ABSTRACT: Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Over the past decade, minimally invasive laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and more recently robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy have been introduced and have proven equally effective compared with open surgery in terms of mid-term cancer control and complication rates. Because long-term data is lacking, open prostatectomy is still considered the 'gold standard' by some authors, who argue that minimally invasive approaches have to measure up to the excellent long-term results of open surgery. This study represents one of the largest series (1845 patients) of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy with extended follow-up (11.3 years) and detailed data on oncological outcome and postoperative incontinence. It therefore supplies previously lacking information on these details for minimally invasive prostate surgery and provides important information for patient counselling. OBJECTIVE: • To investigate biochemical recurrence (BCR) rates and data on postoperative incontinence in a large laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) cohort with extended follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: • BCR and independent predictors of BCR were identified using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis of 1845 patients who underwent LRP from 1999 to 2007. • Urinary incontinence was evaluated by pads per day and stratified as follows: 0-1 pad: no incontinence; 2-3 pads: mild incontinence; and ≥3 pads: severe incontinence. RESULTS: • Organ-confined disease, extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion and lymph node metastasis were present in 71.3%, 20.5%, 6.7% and 3.2% of patients, respectively. The positive surgical margin rate was 29.2%. • Postoperatively, 74.9% of the patients were continent, while 9.2% had mild and 15.9% severe incontinence. • The mean follow-up was 5 years with a maximum follow-up of 11.3 years. • There were 51 overall deaths and six deaths from prostate cancer. The 5-year, 8-year and 10-year BCR-free survival rates were 83.9%, 78.6% and 75.6%, respectively. • On univariate analyses preoperative D'Amico risk classification, pathological tumour stage, postoperative Gleason sum and surgical margin status were predictors of BCR (P < 0.001). • On multivariable analysis, D'Amico classification, Gleason sum (P < 0.001), postoperative tumour stage (P < 0.001), nodal status (P < 0.001) and surgical margin status (P= 0.002) were independent predictors of BCR. CONCLUSIONS: • LRP offers excellent long-term functional and oncological results with a low incidence of BCR for patients with localized disease. • These results could be used for patient counselling before robot-assisted laparascopic prostatectomy (RALP) until long-term follow-up data for RALP is available.
BJU International 06/2012; · 2.84 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The open approach represents the gold standard for postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (O-PCLND) in patients with residual testicular cancer. We analyzed laparoscopic postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (L-PCLND) and O-PCLND at our institution.
Patients underwent either L-PCLND (n = 43) or O-PCLND (n = 24). Categorical and continuous variables were compared using the Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney U test respectively. Overall survival was evaluated with the log-rank test.
Primary histology was embryonal cell carcinomas (18 patients), pure seminoma (2 cases) and mixed NSGCTs (47 patients). According to the IGCCCG patients were categorized into "good", "intermediate" and "poor prognosis" disease in 55.2%, 14.9% and 20.8%, respectively. Median operative time for L-PCLND was 212 min and 232 min for O-PCLND (p = 0.256). Median postoperative duration of drainage and hospital stay was shorter after L-PCLND (0.0 vs. 3.5 days; p < 0.001 and 6.0 vs. 11.5 days; p = 0.002). Intraoperative complications occurred in 21.7% (L-PCLND) and 38.0% (O-PCLND) of cases with 19.5% and 28.5% of Clavien Grade III complications for L-PCLND and O-PCLND, respectively (p = 0.224). Significant blood loss (>500 ml) was almost equally distributed (8.6% vs. 14.2%: p = 0.076). No significant differences were observed for injuries of major vessels and postoperative complications (p = 0.758; p = 0.370). Tumor recurrence occurred in 8.6% following L-PCLND and in 14.2% following O-PCLND with a mean disease-free survival of 76.6 and 89.2 months, respectively. Overall survival was 83.3 and 95.0 months for L-PCNLD and O-PCLND, respectively (p = 0.447).
L-PCLND represents a safe surgical option for well selected patients at an experienced center.
BMC Urology 05/2012; 12:15. · 1.45 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: No relevant data have been published on the impact of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (LND) on clinical outcome in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer.
We retrospectively studied the records of 6 patients with lymph node metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer who underwent a retroperitoneal LND between 2005 and 2010. Complication rate and clinical outcome were examined.
Mean patient age was 69.2 (63-81) years. Primary therapy was radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, or pelvic LND and androgen deprivation in 3, 2 and 1 cases, respectively. Mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at LND was 37.6 (20.3-139) ng/dl. LND was performed as a modified unilateral (n = 3), bilateral (n = 1) and bilateral extended (n = 2) approach with a median lymph node density of 0.739 (0.111-1). Preoperative Charlson index was 0 (n = 3) or 1 (n = 3). No intra- or postoperative complications occurred. The average postoperative decline of PSA was 39.3% (-99.4 to +31.3). Differences between mean pre- and postoperative PSA velocities and densities were 23.9 ng/ml/year and 11.2 months, respectively (p = 0.24 and p = 0.40). Four patients (67%) developed bone metastases after a mean period of 23.5 (5-58) months. Median bone metastases-free survival was 15.5 months and median overall survival after LND was 31.7 months on Kaplan-Meier analysis.
A selective LND in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients could be safely performed. A positive effect on the PSA and PSA kinetics was accomplished for the majority of patients. This new surgical approach represents an alternative treatment option in the palliative setting of prostate cancer patients and could delay toxic systemic therapy up to 12 months.
Urologia Internationalis 03/2012; 88(4):441-6. · 0.99 Impact Factor