[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Terlipressin and albumin is the standard of care for classical type-1 Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) not associated with active infections. However, there is no information on efficacy and safety of this treatment in patients with type-1 HRS associated with sepsis. Study aim was to investigate the effects of early treatment with terlipressin and albumin on circulatory and kidney function in patients with type-1 HRS and sepsis and assess factors predictive of response to therapy.
Prospective study in 18 consecutive patients with type-1 HRS associated with sepsis.
Treatment was associated with marked improvement in arterial pressure and suppression of the high levels of plasma renin activity and norepinephrine. Response to therapy (serum creatinine<1.5 mg/dL) was achieved in 12/18 patients (67%) and was associated with improved 3-month survival compared to patients without response. Non-responders had significantly lower baseline heart rate, poor liver function tests, slightly higher serum creatinine, and higher Child-Pugh and MELD scores compared to responders. Interestingly, non-responders had higher values of CLIF-SOFA score compared to responders (14±3 vs 8±01,respectively p<0.001), indicating greater severity of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). A CLIF-SOFA score ⩾11 had 92% sensitivity and 100% specificity in predicting no response to therapy. No significant differences were observed between responders and non-responders in baseline urinary kidney biomarkers. Treatment was safe and no patient required withdrawal of terlipressin.
Early treatment with terlipressin and albumin in patients with type-1 HRS associated with sepsis is effective and safe. Patients with associated severe ACLF are unlikely to respond to treatment.
Journal of Hepatology 01/2014; · 9.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & Aims
Infections in cirrhosis are frequently complicated by kidney dysfunction that entails a poor prognosis. Urinary biomarkers may be of potential clinical usefulness in this setting.
We aimed at assessing the value of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), a biomarker overexpressed in kidney tubules during kidney injury, in predicting clinical outcomes in cirrhosis with infections.
One-hundred and thirty-two consecutive patients hospitalized with infections were evaluated prospectively. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was defined according to AKIN criteria. uNGAL was measured at infection diagnosis and at days 3 and 7 (ELISA, Bioporto,DK).
Patients with AKI (n = 65) had significantly higher levels of uNGAL compared to patients without AKI (203 ± 390 vs 79 ± 126 μg/gr creatinine,p<0.001). Moreover, uNGAL levels were significantly higher in patients who developed persistent AKI (n = 40), compared to those with transient AKI (n = 25) (281 ± 477 vs 85 ± 79 μg/gr creatinine, p<0.001). Among patients with persistent AKI, uNGAL was able to discriminate type-1 HRS from other causes of AKI (59 ± 46 vs 429 ± 572 μg/gr creatinine, respectively; p<0.001). Moreover, the time course of uNGAL was markedly different between the two groups. Interestingly, baseline uNGAL levels also predicted the development of a second infection during hospitalization. Overall, 3-month mortality was 34%. Independent predictive factors of 3-month mortality were MELD score, serum sodium, and uNGAL levels at diagnosis, but not presence or stage of AKI.
In patients with cirrhosis and infections, measurement of urinary NGAL at infection diagnosis is useful in predicting important clinical outcomes, specifically persistency and type of AKI, development of a second infection, and 3-month mortality.
Journal of Hepatology 01/2014; · 9.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type-1 hepatorenal syndrome is a common complication of bacterial infections in cirrhosis, but its natural history remains undefined. To assess the outcome of kidney function and survival of patients with type-1HRS associated with infections, 70 patients diagnosed during a 6-yr period were evaluated prospectively. Main outcomes were no reversibility of type-1HRS during treatment of the infection and 3-month survival. Twenty-three (33%) of the 70 patients had no reversibility of type-1HRS during treatment of the infection. The main predictive factor of no reversibility of type-1HRS was absence of infection resolution (no reversibility: 96% vs 48% in patients without and with resolution of the infection; p<0.001). Independent predictive factors of no reversibility of type-1HRS were age, high baseline serum bilirubin, nosocomial infection, and reduction in serum creatinine <0.3 mg/dL at day 3 of antibiotic treatment. No reversibility was also associated with severity circulatory dysfunction, as indicated my more marked activity of the vasoconstrictor systems. In the whole series, 3-month probability of survival was only 21%. Factors associated with poor prognosis were baseline serum bilirubin, no reversibility of type-1 HRS, lack of resolution of the infection, and development of septic shock after diagnosis of type-1HRS. Conclusion: type-1 HRS associated with infections is not reversible in two-thirds of patients only with treatment of infection. No reversibility of type-1 HRS is associated with lack of resolution of the infection, age, high bilirubin, and no early improvement of kidney function and implies a poor prognosis. These results may help advance the management of patients with type-1 HRS associated with infections. (Hepatology 2013;).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria are widely used in nephrology but information in cirrhosis is limited. AIM: To evaluate the AKIN criteria and its relationship with the cause of kidney impairment and survival. PATIENTS/METHODS: Prospective study of 375 consecutive patients hospitalized for complications of cirrhosis. One-hundred and seventy-seven(47%) patients fulfilled the criteria of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) during hospitalization, the causes being hypovolemia, infections, hepatorenal syndrome(HRS), nephrotoxicity, and miscellaneous (62, 54, 32, 8, and 21 cases, respectively). At diagnosis, most patients had AKI stage 1 (77%). Both the occurrence of AKI and its stage were associated with 3-month survival. However, survival difference between stages-2 and 3 was not statistically significant. Moreover, if stage-1 patients were categorized into 2 groups according to the level of serum creatinine used in the classical definition of kidney impairment (1.5 mg/dL), the two groups had significantly different outcome. Combining AKIN criteria and maximum serum creatinine 3 risk groups were identified: (A) patients with AKI stage-1 with peak creatinine⩽1.5 mg/dL; (B) patients with stage-1 with peak creatinine>1.5 mg/dL; and (C) patients with stages 2-3 (survival 84%, 68%, and 36%, respectively; p<0.001). Survival was independently related to the cause of kidney impairment, patients with HRS or infection-related having the worst prognosis. In conclusion, a classification that combines the AKIN criteria and classical criteria of kidney failure in cirrhosis provides a better risk stratification than AKIN criteria alone. The cause of impairment in kidney function is key in assessing prognosis in cirrhosis.
Journal of Hepatology 05/2013; · 9.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hyponatremia is common in patients with cirrhosis and ascites and is associated with significant neurological disturbances. However, its potential effect on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in cirrhosis has not been investigated. We aimed at assessing the relationship between serum sodium concentration and other clinical and analytical parameters on HRQL in cirrhosis with ascites. METHODS: A total of 523 patients with cirrhosis and ascites were prospectively investigated. Assessment of HRQL was done with the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire, which is divided into 8 domains, summarized in two components: physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS). Demographic, clinical, and analytical data at baseline were analyzed for their relationship with HRQL. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, independent predictive factors associated with an impaired PCS were non-alcoholic etiology of cirrhosis, severe ascites, history of previous episodes of hepatic encephalopathy and falls, presence of leg edema, and low serum sodium concentration. With respect to MCS, only two factors were associated with the independent predictive value: low serum sodium concentration and treatment with lactulose or lactitol. In both components, the scores decreased in parallel with the reduction in serum sodium concentration. Variables more commonly associated with the independent predictive value in the individual 8 domains of PCS and MCS were presence of leg edema and serum sodium concentration, 7 and 6 domains, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Serum sodium concentration and presence of leg edema are major factors of the impaired HRQL in patients with cirrhosis and ascites.
Journal of Hepatology 07/2012; · 9.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impairment of kidney function is common in cirrhosis but differential diagnosis remains a challenge. We aimed at assessing the usefulness of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a biomarker of tubular damage, in the differential diagnosis of impairment of kidney function in cirrhosis.
Two-hundred and forty-one patients with cirrhosis, 72 without ascites, 85 with ascites, and 84 with impaired kidney function, were studied. Urinary levels of NGAL were measured by ELISA.
Patients with impaired kidney function had higher urinary NGAL levels compared to patients with and without ascites. Patients with urinary tract infection (n=25) had higher uNGAL values than non-infected patients. Patients with acute tubular necrosis (ATN) had uNGAL levels markedly higher (417μg/g creatinine (239-2242) median and IQ range) compared to those of patients with pre-renal azotemia due to volume depletion 30 (20-59), chronic kidney disease (CKD) 82 (34-152), and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) 76 (43-263) μg/g creatinine (p<0.001 for all). Among HRS patients, the highest values were found in HRS-associated with infections, followed by classical (non-associated with active infections) type-1 and type-2 HRS (391 (72-523), 147 (83-263), and 43 (31-74) μg/g creatinine, respectively; p<0.001). Differences in uNGAL levels between classical type 1 HRS and ATN on the one hand and classical type 1 HRS and CKD and pre-renal azotemia on the other were statistically significant (p<0.05).
uNGAL levels may be useful in the differential diagnosis of impairment of kidney function in cirrhosis. Urinary tract infections should be ruled out because they may increase uNGAL excretion.
Journal of Hepatology 04/2012; 57(2):267-73. · 9.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skin and soft tissue infection in cirrhosis is considered a non-severe infection, but specific information is lacking. This study aimed at assessing the characteristics, occurrence of renal failure, and outcome of cirrhotic patients with skin and soft tissue infection.
Ninety-two patients with cirrhosis and skin and soft tissue infection admitted to hospital within a 6-year period were retrospectively analyzed. A control group matched by severity of liver disease, admitted for reasons other than infection, was also studied.
Resolution of the infection was achieved in 96% of patients. Twenty (21.7%) patients with skin and soft tissue infection developed renal failure, compared to only five patients (5.4%) of the control group (p=0.001). Renal failure was persistent despite infection resolution in 10 of the 20 patients vs. none of the control group. Renal failure was associated with poor prognosis. Hyponatremia developed in 40% and 25% of the infection and control group, respectively (p=0.028). Within a 3-month follow-up period, 25 patients (23%) with skin and soft tissue infection died or were transplanted compared to only four patients (4%) of the control group (p<0.001). Factors independently associated with mortality in the infection group were: site of acquisition of the infection and MELD-sodium score at diagnosis.
Skin and soft tissue infection is a severe complication of cirrhosis with high frequency of renal failure and hyponatremia that may persist despite resolution of the infection. MELD-sodium score is useful to assess 3-month mortality in these patients.
Journal of Hepatology 01/2012; 56(5):1040-6. · 9.86 Impact Factor