ABSTRACT: Intravenous colistin is used to treat resistant Gram-negative infections and is associated with nephrotoxicity. In overweight and obese adults, a paucity of data exists regarding the incidence and predictors of such toxicity. A retrospective nested case-control study was performed over 35 months for patients receiving intravenous colistin for ≥ 72 h with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 25 kg/m(2). The objective was to investigate the incidence and predictors of nephrotoxicity. Severity of acute kidney injury was defined by RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage kidney disease) criteria. Dosing and mortality were secondarily investigated. Forty-two patients met the inclusion criteria, and 20 (48%) developed nephrotoxicity. Patients with toxicity were in the risk (15%), injury (5%), and failure (80%) categories based on RIFLE criteria. A logistic regression model identified four predictors of colistin-associated nephrotoxicity: a BMI of ≥ 31.5 kg/m(2) (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 8.35), diabetes (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 0.84 to 5.29), the length of hospitalization in days prior to receipt of colistin (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.08), and age (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.17). Among all of the patients, dosing based on the actual body weight and excessive dosing due to the use of the actual body weight were frequent at 64% and 92%, respectively. The 30-day all-cause in-hospital mortality rate was 40% in the toxicity group and 14% in the nontoxicity group (P = 0.14). Patients receiving intravenous colistin should be monitored for nephrotoxicity, especially when the BMI exceeds 31.5 kg/m(2). Prospective, randomized, controlled trials are warranted to further examine nephrotoxicity incidence and predictors and appropriate dosing strategies in this population.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 02/2012; 56(5):2392-6. · 4.84 Impact Factor