[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer cells need to develop microvessels in order to grow and to establish metastatic foci. A role for the p53 protein in the regulation of the angiogenic process is suggested. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between immunohistochemical expression of microvessel density (MVD), measured by CD31 staining, and p53 protein with clinicopathologic factors, and survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (n=70). Tumor angiogenesis was estimated by determining MVD in areas with the highest number of stained microvessels (hot spots). Clinicopathologic factors and immunohistochemical data were evaluated by χ statistical test and were submitted to binary logistic regression to analyze the risk of presence of lymph node metastasis. Factors that might predict survival were investigated using Cox proportional hazards tests. Differences were considered statistically significant when P<0.05. The percentage of p53-positive cells showed no association with clinicopathologic parameters and MVD. Patients with locoregional metastasis presented statistically significant higher MVD (P=0.043). Individuals presenting head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in posterior sites (P=0.022; OR=3.644) and higher MVD (P=0.039; OR=3.247) had a significant increase in risk of metastasis occurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that presence of lymph node metastasis was statistically significant for overall survival of head and neck carcinoma patients (P=0.006; OR =2.917). The present data suggest that MVD represents a promising diagnostic tool to identify individuals with increased risk for the development of metastatic disease, which is very indicative of poor prognosis.
Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology: AIMM / official publication of the Society for Applied Immunohistochemistry 01/2013; · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between p16(CDKN2A) methylation and epithelial dysplasia (ED). We also evaluated the expressions of proteins related to methylation (DNMT3B and DNMT1). Finally, we tested whether HPV-16/18 or the dmt3b (C46359T) polymorphism is associated with p16(CDKN2A) methylation status.
To test the hypothesis, a case-control study with 72 (control, n = 24; ED, n = 48) tissue samples from subjects was performed. Methylation-specific PCR, RFLP, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to evaluate p16(CDKN2A) methylation status, dmt3b (C46359T) genotyping, and protein levels, respectively.
The methylation of p16(CDKN2A) and HPV-16 was associated with ED gradation (p = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). In addition, most HPV-16-positive samples (77.8%) exhibited p16(CDKN2A) methylation; however, changes in DNMT3B and DNMT1 protein levels were not observed in HPV-positive samples. Neither HPV-18 nor the dmt3b polymorphism was associated with p16(CDKN2A) methylation.
There is an association between the presence of HPV-16 in ED and the occurrence of p16(CDKN2A) methylation. Both variables are also associated with ED development, but further studies are necessary to clarify if they operate independently and if they have any impact on OD malignization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the associations of excision repair cross complementing-group 1 (ERCC1) (DNA repair protein) (G19007A) polymorphism, methylation and immunohistochemical expression with epidemiological and clinicopathological factors and with overall survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients.
The study group comprised 84 patients with HNSCC who underwent surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy without chemotherapy. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used. The allele A genotype variant was observed in 79.8% of the samples, GG in 20.2%, GA in 28.6% and AA in 51.2%. Individuals aged more than 45 years had a higher prevalence of the allelic A variant and a high (83.3%) immunohistochemical expression of ERCC1 protein [odds ratio (OR) = 4.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-19.7, P = 0.027], which was also high in patients with advanced stage (OR=5.04, 95% CI: 1.07-23.7, P = 0.041). Methylated status was found in 51.2% of the samples, and was higher in patients who did not present distant metastasis (OR = 6.67, 95% CI: 1.40-33.33, P = 0.019) and in patients with advanced stage (OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 1.07-23.7, P = 0.041). At 2 and 5 years, overall survival was 55% and 36%, respectively (median = 30 months).
Our findings may reflect a high rate of DNA repair due to frequent tissue injury during the lifetime of these individuals, and also more advanced disease presentation in this population with worse prognosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study has compared the tissue expression of the p53 tumour suppressor protein and DNA repair proteins APE1, hMSH2 and ERCC1 in normal, dysplastic and malignant lip epithelium.
Morphological analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed on archived specimens of normal lip mucosa (n=15), actinic cheilitis (AC) (n=30), and lip squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) (n=27). AC samples were classified morphologically according to the severity of epithelial dysplasia and risk of malignant transformation. LSCC samples were morphologically staged according to WHO and invasive front grading (IFG) criteria. Differences between groups and morphological stages were determined by bivariate statistical analysis. Progressive increases in the percentage of epithelial cells expressing p53 and APE1 were associated with increases in morphological malignancy from normal lip mucosa to LSCC. There was also a significant reduction in epithelial cells expressing hMSH2 and ERCC1 proteins in the AC and LSCC groups. A higher percentage of malignant cells expressing APE1 was found in samples with an aggressive morphological IFG grade.
Our data showed that epithelial cells from premalignant to malignant lip disease exhibited changes in the expression of p53, APE1, hMSH2 and ERCC1 proteins; these molecular change might contribute to lip carcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the contributions of mast cells (MC), eosinophil leucocytes (EL) and microvessel density (MVD) in lip carcinogenesis, and to establish the relationships between these biomarkers and their possible prognostic value in lip squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC).
Archived specimens of lip mucosa (n=13), actinic cheilitis (n=29) and LSCC (n=29) were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, sectioned and stained with toluidine blue and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) in order to identify MC and EL and to measure their densities. Tumour angiogenesis was estimated by determining, with the use of CD31 antibody MVD in areas with the highest number of stained microvessels ('hot spots'). Progressive increases of MC, EL and MVD were observed during lip tumour development. Correlation analysis revealed positive associations between the biomarkers during tumour progression. In LSCC samples, significant associations were found between MVD values and metastatic disease. On multivariate analysis, MVD was a predictor of risk of cervical metastasis.
The densities of MC, EL and microvessels increase during lip carcinogenesis, and for MC and EL this may be related to the stimulation of tumour angiogenesis. MVD could be a useful predictor of cervical metastasis in LSCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated 724 primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in young and old patients, with regard to clinical profile and immunohistochemical expression of p53 protein. Associations among age, epidemiological and clinicopathological parameters, and survival analysis were evaluated. HNSCC in young people occurred in 14.5% (median age 40.7years; male-to-female ratio 5.9:1). A statistical association was demonstrated between age and family history of cancer, and between age and anatomical site. Among older patients, a higher presence of disease was noted in posterior sites. Expression of p53 was found in 71.7% of the samples and a higher expression was noted in lesions of young patients. Survival analysis showed that the age parameter is not a reliable prognostic factor for HNSCC. Among young patients, cervical metastasis was associated with worse survival. The presence of a family history of cancer in young patients could indicate genetic susceptibility and molecular disturbances in the p53 pathway in HNSCC of young and older patients seem to be distinct.