[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patient satisfaction is a relevant prognostic factor in young persons with chronic disease and may be both age and disease specific. To assess health care quality from the patient's view in young persons with inflammatory bowel disease, an easy to use, valid, reliable and informative specific instrument was needed.
All parts of the study were directed at persons with inflammatory bowel disease aged 15 to 24 ([double low-9 quotation mark]youth"). A qualitative internet patient survey was used to generate items, complemented by a physician survey and literature search. A 2nd internet survey served to reduce items based on perceived importance and representativeness. Following pilot testing to assess ease of use and face validity, 150 respondents to a postal survey in patients from a paediatric clinical registry were included for validation analyses. Construct validity was assessed by relating summary scores to results from global questions on satisfaction with care using ANOVA. To assess test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), a subset of patients were assessed twice within 3 months.
302 persons with IBD and 55 physicians participated in the item generating internet survey, resulting in 3,954 statements. After discarding redundancies 256 statements were presented in the 2nd internet survey. Of these, 32 items were retained. The resulting instrument assesses both the perceived relevance (importance) of an item as well as the performance of the care giver for each item for calculation of a summary satisfaction score (range 0 to 1). Sensibility testing showed good acceptance for most items. Construct validity was good, with mean scores of 0.63 (0.50 to 0.76), 0.71 (0.69 to 0.74) and 0.81 (0.79 to 0.83) for no, some and good global satisfaction (ANOVA, p < 0.001). Test-retest reliability was satisfactory (ICC 0.6 to 0.7).
We developed an easy to use, patient oriented, valid instrument to assess satisfaction with care in young persons with IBD for use in survey research.
BMC Health Services Research 03/2014; 14(1):97. · 1.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss-of-function mutations in IL10 and IL10R cause very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD). Here, we investigated the molecular pathomechanism of a novel intronic IL10RA mutation and describe a new therapeutic approach of T cell replete haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
Clinical data were collected by chart review. Genotypes of IL10 and IL10R genes were determined by Sanger sequencing. Expression and function of mutated IL-10R1 were assessed by quantitative PCR, Western blot analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry.
We identified a novel homozygous point mutation in intron 3 of the IL10RA (c.368-10C > G) in three related children with VEO-IBD. Bioinformatical analysis predicted an additional 3' splice site created by the mutation. Quantitative PCR analysis showed normal mRNA expression of mutated IL10RA. Sequencing of the patient's cDNA revealed an insertion of the last nine nucleotides of intron 3 as a result of aberrant splicing. Structure-based modeling suggested misfolding of mutated IL-10R1. Western blot analysis demonstrated a different N-linked glycosylation pattern of mutated protein. Immunofluorescence and FACS analysis revealed impaired expression of mutated IL-10R1 at the plasma membrane. In the absence of HLA-identical donors, T cell replete haploidentical HSCT was successfully performed in two patients.
Our findings expand the spectrum of IL10R mutations in VEO-IBD and emphasize the need for genetic diagnosis of mutations in conserved non-coding sequences of candidate genes. Transplantation of haploidentical stem cells represents a curative therapy in IL-10R-deficient patients, but may be complicated by non-engraftment.
Journal of Clinical Immunology 02/2014; · 3.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The combination of the severity of pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) phenotypes and the need for intense medical treatment may increase the risk of malignancy and mortality, but evidence regarding the extent of the problem is scarce. Therefore, the Porto Pediatric IBD working group of ESPGHAN conducted a multinational-based survey of cancer and mortality in pediatric IBD.
A survey among pediatric gastroenterologists of 20 European countries and Israel on cancer and/or mortality in the pediatric patient population with IBD was undertaken. One representative from each country repeatedly contacted all pediatric gastroenterologists from each country for reporting retrospectively cancer and/or mortality of pediatric patients with IBD after IBD onset, during 2006-2011.
We identified 18 cases of cancers and/or 31 deaths in 44 children (26 males) who were diagnosed with IBD (ulcerative colitis, n = 21) at a median age of 10.0 years (inter quartile range, 3.0-14.0). Causes of mortality were infectious (n = 14), cancer (n = 5), uncontrolled disease activity of IBD (n = 4), procedure-related (n = 3), other non-IBD related diseases (n = 3), and unknown (n = 2). The most common malignancies were hematopoietic tumors (n = 11), of which 3 were hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma and 3 Ebstein-Barr virus-associated lymphomas.
Cancer and mortality in pediatric IBD are rare, but cumulative rates are not insignificant. Mortality is primarily related to infections, particularly in patients with 2 or more immunosuppressive agents, followed by cancer and uncontrolled disease. At least 6 lymphomas were likely treatment-associated by virtue of their phenotype.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eczema, rhinitis, and asthma often coexist (comorbidity) in children, but the proportion of comorbidity not attributable to either chance or the role of IgE sensitisation is unknown. We assessed these factors in children aged 4-8 years.
In this prospective cohort study, we assessed children from 12 ongoing European birth cohort studies participating in MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy). We recorded current eczema, rhinitis, and asthma from questionnaires and serum-specific IgE to six allergens. Comorbidity of eczema, rhinitis, and asthma was defined as coexistence of two or three diseases in the same child. We estimated relative and absolute excess comorbidity by comparing observed and expected occurrence of diseases at 4 years and 8 years. We did a longitudinal analysis using log-linear models of the relation between disease at age 4 years and comorbidity at age 8 years.
We assessed 16 147 children aged 4 years and 11 080 aged 8 years in cross-sectional analyses. The absolute excess of any comorbidity was 1·6% for children aged 4 years and 2·2% for children aged 8 years; 44% of the observed comorbidity at age 4 years and 50·0% at age 8 years was not a result of chance. Children with comorbidities at 4 years had an increased risk of having comorbidity at 8 years. The relative risk of any cormorbidity at age 8 years ranged from 36·2 (95% CI 26·8-48·8) for children with rhinitis and eczema at age 4 years to 63·5 (95% CI 51·7-78·1) for children with asthma, rhinitis, and eczema at age 4 years. We did longitudinal assessment of 10 107 children with data at both ages. Children with comorbidities at 4 years without IgE sensitisation had higher relative risks of comorbidity at 8 years than did children who were sensitised to IgE. For children without comorbidity at age 4 years, 38% of the comorbidity at age 8 years was attributable to the presence of IgE sensitisation at age 4 years.
Coexistence of eczema, rhinitis, and asthma in the same child is more common than expected by chance alone-both in the presence and absence of IgE sensitisation-suggesting that these diseases share causal mechanisms. Although IgE sensitisation is independently associated with excess comorbidity of eczema, rhinitis, and asthma, its presence accounted only for 38% of comorbidity, suggesting that IgE sensitisation can no longer be considered the dominant causal mechanism of comorbidity for these diseases.
EU Seventh Framework Programme.
The lancet. Respiratory medicine. 02/2014; 2(2):131-40.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This position statement summarises a view of academia regarding standards for clinical research in collaboration with commercial enterprises, focussing on trials in pregnant women, breastfeeding women and children. It is based on a review of the available literature and an expert workshop co-sponsored by the Early Nutrition Academy and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. Clinical research collaborations between academic investigators and commercial enterprises are encouraged by universities, public funding agencies and governmental organisations. One reason is a pressing need to obtain evidence on the effects, safety and benefits of drugs and other commercial products and services. However, the credibility and value of results obtained through public private research collaborations have been questioned, since many examples of inappropriate research practice have become known. Clinical research in pregnant and breastfeeding women, and in infants and children, raise sensitive scientific, ethical and societal questions and require the application of particularly high standards. Here we provide recommendations for the conduct of public private research collaborations in these populations. In the interest of all stakeholders these recommendations should contribute to more reliable, credible and acceptable results of commercially sponsored trials and to reducing the existing credibility gap.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 01/2014; · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Robust evaluation of induction therapies using both clinical and inflammatory outcomes in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) are sparse. We attempted to evaluate clinical, inflammatory, and composite outcomes of induction of remission therapies (normal C reactive protein [CRP] remission) in a large pediatric prospective multicenter study.
Patients enrolled at diagnosis into the growth relapse and outcomes with therapy in Crohn's disease study were evaluated for disease activity, CRP, and fecal calprotectin at 8, 12 and 52 weeks after starting treatment. The primary endpoint was week-12 steroid-free remission defined by pediatric Crohn's disease activity index and CRP <0.5 mg/dL. The protocol required tapering off corticosteroids by week 11.
We analyzed 222 patients (mean age, 12.9 ± 3.2 yr) main evaluated treatment options included: 5-ASA (n = 29), exclusive enteral nutrition (n = 43), and corticosteroids (n = 114). Clinical remission at week 12 was achieved in 155 (73%) patients; both exclusive enteral nutrition and steroids were associated with normal CRP remission at week 12, although in a post hoc subgroup analysis exclusive enteral nutrition was superior in mild-to-moderate disease for this outcome. Among those in steroid-free remission in week 12, normal CRP predicted 1-year sustained remission (86% for normal CRP versus 61% for elevated CRP; P = 0.02). Baseline severity and early immunomodulation were similar in both groups.
Normal CRP steroid-free remission at week 12 was impacted by type of induction therapy, but not by early immunomodulation. It was associated with more corticosteroids-free remission at week 52 and a trend for less relapses.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To investigate whether birth by cesarean delivery rather than vaginal delivery is a risk factor for later childhood obesity.
Healthy, full-term infants were recruited. Overweight and obesity were defined using measured weight and height according to World Health Organization reference data. Associations between cesarean delivery and being overweight or obese were investigated at age 2, 6, and 10 years (n = 1734, 1244, and 1170, respectively) by multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic status, child characteristics, and maternal prepregnancy characteristics.
Mothers who gave birth by cesarean delivery (∼17%) had a higher mean prepregnancy body mass index (23.7 kg/m2 vs 22.5 kg/m2), greater mean gestational weight gain (15.3 kg vs 14.5 kg), and shorter mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding (3.4 months vs 3.8 months) compared with those who delivered vaginally. The proportion of obese children was greater in the cesarean delivery group compared with the vaginal delivery group at age 2 years (13.6% vs 8.3%), but not at older ages. Regression analyses revealed a greater likelihood of obesity at age 2 years in the cesarean delivery group compared with the vaginal delivery group at age 2 years (aOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.10-2.58), but not at age 6 years (aOR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.55-4.05) or age 10 years (aOR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.59-2.29).
Cesarean delivery may increase the risk of obesity in early childhood. Our results do not support the hypothesis that an increasing rate of cesarean delivery contributes to obesity in childhood.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the association between surrounding greenness at the mother's residential address at the time of delivery and birth weight in two German birth cohorts and explored potential underlying hypotheses.
Complete data on 3203 newborns, recruited in Munich between 1996 and 1999, were available. Surrounding greenness was defined using the mean of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, which was derived from Landsat 5TM satellite images.
An interquartile increase of surrounding greenness in a 500-m buffer was associated with an average birth weight increase of 17.6g (95% CI=0.5 to 34.6). The effect strengthened after individual adjustment for NO2, PM2.5, distance to major road and population density. The strongest association was found for mothers with less than 10 years of school education. The results remained robust when additionally adjusted for noise or maternal stress during pregnancy. Neighbourhood green spaces were not associated with birth weight.
Surrounding greenness at the birth address was positively associated with birth weight in two birth cohorts in Munich. The mechanisms driving this association remain unclear and warrant further investigation.
Health & Place 12/2013; 26C:39-46. · 2.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to investigate associations between severity of behavior problems, specific symptom domains with healthcare use and costs in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study using data from the 10-year follow-up of two population-based birth cohorts was conducted on four rural and urban communities in Germany. There were 3,579 participants [1,834 boys (51%), 1,745 girls (49%)] on average aged 10.4 years. The severity levels (normal, at risk, abnormal) and symptom domains of behavioral problems were assessed by parent-reported strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ).The outcomes were medical use categories (physicians, therapists, hospital, and rehabilitation), medical costs categories and total direct medical use and costs (calculated from parent-reported utilization of healthcare services during the last 12 months). Total direct medical costs showed a graded relationship with severity level (adjusted p < 0.0001). Average annual cost difference in total direct medical costs between at risk and normal total difficulties was Euro ( ) 271 (SD 858), and 1,237 (SD 2,528) between abnormal and normal total difficulties. A significant increase in physician costs showed between children with normal and at risk total difficulties (1.30), and between normal and abnormal total difficulties (1.29; p < 0.0001). Between specific symptom domains, children with emotional symptoms showed highest costs for physicians, psychotherapist, and hospitalization as well as total direct medical costs. Children with hyperactivity/inattention showed highest costs for therapists and emergency room costs. Healthcare use and costs are related to the severity of child behavior problems. In general, children's costs for psychotherapy treatments have been low relative to general medical treatments which may indicate that some children with behavioral problems did not get appropriate care. To some degree, medical conditions may be attributable to some of the high hospitalization costs found in children with emotional symptom.
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 12/2013; · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze risk factors associated with gastro-duodenal ulcers and erosions in children.
Open, prospective, multicenter, case-control study carried out in 11 European countries in patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers/erosions and 2 age-matched controls each. Possible risk factors were recorded. Logistic regression models were performed with adjustment for centers and age groups.
Seven-hundred thirty-two patients (244 cases, 153 with erosions only and 91 with ulcers, and 488 controls) were recruited. Children receiving antimicrobials or acid suppressive drugs before endoscopy were excluded (202 cases/390 controls remained for risk factor analysis). Helicobacter pylori was detected more frequently in cases than controls but only in 32.0% versus 20.1% in controls (P = 0.001). Independent exposure factors for gastric ulcers were male gender (P = 0.001), chronic neurologic disease (P = 0.015), chronic renal disease (P < 0.001) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug consumption (P = 0.035). Exposure factors for duodenal ulcers were H. pylori infection (P < 0.001) and steroid consumption (P = 0.031). Chronic renal disease was the only independent factor associated with gastric erosions (P = 0.026), those associated with duodenal erosions being H. pylori infection (P = 0.023), active smoking (P = 0.006) and chronic arthritis (P = 0.008). No risk factor was identified in 97/202 (48.0%) cases.
H. pylori remains a risk factor for duodenal, but not for gastric lesions in children in countries with low prevalence of infection. No risk factor could be identified in half of the children with gastro-duodenal ulcers/erosions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although urticaria is considered one of the most frequent skin diseases, reliable epidemiologic data are scarce.
To evaluate the incidence and cumulative prevalence of urticaria in infants and children up to age of 10, to characterize the relationship of specific IgE levels (food and inhalative allergens) with urticaria, and to monitor the joint occurrence of urticaria with other diseases, such as eczema, asthma, and hay fever.
The study population consisted of two prospective birth cohort studies: the LISAplus and GINIplus studies. Information on physician-diagnosed urticaria, asthma, eczema, or hay fever was collected using self-administered questionnaires completed by the parents. Blood samples were drawn, and specific immunoglobulin E measured at 2 (only LISAplus), 6 and 10 yr of age.
The incidence of urticaria was approximately 1% per year of age. The cumulative prevalence of urticaria in children up to the age of 10 yr was 14.5% for boys and 16.2% for girls. Cumulative prevalence of urticaria at the age of ten was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with allergic sensitization to peanut, soy, and wheat flour, but not with inhalant allergens. Both a parental history of atopy/urticaria and the children's diagnosis of asthma, eczema, and hay fever were strongly related (p < 0.0001) to the occurrence of urticaria.
Urticaria is a frequent event during childhood, with highest incidence in infants and preschool children. Comorbidity with atopic disease is high.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 11/2013; · 3.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of pediatric-onset IBD (PIBD) can be challenging in choosing the most informative diagnostic tests and correctly classifying PIBD into its different subtypes. Recent advances in our understanding of the natural history and phenotype of PIBD, increasing availability of serological and fecal biomarkers, and the emergence of novel endoscopic and imaging technologies taken together have made the previous Porto criteria for the diagnosis of PIBD obsolete.
We aimed to revise the original Porto criteria utilizing an evidence-based approach and consensus process to yield specific practice recommendations for the diagnosis of PIBD. These revised criteria are based on the Paris classification of PIBD and the original Porto criteria whilst incorporating novel data, such as for serum and fecal biomarkers. A consensus of at least 80% of participants was achieved for all recommendations and the summary algorithm.
The revised criteria depart from existing criteria by defining two categories of ulcerative colitis (UC; typical and atypical); atypical phenotypes of UC should be treated as UC. A novel approach based on multiple criteria for diagnosing IBD-unclassified (IBDU) is proposed. Specifically, these revised criteria recommend upper GI endoscopy and ileocolonscopy for all suspected PIBD patients, with small bowel imaging (unless typical UC after endoscopy and histology) by magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) or wireless capsule endoscopy.
These revised Porto criteria for the diagnosis of PIBD have been developed to meet current challenges and developments in PIBD and provide up to date guidelines for the definition and diagnosis of the IBD spectrum.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 11/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary gastrointestinal neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of enteric nervous system (ENS) disorders that continue to cause difficulties in diagnosis and histological interpretation. Recently, an international working group published guidelines for histological techniques and reporting, along with a classification of gastrointestinal neuromuscular pathology. The aim of this article was to review and summarize the key issues for pediatric gastroenterologists on the diagnostic workup of congenital ENS disorders. In addition, we provide further commentary on the continuing controversies in the field.
Although the diagnostic criteria for Hirschsprung disease are well established, those for other forms of dysganglionosis remain ill-defined. Appropriate tissue sampling, handling, and expert interpretation are crucial to maximize diagnostic accuracy and reduce interobserver variability. The absence of validated age-related normal values for neuronal density, along with the lack of correlation between clinical and histological findings, result in significant diagnostic uncertainties while diagnosing quantitative aberrations such as hypoganglionosis or ultrashort Hirschsprung disease. Intestinal neuronal dysplasia remains a histological description of unclear significance.
The evaluation of cellular quantitative or qualitative abnormalities of the ENS for clinical diagnosis remains complex. Such analysis should be carried out in laboratories that have the necessary expertise and access to their own validated reference values.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 11/2013; 57(5):677-86. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/objectives:Growth parameters during infancy and early childhood might predict adipokine levels later in life. This study investigates the association between peak growth velocities, body mass index (BMI) and age at adiposity rebound (AR), with leptin and adiponectin levels at age 10 years.subjects/Methods:Peak height (PHV) and weight (PWV) velocities were calculated from height and weight measurements obtained between birth and age 2 years from 2880 children participating in the GINIplus (German Infant Nutritional Intervention plus environmental and genetic influences on allergy development) and LISAplus (Influences of Lifestyle-Related Factors on the Immune System and the Development of Allergies in Childhood plus Air Pollution and Genetics) birth cohorts. BMI and age at AR were calculated using BMI measurements between age 1.5 and 12 years. Blood samples were collected during a physical examination at age 10. Adiponectin and leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Linear regression models were fitted after adjustment for potential confounding factors and results are presented per interquartile range increase in the exposure.Results:Age at AR was negatively associated with leptin in males and females (percent difference β*: -41.71%; 95% confidence interval: (-44.34;-38.96) and β*: -43.22%; (-45.59; -40.75), respectively). For both males and females PWV (β*: 14.23%; (7.60; 21.26) and β*: 18.54%; (10.76; 26.87), respectively) and BMI at AR (β*: 63.08%; (55.04; 71.53) and β*: 67.02%; (59.30; 75.10), respectively) were positively associated with leptin levels. PHV showed a positive effect on leptin in females only (β*: 10.75%; (3.73; 18.25)). Growth parameters were not significantly associated with adiponectin except for age at AR among females (β: 0.75 ng/ml; (0.42; 1.09)) and PWV among males (β: 0.45 ng/ml; (0.11; 0.79)).Conclusion:Growth patterns in early life may be associated with leptin levels at age 10 years.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2013) 0, 000-000.advance online publication, 30 October 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.213.
European journal of clinical nutrition 10/2013; · 3.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) is a rare and severe enteropathy recently ascribed to mutations in the epcam gene. Here we establish SPINT2, previously ascribed to congenital sodium diarrhea, as a second gene associated with CTE and report molecular and immunohistochemistry data in 57 CTE patients. Inclusion criteria were early onset diarrhea and intestinal insufficiency with the typical histological CTE abnormalities. The clinical phenotype was registered, the entire coding regions of epcam and SPINT2 sequenced, and immunostaining of EpCAM and SPINT2 performed on intestinal biopsies. An epcam mutation was involved in 41 patients (73 %) who mainly displayed isolated digestive symptoms. Mutations severely affected gene expression since the EpCAM signal on intestinal tissues was either undetectable or low and irregular. Twelve other patients (21 %) carried mutations in SPINT2, and were phenotypically characterized by systematic association with keratitis (p < 10(-4)) and, for half of them, with choanal atresia (p < 10(-4)). Dependency on parenteral nutrition (PN) was comparable in patients with epcam or SPINT2 mutations, but the frequent epcam mutation c.556-14A>G (abnormal splicing) was significantly associated with a better outcome (p = 0.032) with milder PN dependency to weaning in some cases. Finally, four patients (7 %) with isolated digestive symptoms had no detectable epcam or SPINT2 mutation. Two candidate genes, Elf3 and Claudin7, were excluded from this population. Our study allows us to separate CTE patients into at least three genetic classes, each with specific phenotypes. The genetics approach raises the question of the distinction between two congenital enteropathies. Our findings should help improve the diagnosis of CTE, guide toward strategies of long-term PN management, and limit indications for intestinal transplantation to life-threatening PN complications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) is a rare, autosomal recessively inherited disorder resulting from deficient activity of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). LAL is the key enzyme hydrolyzing cholesteryl esters and triglycerides stored in lysosomes after LDL receptor-mediated endocytosis. Mutations within the LIPA gene locus on chromosome 10q23.2-q23.3 may result either in the always fatal Wolman disease, where no LAL activity is found, or in the more benign disorder CESD with a reduced enzymatic activity, leading to massive accumulation of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in many body tissues. CESD affects mostly the liver, the spectrum is ranging from isolated hepatomegaly to liver cirrhosis. Chronic diarrhea has been reported in some pediatric cases, while calcifications of the adrenal glands, the hallmark of Wolman disease, are rarely observed. Hypercholesterolemia and premature atherosclerosis are other typical disease manifestations. Hepatomegaly as a key finding has been reported in all 71 pediatric patients and in 134 of 135 adult cases in the literature. We present a 13-year-old boy with mildly elevated liver enzymes in the absence of hepatomegaly, finally diagnosed with CESD. Under pravastatine treatment, the patient has normal laboratory findings and is clinically unremarkable since 5 years of follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first pediatric case of genetically and biopsy confirmed CESD without hepatomegaly, suggesting that this diagnosis can be easily missed. It further raises the question about the natural course and the therapy required for this oligosymptomatic form.
Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 10/2013; 51(10):1184-1187. · 1.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish age-related reference values for 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) in a pediatric population and to investigate bile acid malabsorption in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS).
Serum was obtained between 8:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m. from 100 healthy children (52% males, 9 months to 18 years of age) after 10 hours of fasting. Pediatric patients with SBS served as disease controls (n = 12). Following solid-phase extraction and purification, C4 was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography using a ultraviolet detector at a wavelength of 241 nm. The upper limit of normal for C4 concentrations was defined as the mean plus 2 SD of the log-normal distribution.
The mean concentration and SD of C4 in healthy children was 22.8 ± 15.8 ng/mL with no relation to age or sex and an upper limit of normal of 66.5 ng/mL. Normal C4 values were found in 97 of 100 healthy children, and all 12 patients with SBS had C4 concentrations above 100 ng/mL (mean 299.6 ± 167.8 ng/mL; range 105.7-562.1 ng/mL, P < .0001 compared with controls).
The determined upper limit of normal for C4 concentration in healthy children corresponds to previously published levels in healthy adults and is independent of age and sex. The consistently elevated C4 concentrations in our patients with SBS confirm the reliability of this noninvasive, nonisotopic method to assess bile acid malabsorption in children.
The Journal of pediatrics 08/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Associations between traffic-related air pollution and incident childhood asthma can be strengthened by analysis of gene-environment interactions, but studies have typically been limited by lack of study power. We combined data from six birth cohorts on: asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis to 7/8 years, and candidate genes. Individual-level assessment of traffic-related air pollution exposure was estimated using land use regression or dispersion modeling. A total of 11,760 children were included in the Traffic, Asthma and Genetics (TAG) Study; 6.3 % reported physician-diagnosed asthma at school-age, 16.0 % had asthma at anytime during childhood, 14.1 % had allergic rhinitis at school-age, 10.0 % had eczema at school-age and 33.1 % were sensitized to any allergen. For GSTP1 rs1138272, the prevalence of heterozygosity was 16 % (range amongst individual cohorts, 11-17 %) and homozygosity for the minor allele was 1 % (0-2 %). For GSTP1 rs1695, the prevalence of heterozygosity was 45 % (40-48 %) and homozygosity for the minor allele, 12 % (10-12 %). For TNF rs1800629, the prevalence of heterozygosity was 29 % (25-32 %) and homozygosity for the minor allele, 3 % (1-3 %). TAG comprises a rich database, the largest of its kind, for investigating the effect of genotype on the association between air pollution and childhood allergic disease.
European Journal of Epidemiology 07/2013; · 5.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Aims: Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) induces remission in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). We investigated the short-term impact of EEN on bone quality and muscle mass in children with CD. Methods: Ten newly diagnosed CD patients (7 male, 10.6-17.7 years of age) were assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the forearm before starting an 8-weeks treatment with EEN, and after 12 and 52 weeks. No steroids or biologicals were applied. Trabecular and cortical bone mineral density, total bone, and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured by pQCT and expressed as age- and sex-specific z-scores; size-dependent CSAs were corrected for low height for age. Wilcoxon rank sum test was applied. Results: Remission at week 12 was achieved in 8 patients; 2 still had mild disease. Initially low trabecular density z-scores improved (+0.3; p = 0.006) at week 12; simultaneously, the increased cortical density z-scores normalized (-0.4; p = 0.027). The low z-score for muscle CSA corrected for height (median -2.5, range -3.49 to -0.97) increased within 12 weeks (+1.0; p = 0.002) with no further improvement thereafter. Conclusions: The results indicate disturbed bone remodeling and severely impaired muscle mass in newly diagnosed CD children. Bone metabolism and muscle mass improved within 3 months after starting EEN with no further normalization thereafter.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 07/2013; 63(1-2):10-16. · 1.66 Impact Factor