respiratory disease using a population-based prospective cohort of 66,820 Chinese aged ≥65years enrolled from July 1998 to December 2001 at all the 18 Elderly Health Centers of the Hong Kong Government Department of Health and followed till May 30, 2012.
During ten-year follow-up, 4065 deaths from respiratory disease occurred. Most current drinkers were occasional drinkers (<1day/week). Both moderate and occasional drinking (<1day/week) were associated with a lower risk of death from respiratory disease, but the point estimates and pattern of associations were similar between these two types of drinkers.
The typical drinking pattern, i.e. occasional drinking (<1day/week), which is unlikely to have any biological effect, was similarly associated with a lower risk of respiratory disease as moderate alcohol use, suggesting the attributes of being a typical drinker may be protective.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tobacco endgame policies are increasingly advocated to end tobacco use. This study investigated public support for a total ban on tobacco sales, use and possession in Hong Kong.
A telephone survey was conducted among 1537 randomly selected residents in 2012 to assess their support for a total ban on tobacco sales, usage and possession. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, and second hand smoke exposure were collected. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with support for a total ban.
Most of the never smokers (75.3%), ex-smokers (63.9%), and nearly half of current smokers (48.9%) backed some form of a total ban on tobacco. A total ban on tobacco sales was the most popular option among the three groups, with over half (64.8%) of all respondents supporting a ban within 10 years. Current smoking and higher educational attainment were associated with less support for a total ban on tobacco sales. Among current smokers, having quit intentions and attempts to quit were associated with support for a total ban.
A total ban on tobacco sales was supported by most respondents. Ex-smokers and current smokers also voiced substantial support, although less than never smokers. A total ban on tobacco sales before 2022 should be the goal as it is supported by most of the respondents. Interim tobacco control measures, such as tax increases, expansion of smoking cessation services and plain packaging should be implemented to help current smokers quit and reduce smoking initiation before implementation of the ban.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chinese people have a markedly lower alcohol consumption than people in the West. Whether alcohol consumption at such levels is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, and the role of blood pressure (BP) in this relationship is unclear. We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) and the mediating role of BP in Chinese men aged ≥50 years.
A case-control analysis was conducted on baseline cross-sectional data from the community-based Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (2003-2008), using standard 12-lead resting electrocardiograms. By comparing 191 new ECG-LVH cases with 4311 controls, excessive drinking (>210 g/week) showed excess risks for ECG-LVH (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-3.24), after adjusting for education, income, occupation, physical activity, smoking, body mass index, fasting glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, BP, and antihypertensive medication. Mediation analysis showed a significant mediating effect of BP on the association between excessive drinking and ECG-LVH: systolic (31%) and diastolic (16%). After multivariate adjustment, no significant association was found between occasional drinking (<once/week: OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.80-1.80) and moderate drinking (≥once/week to ≤210 g/week: OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.53-1.47) with increased/decreased risk of ECG-LVH.
Alcohol consumption at >210 g/week in Chinese men is an independent risk factor for ECG-LVH. Low power prevented us from examining whether drinking at <once/week to ≤210 g/week is associated with decreased/increased risk of ECG-LVH. Elevated BP partially mediates between alcohol and ECG-LVH. A Mendelian randomization approach with a large sample size is warranted to determine the relations among alcohol consumption, BP, and LVH.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Western observational studies show moderate alcohol use, compared with never use, positively associated with health. Moderate users differ systematically from others, making these observations vulnerable to confounding. Observations from other contexts may help distinguish whether these associations are confounded. To assess whether southern Chinese would provide a more suitable setting to examine the association of moderate alcohol use with health, we compared never alcohol users with moderate alcohol users and occasional users in this setting.
We used age-adjusted multinomial regression to assess sex-stratified associations of alcohol use (never, occasional (<1 occasion/week), moderate (≤140 g ethanol/week for women and ≤210 g for men)) with health attributes and indicators in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (2003-2008) (n=26 361).
Among men, moderate alcohol users, when compared with never users, had slightly lower socioeconomic position and unhealthier lifestyle. Conversely, occasional alcohol users, when compared with never users, had higher socioeconomic position and healthier lifestyle. Among women, when compared with never users, both occasional and moderate users had higher socioeconomic position and healthier lifestyle. However, all alcohol users for both sexes, when compared with never users, were more likely to be ever smokers and to be exposed to secondhand smoke.
Observations in alcohol epidemiology may be affected by confounding due to contextually specific systematic differences. Results from a particular setting should not be interpreted as causal unless they are verified in different populations and, preferably, in non-observational studies.
Journal of epidemiology and community health 08/2013; · 3.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult height is the sum of growth during fetal, infancy, childhood, and puberty, controlled by different biological factors. In long-term developed Western populations, height is positively associated with socioeconomic position, but less clearly so in recently developing populations. We aimed to elucidate socioeconomic influences on height at different growth phases.
We examined the associations of parents' education and grandparents' education with birth weight and height gain z-scores during infancy (birth to <2 years), childhood (2 to <8 years), and puberty (8 to <14 years) adjusted for parents' height using generalized estimating equations in Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort (n = 8264).
Parents' education, but not grandparents', was positively associated with birth weight (z-score, 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.12 for grade ≥12 compared with grade ≤9) and height gain during infancy (0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.18), adjusted for gender, gestational age, initial size, parity, parents' age, parents' birthplace, and parents' height. Conversely, similarly adjusted, grandparents' education, but not parents', was associated with height gain during childhood (0.11; 95% CI, 0.04-0.18).
Parental education was associated with fetal and infant, but not childhood, linear growth, suggesting the mechanism underlying socioeconomic influences on height at different growth phases may be contextually specific.
Annals of epidemiology 08/2013; 23(8):475-84. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In observational studies of Western populations, moderate alcohol use is usually associated with lower cancer mortality rates. However, moderate alcohol use (regular drinking of moderate amounts) is socially patterned. Evidence from other contexts can clarify such observations. We examined the association of moderate alcohol use with death from cancer in older Chinese adults from a developed non-Western setting, where occasional alcohol drinking (less than once per week of small amounts) is typical.
Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted associations of alcohol use with death from cancer using a population-based prospective cohort of 66 820 Chinese aged ≥65 years enrolled from July 1998 to December 2001 at all the 18 Elderly Health Centres of the Hong Kong Government Department of Health, and followed till 30 May 2012.
After follow-up for about 10.5 years, 6335 cancer deaths were identified. Most current alcohol users were social drinkers (<1/week). Moderate drinkers had a similar risk of death from non-oesophageal cancer as never drinkers, but a higher risk of oesophageal cancer, adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic position, lifestyle and health status. Social drinking (<1/week) was associated with a lower risk of death from non-oesophageal cancer, but not from oesophageal cancer.
In a non-Western setting, no association of moderate alcohol use with death from cancer was found. Occasional social drinking (<1/week) was associated with a lower risk of cancer, suggesting that moderate alcohol use is not protective, but in any setting the attributes of being a typical drinker may be.
Journal of epidemiology and community health 08/2013; · 3.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immigrants are highly vulnerable to the development of psychological problems such as depressive symptoms, which calls for further study of immigration in the Eastern context. Identification of factors that protect against depressive symptoms would inform interventions to enhance immigrant adaptation.
This survey recruited 1,205 individuals who are adult immigrants from mainland China to Hong Kong. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to screen them for depressive symptoms. Participants also completed assessments for acculturative stress, discrimination and rejection, and personal and family resilience.
The results showed that participants reported considerable depressive symptoms. After controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, acculturative stress, and discrimination and rejection, personal resilience was associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Family resilience added significant explanation of variance to predict depressive symptoms over and above the individual variables, including personal resilience.
Our findings draw attention to the role of resilience as a protective factor against mental distress when facing adversities, while highlighting the central importance of family as an emotional resource for immigrant adjustment in the Chinese context. As personal resilience can increase with interventions, our results can inform trials to enhance adaptation among mainland Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong.