[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived hepatocytes have the capacity for liver engraftment and repopulation, their in vivo hepatic function has not been analyzed yet. We aimed to determine the metabolic function and therapeutic action of ES cell-derived hepatocytes after serial liver repopulations in fumaryl acetoacetate hydrolase knockout (Fah(-/-)) mice. Albumin expressing (Alb(+)) cells were obtained by hepatic differentiation of ES cells using two frequently reported methods. After transplantation, variable levels of liver repopulation were found in Fah(-/-) mice recipients. FAH expressing (FAH(+)) hepatocytes were found either as single cells or as nodules with multiple hepatocytes. After serial transplantation, the proportion of the liver that was repopulated by the re-transplanted FAH(+) hepatocytes increased significantly. ES cell-derived FAH(+) hepatocytes were found in homogenous nodules and corrected the liver metabolic disorder of Fah(-/-) recipients and rescued them from death. ES cell-derived hepatocytes had normal karyotype, hepatocytic morphology and metabolic function both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, ES cell-derived hepatocytes were capable of liver repopulation and correction of metabolic defects after serial transplantation. Our results are an important piece of evidence to support future clinical applications of ES cell-derived hepatocytes in treating liver diseases.
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 04/2012; 44(4):648-58. · 4.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are important for human health. Alternative resources of n-3 PUAFs created by transgenic domestic animals would be an economic approach. In this study, we generated a mfat-1 transgenic cattle expressed a Caenorhabditis elegans gene, mfat-1, encoding an n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Fatty acids analysis of tissue and milk showed that all of the examined n-3 PUAFs were greatly increased and simultaneously the n-6 PUAFs decreased in the transgenic cow. A significantly reduction of n-6/n-3 ratios (P<0.05) in both tissue and milk were observed.
Transgenic Research 09/2011; 21(3):537-43. · 2.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Demecolcine-assisted/induced enucleation has been used in nuclear transfer cloning procedures for many species, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Primarily because oocytoplasm protrusion induced by demecolcine is inhibited by the presence of cytochalasin, its use has had limited application. In this experiment, we investigated the microtubule and microfilament alterations in bovine oocytes after demecolcine and/or cytochalasin B (CB) treatments by immunocytochemical staining. We also examined mechanical enucleation of demecolcine-treated oocytes in cytochalasin-free medium. The results showed that demecolcine-treatment disrupts the balance between microtubule/microfilament interactions primarily by deleting microtubules and with little effect on the microfilaments that we believe accounts for the membrane protrusion. The CB treatment reduced the amount of microfilaments but had little effect on the microtubules. Most demecolcine-induced membrane protrusions disappeared when exposed to CB. Western blotting showed that CB treatment increases G-actin, which indicates a decrease in the microfilaments. High oocyte enucleation, survival, and developmental rates occurred when demecolcine-assisted enucleation was carried out in a CB-free solution. Higher blastocyst development rates and blastocyst cell numbers were achieved compared to control, indicating that CB is not necessary in the enucleation procedure of bovine oocytes. This study provides a clearer understanding of the mechanism for the demecolcine-induced oocyte membrane protrusion, and substantiates the practical use of demecolcine-assisted enucleation in a CB-free environment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytoplasmic fragmentations are frequently observed in early mammalian embryos, and especially in the human. In our research we have observed subtle clues that the occurrence of fragmentation was most likely a result of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) protocols, and in particular, the in vitro culture system. In this study we examined various putative factors that might induce early embryo fragmentation in the ovine. The results indicate that nuclear transfer protocols such as the fusion parameter, activation treatment, and especially the choice of culture medium affected embryo cleavage rates and resulted in a higher incidence of fragmented embryos. Upon using the same fusion parameter, activation parameters that were based upon amino acids containing synthetic oviduct fluids (SOFaa) culture system resulted in significantly lower fragmentation rates than when utilizing a Charles Rosenkrans 1 (CR1aa) culture system. Fragmented embryos typically exhibited irregular numbers of blastomeres with the majority of blastomeres devoid of chromatin. Factors such as fusion DC pulse, activation treatment and culture system led to higher fragmentation and also affected in vitro and in vivo embryo development. The SOFaa based culture system produced a higher number of quality NT embryos resulting in higher pregnancy rates and the birth of live lambs as compared to the CR1aa based system (P<0.05). We conclude that early embryo fragmentation in the ovine is caused by suboptimal cloning protocols, and NT embryo development is especially affected by the culture system used.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During mammalian embryonic development, DNA methylation and histone modifications are important in gene expression regulation and epigenetic reprogramming. In cloned embryos, high levels of DNA methylation and abnormal demethylation were widely observed during the preimplantation period. Little is known whether there is a difference in histone modifications between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and cloned embryos during preimplantation development. In the present study, the distributions and intensity patterns of acetylations in H3 lysine 9, 18 and H4 lysine 8, 5 and tri-methyl lysine 4 and dimethyl-lysine 9 in histone H3 were compared in cloned and IVF bovine preimplantation embryos by using indirect immunofluorescence and scanning confocal microscopy. The results showed that the acetylation and methylation levels of H3K9ac, H3K18ac, H4K5ac, H4K8ac, H3K4me3 and H3K9me2 were abnormally high in the cloned embryos from the pronuclear to the 8-cell stage. H4K8ac and H4K5ac in the cloned embryos were particularly abnormal when compared with the IVF controls. At the blastocyst stage differences dissipated between cloned and IVF embryos and the distribution and intensity patterns of all histone modifications showed no obvious difference. These results suggest that somatic cells in recipient oocytes produced aberrant histone modifications at multiple sites before the donor cell genome is activated. After zygotic genome activation, distributions and intensity patterns of histone modifications were comparable with both cloned and IVF embryos.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tetraploid embryos are a useful model for postimplantation development of polyploidy cells, and tetraploid cells are an advantage in studies for chimeras yielding offspring completely derived from embryo stem cells or induced pluripotent cells. This study was designed to investigate the effects of cytochalasin B (CB) on bovine oocyte meiosis, and to induce the formation of diploid oocytes and tetraploid embryos. The results showed that: (1) incubation of oocytes in CB at ≥2.0 μg/mL concentrations for 24 h significantly decreased oocyte maturation and the matured oocytes' haploid composition. Over 50% of the CB-treated oocytes did not expel PB1 (non-PB1), and most of the non-PB1 oocytes contained 2n (60) chromosomes. (2) Pretreatment of oocytes with CB at concentrations of 7.5 and 15 μg/mL for 10 h significantly decreased oocyte maturation. Posttreatment of oocytes with CB resulted in most of the oocytes containing 2n chromosomes. (3) The parthenogenetic blastocysts (25-28%) derived from the non-PB1 oocytes of posttreatment group was significantly higher than that from pretreatment, whole period treatment, and the control oocytes (12-16%). (4) Cytogenetic analysis of the embryos derived from CB-treated non-PB1 oocytes resulted in 74% of the one-cell stage embryos being 4n = 120 chromosomes, 82% of two-cell stage embryos contained 4n chromosomes in each blastomere, and 75% of the blastocysts were tetraploidy (4n = 120). (6) The stopped uncleaved one-cell embryos showed an amazing phenomenon of over 15% of them containing extra chromosomes, which suggested multiple DNA duplication occurred within 40 h after activation. In conclusion, CB inhibits PB1 extrusion, disfigures spindle structure, decreases oocyte maturation, and results in formation of diploid (2n or 4c) oocytes. The diploid oocytes resulted in a higher development of tetraploid embryos, which would be a unique approach for the production of tetraploid embryos in bovine.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to examine the effects of the presence of oocyte nuclei on the donor cell nuclear remodeling, including premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and DNA configuration, and subsequent embryo development. The results showed that: (1) the presence of oocyte MII spindles was more likely to induce donor cell PCC. (2) The positional relationship between the fused donor cell and the oocyte metaphase spindle had an effect on oocyte PB2 extrusion. When the fused donor cell was widely separated from the MII spindle, 94.4% of the reconstructed oocytes expelled a PB2. When the donor cell was fused adjacently to the MII spindle, almost all of the reconstructed oocytes did not expel the PB2; the majority (67.9%) formed a very large M-phase spindle in which the oocyte and the donor cell chromosomes merged. (3) After activation, the oocyte and donor nuclei exhibited a variety of pronuclear patterns and asynchronous development. (4) The embryos reconstituted with nonenucleated oocytes resulted in a similar cleavage rate as observed in the control embryos reconstituted with enucleated oocytes. Blastocyst developmental rates were no different between nonenucleated and enucleated cloned embryos; however, the development rates from early to hatching blastocysts significantly decreased in the nonenucleation group compared to enucleation controls (0 vs. 23.1%; 27.5 vs. 67.8%), regardless with either cumulus cells or fibroblasts as donor cells. (5) All nonenucleated oocyte-derived blastocysts contained mixed polyploidy with a variety of compositions that included 2n/4n, 2n/6n, 2n/8n, and 2n/4n/8n. (6) Nuclear transfer preceding the oocyte enucleation experiment indicated that prolonged presence of oocyte nuclei induced abnormal DNA configuration and reduced in vitro development of transferred somatic nuclei, but short time presence of oocyte nuclei did not affect the in vitro development of cloned embryos. We conclude that oocyte MII spindles induce donor cell PCC, the developmental capacity of cloned embryos reconstituted with nonenucleated oocytes is inferior to those with enucleated oocytes, and that all such derived blastocysts are polyploidy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts were transfected with pCDsR-KI, a hair-follicle-cell specific expression vector for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) that contains two markers for selection (red fluorescent protein gene and neomycin resistant gene). The transgenic fibroblasts cell lines were obtained after G418 selection. Prior to the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the maturation rate of caprine cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) was optimized to an in vitro maturation time of 18 h. Parthenogenetic ooctyes were used as a model to investigate the effect of two activation methods, one with calcium ionophore IA23187 plus 6-DMAP and the other with ethanol plus 6-DMAP. The cleavage rates after 48 h were respectively 88.7% and 86.4%, with no significant difference (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between the cleavage rate and the blastocyst rate in two different media (SO-Faa and CR1aa; 86.3% vs 83.9%, P>0.05 and 23.1% vs 17.2%, P>0.05). The fusion rate of a 190 V/mm group (62.4%) was significantly higher than 130 V/mm (32.8%) and 200 V/mm (42.9%), groups (P>0.05). After transgenic somatic cell nuclear transfer (TSCNT) manipulation, 203 reconstructed embryos were obtained in which the cleavage rate after in vitro development (IVD) for 48 h was 79.3% (161/203). The blastocyst rate after IVD for 7 to 9 d was 15.3% (31/203). There were 17 embryos out of 31 strongly expressing red fluorescence. Two of the red fluorescent blastocysts were randomly selected to identify transgene by polymerase chain reaction. Both were positive. These results showed that: (i) RFP and Neo ( r ) genes were correctly expressed indicating that transgenic somatic cell lines and positive transgenic embryos were obtained; (ii) one more selection at the blastocyst stage was necessary although the donor cells were transgenic positive, because only partially transgenic embryos expressing red fluorescence were obtained; and (iii) through TSCNT manipulation and optimization, transgenic cashmere goat embryos expressing red fluorescence and containing an IGF1 expression cassette were obtained, which was sufficient for production of transgenic cashmere goats.
Science in China Series C Life Sciences 05/2009; 52(4):390-7. · 1.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reprogramming impairment of DNA methylation may be partly responsible for the low efficiency in somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, bovine fibroblast cells were transfected with enhancer green fluorescence protein (eGFP), and then treated with a histone-deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA). The results showed that the effect of TSA on transfected cells was dose dependent. When the TSA concentration was over 5 ng/ml, cell proliferation was significantly inhibited. The majority of the cells died when TSA reached 100 ng/ml (P < 0.01). The number of cells in the S phase was significantly decreased in the 5- to 50-ng/ml TSA-treated groups, while the majority of the cells were at the G0/G1 phases. The number of eGFP-expressed cells were approximately twofold higher in 25-ng/ml (30.5%) and 50-ng/ml (29.5%) TSA groups than the control (15.0%). Reduced DNA methylation and improved histone acetylation were observed when the cells were treated with 10 to 50 ng/ml of TSA. Transfer of the TSA-treated cells to enucleated recipient oocytes resulted in similar cleavage rates among the experimental groups and the control. Cells treated with 50 ng/ml of TSA resulted in significantly lower blastocyst development (9.9%) than the other experimental and the control groups (around 20%). Analysis of the putative blastocysts showed that 86.7% of the embryos derived from TSA-treated cells were eGFP positive, which was higher than that from untreated cells (68.8%). In conclusion, treatment of transfected cells with TSA decreased the genome DNA methylation level, increased histone acetylation, and eGFP gene expression was activated. Donor cells with reduced DNA methylation did not improve subsequent cloned embryo development; however, transgene expression was improved in cloned embryos.