Geoffrey M Curran

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, United States

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Publications (39)74.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) can provide insights into perceived need for cocaine treatment among African American cocaine users.
    Addictive behaviors. 05/2014; 39(10):1441-1446.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) can provide insights into perceived need for cocaine treatment among African American cocaine users. Methods A cross-sectional community sample of 400 (50% rural) not-in-treatment African-American cocaine users was identified through respondent-driven sampling in one urban and two rural counties in Arkansas. Measures included self-reports of attitudes and beliefs about cocaine treatment, perceived need and perceived effectiveness of treatment, and positive and negative cocaine expectancies. Normative beliefs were measured by perceived stigma and consequences of stigma regarding drug use and drug treatment. Perceived control was measured by readiness for treatment, prior drug treatment, and perceived ability to cut down on cocaine use without treatment. Findings Multiple regression analysis found that older age (standardized regression coefficient β = 0.15, P < 0.001), rural residence (β = − 0.09, P = 0.025), effectiveness of treatment (β = 0.39, P < 0.001), negative cocaine expectancies (β = 0.138, P = 0.003), experiences of rejection (β = 0.18, P < 0.001), need for secrecy (β = 0.12, P = 0.002), and readiness for treatment (β = 0.15, P < 0.001) were independently associated with perceived need for cocaine treatment. Conclusions TPB is a relevant model for understanding perceived need for treatment among African-American cocaine users. Research has shown perceived need to be a major correlate of treatment participation. Study results should be applicable for designing interventions to encourage treatment participation.
    Addictive Behaviors. 01/2014; 39(10):1441–1446.
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    ABSTRACT: Integrating HIV testing programs into substance use treatment is a promising avenue to help increase access to HIV testing for rural drug users. Yet few outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities in the United States provide HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to incorporating HIV testing with substance use treatment from the perspectives of treatment and testing providers in Arkansas. We used purposive sampling from state directories to recruit providers at state, organization, and individual levels to participate in this exploratory study. Using an interview guide, the first and second authors conducted semistructured individual interviews in each provider's office or by telephone. All interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and entered into ATLAS.ti software (ATLAS.ti Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany). We used constant comparison and content analysis techniques to identify codes, categories, and primary patterns in the data. The sample consisted of 28 providers throughout the state, 18 from the substance use system and 10 from the public/ community health system. We identified 7 categories of barriers: environmental constraints, policy constraints, funding constraints, organizational structure, limited inter- and intra-agency communication, burden of responsibility, and client fragility. This study presents the practice-based realities of barriers to integrating HIV testing with substance use treatment in a small, largely rural state. Some system and/or organization leaders were either unaware of or not actively pursuing external funds available to them specifically for engaging substance users in HIV testing. However, funding does not address the system-level need for coordination of resources and services at the state level.
    The Journal of Rural Health 09/2013; 29(4):420-431. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This qualitative study is about barriers to the utilization of HIV testing as perceived by African Americans who have recently used cocaine and who live in the rural Delta region of Arkansas. Affordability, physical accessibility, and geographic availability were not perceived as barriers to HIV testing in this sample, yet acceptability was still perceived as poor. Acceptability due to social mores and norms was a major barrier. Many said testing was unacceptable because of fear of social costs. Many were confident of being HIV-negative based on risky assumptions about testing and the notification process. Small-town social and sexual networks added to concerns about reputation and risk. System approaches may fail if they focus solely on improving access to HIV services but do not take into consideration deeply internalized experiences of rural African Americans as well as involvement of the community in developing programs and services.
    Journal of drug issues 07/2013; 43(3):314-334. · 0.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the associations of recent criminal justice involvement with perceived need for alcohol treatment and alcohol treatment utilization, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. We examined a national sample of adults with alcohol use disorders (N=4390) from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Almost 15% reported criminal justice involvement in the past year. Generalized logit models regressed perceived need for alcohol or drug treatment and past year treatment utilization (versus neither) on past year legal involvement, demographic, and clinical information. In general, results found stronger associations between frequency of criminal justice involvement for treatment utilization compared to perceived need for treatment alone. Treatment utilization was also associated with being on probation, arrests for drug possession/sale and driving under the influence but perceived need was not. Study results suggest opportunities for interventions to increase treatment rates or treatment need, a major correlate of treatment utilization.
    Journal of substance abuse treatment 09/2012; · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined whether motivation to change mediated the relationships between gender and baseline alcohol severity with drinking outcome at 12-month follow-up in a longitudinal community sample. Data were from baseline and 12-month interviews from the Rural Alcohol Study, a probability sample of rural and urban at-risk drinkers (N = 733) from six southern states. At-risk drinkers were identified through a telephone-screening interview. Measures of motivation (problem recognition and taking action) were the resultant two factors derived from the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. Items on social consequences of drinking measured alcohol severity. Structural equation models examined relationships between baseline alcohol severity and motivation with drinks per drinking day at 12 months. We identified significant, direct paths between drinking at 12 months and alcohol severity and taking action with an unstandardized estimate of 0.116 (p < .05), alcohol severity and problem recognition (0.423, p < .01), and each of the two "motivation" latent constructs-problem recognition (1.846, p < .01) and taking action (-0.660, p < .01). Finally, the combined direct and negative effect of gender on alcohol consumption at 12-month follow-up was statistically significant, with an unstandardized estimate of -0.970 (p < .01). The current study offers evidence for motivation to change as a viable mechanism through which alcohol severity is associated with subsequent drinking outcomes. More research is needed to further explore the persistence of motivation to change on drinking outcomes over time.
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 05/2012; 73(3):504-13. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Investigators recently tested the effectiveness of a collaborative-care intervention for anxiety disorders: Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management(CALM) []) in 17 primary care clinics around the United States. Investigators also conducted a qualitative process evaluation. Key research questions were as follows: (1) What were the facilitators/barriers to implementing CALM? (2) What were the facilitators/barriers to sustaining CALM after the study was completed? Key informant interviews were conducted with 47 clinic staff members (18 primary care providers, 13 nurses, 8 clinic administrators, and 8 clinic staff) and 14 study-trained anxiety clinical specialists (ACSs) who coordinated the collaborative care and provided cognitive behavioral therapy. The interviews were semistructured and conducted by phone. Data were content analyzed with line-by-line analyses leading to the development and refinement of themes. Similar themes emerged across stakeholders. Important facilitators to implementation included the perception of "low burden" to implement, provider satisfaction with the intervention, and frequent provider interaction with ACSs. Barriers to implementation included variable provider interest in mental health, high rates of part-time providers in clinics, and high social stressors of lower socioeconomic-status patients interfering with adherence. Key sustainability facilitators were if a clinic had already incorporated collaborative care for another disorder and presence of onsite mental health staff. The main barrier to sustainability was funding for the ACS. The CALM intervention was relatively easy to incorporate during the effectiveness trial, and satisfaction was generally high. Numerous implementation and sustainability barriers could limit the reach and impact of widespread adoption. Findings should be interpreted with the knowledge that the ACSs in this study were provided and trained by the study. Future research should explore uptake of CALM and similar interventions without the aid of an effectiveness trial.
    Implementation Science 03/2012; 7:1-11. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study proposes methods for blending design components of clinical effectiveness and implementation research. Such blending can provide benefits over pursuing these lines of research independently; for example, more rapid translational gains, more effective implementation strategies, and more useful information for decision makers. This study proposes a "hybrid effectiveness-implementation" typology, describes a rationale for their use, outlines the design decisions that must be faced, and provides several real-world examples. An effectiveness-implementation hybrid design is one that takes a dual focus a priori in assessing clinical effectiveness and implementation. We propose 3 hybrid types: (1) testing effects of a clinical intervention on relevant outcomes while observing and gathering information on implementation; (2) dual testing of clinical and implementation interventions/strategies; and (3) testing of an implementation strategy while observing and gathering information on the clinical intervention's impact on relevant outcomes. The hybrid typology proposed herein must be considered a construct still in evolution. Although traditional clinical effectiveness and implementation trials are likely to remain the most common approach to moving a clinical intervention through from efficacy research to public health impact, judicious use of the proposed hybrid designs could speed the translation of research findings into routine practice.
    Medical care 03/2012; 50(3):217-26. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mental health and substance abuse are among the most commonly reported reasons for visits to Federally Qualified Health Centers (CHCs), yet only 6.5% of encounters are with on-site behavioral health specialists. Rural CHCs are significantly less likely to have on-site behavioral specialists than urban CHCs. Because of this lack of mental health specialists in rural areas, the most promising approach to improving mental health outcomes is to help rural primary care (PC) providers deliver evidence-based practices (EBPs). Despite the scope of these problems, no research has developed an effective implementation strategy for facilitating the adoption of mental health EBPs for rural CHCs. We sought to describe the conceptual components of an implementation partnership that focuses on the adaption and adoption of mental health EBPs by rural CHCs in Arkansas. We present a conceptual model that integrates seven separate frameworks: (1) Jones and Wells' Evidence-Based Community Partnership Model, (2) Kitson's Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) implementation framework, (3) Sackett's definition of evidence-based medicine, (4) Glisson's organizational social context model, (5) Rubenstein's Evidence-Based Quality Improvement (EBQI) facilitation process, (6) Glasgow's RE-AIM evaluation approach, and (7) Naylor's concept of shared decision making. By integrating these frameworks into a meaningful conceptual model, we hope to develop a successful implementation partnership between an academic health center and small rural CHCs to improve mental health outcomes. Findings from this implementation partnership should have relevance to hundreds of clinics and millions of patients, and could help promote the sustained adoption of EBPs across rural America.
    Progress in community health partnerships: research, education, and action 01/2012; 6(3):389-98.
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined substance abuse and mental health service utilization during a three-year period among stimulant users living in rural areas. Participants (N=710) were interviewed at baseline and every six months for 36 months. One-step transition probabilities were constructed between the two types of service use for each consecutive pair of interviews to examine the resulting steady-state probabilities among multiple one-step transition matrices. Most participants received no substance abuse or mental health services. On average, the probabilities of reporting use of the same types of services during the 36-month follow-up were 82% for receiving neither service, 9% for receiving only mental health treatment, 6% for receiving only substance abuse treatment, and 2% for receiving both services. Further study is needed to determine factors that affect the decision to seek mental health or substance abuse treatment among residents of rural communities.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 10/2011; 62(10):1230-2. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to develop and implement collaborative depression care in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics in a project called HIV Translating Initiatives for Depression into Effective Solutions (HITIDES). Here we describe: (i) the formative evaluation (FE) conducted prior to implementation; (ii) the process used to adapt the primary care collaborative care model for depression to specialty HIV clinics; and (iii) the intervention itself. The overall design of HITIDES was a multi-site randomized trial in United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) HIV clinics comparing the depression collaborative care intervention to usual depression care. Qualitative methods were used for the FEs and informed the evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI) methods that were used for adapting and implementing the intervention. Baseline assessments were completed by 249 depressed HIV participants. Summaries of respective key informant interviews with eight HIV patients who were receiving depression treatment and 25 HIV or mental health (MH) providers were presented to each site. EBQI methods were used to tailor the HITIDES intervention to each site while maintaining true to the evidence base for depression collaborative care. EBQI methods provided a useful framework for intervention adaptation and implementation. The HITIDES study provides the opportunity to evaluate collaborative depression care in a specialty physical health clinic setting with a population that has a high prevalence of depression and MH comorbidity.
    AIDS Care 06/2011; 23(12):1626-36. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Depression is common among persons with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is associated with unfavorable outcomes. A single-blind randomized controlled effectiveness trial at 3 Veterans Affairs HIV clinics (HIV Translating Initiatives for Depression Into Effective Solutions [HITIDES]). The HITIDES intervention consisted of an off-site HIV depression care team (a registered nurse depression care manager, pharmacist, and psychiatrist) that delivered up to 12 months of collaborative care backed by a Web-based decision support system. Participants who completed the baseline telephone interview were 249 HIV-infected patients with depression, of whom 123 were randomized to the intervention and 126 to usual care. Participant interview data were collected at baseline and at the 6- and 12-month follow-up visits. The primary outcome was depression severity measured using the 20-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-20) and reported as treatment response (≥50% decrease in SCL-20 item score), remission (mean SCL-20 item score, <0.5), and depression-free days. Secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life, health status, HIV symptom severity, and antidepressant or HIV medication regimen adherence. Intervention participants were more likely to report treatment response (33.3% vs 17.5%) (odds ratio, 2.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-4.56) and remission (22.0% vs 11.9%) (2.25; 1.11-4.54) at 6 months but not 12 months. Intervention participants reported more depression-free days during the 12 months (β = 19.3; 95% CI, 10.9-27.6; P < .001). Significant intervention effects were observed for lowering HIV symptom severity at 6 months (β = -2.6; 95% CI, -3.5 to -1.8; P < .001) and 12 months (β = -0.82; -1.6 to -0.07; P = .03). Intervention effects were not significant for other secondary outcomes. The HITIDES intervention improved depression and HIV symptom outcomes and may serve as a model for collaborative care interventions in HIV and other specialty physical health care settings where patients find their "medical home." clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00304915.
    Archives of internal medicine 01/2011; 171(1):23-31. · 11.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Methadone substitution therapy is an effective harm reduction treatment method for opioid dependent persons. Ability to retain patients in methadone treatment is an accepted predictor of treatment outcomes. The current study evaluates the roles of psychiatric comorbidity, medical comorbidity, and sociodemographic characteristics as predictors of retention in methadone treatment utilizing retrospective analysis of data from a nationwide sample of patients in methadone treatment in the VA. Data were gathered using the VA's national health services use database. A cohort of veterans with a new episode of "opiate substitution" in fiscal year 1999 was identified, and their continuous service use was tracked through fiscal year 2002. The sample included a total of 2,363 patients in 23 VA medical centers. Survival analysis was used to explore factors associated with retention in methadone treatment. Younger age, having a serious mental illness, being African American, or having race recorded as unknown were associated with lower rates of retention in methadone treatment programs in this population of veterans (controlling for site). Given that extended methadone treatment is associated with improved outcomes while patients remain in treatment, more longitudinal studies using primary data collection are needed to fully explore factors related to retention. For the VA population specifically, further research is necessary to fully understand the relationship between race/ethnicity and treatment retention. This is the first retention study the authors are aware of that utilizes data from a nationwide, multisite, population of participants in methadone treatment.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 05/2010; 36(3):155-60. · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Jeon Small, Geoffrey M Curran, Brenda Booth
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    ABSTRACT: Among women at-risk for problems drinking, treatment seeking can be hindered by a complex array of issues such as a lack of transportation, social stigma, denial, fear of losing children, and reluctance of primary care physicians to refer women. This study describes the barriers/facilitators and need for treatment among a community sample of rural and urban women at-risk drinkers. Data for this study were assembled from the baseline sample of individuals who participated in a large probability sample of rural and urban at-risk drinkers (N = 733) from six Southern states: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Men and women differed on perceived barriers/facilitators and need for alcohol treatment. Women differed from men on measures of treatment affordability, accessibility, acceptability and report of social support, illness severity, comorbidities, and demographic characteristics. Rural women differed from urban women on measures of treatment affordability and accessibility and report of illness severity and comorbidities.
    Journal of substance abuse treatment 04/2010; 39(1):1-13. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Substance use is associated with poor mental health, but little is known regarding how use of multiple substances is associated with mental health, particularly longitudinally, in community studies. This article examines this issue in a large (N = 710), natural-history study of rural stimulant (cocaine and/or methamphetamine) users in three states. Respondent-driven sampling recruited recent (past-30-day) stimulant users in three counties each in Arkansas, Kentucky, and Ohio. Participants were interviewed every 6 months for 3 years. Mental health was measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory, and prior 6 months' substance use was measured for 17 possible substances. Data analysis used generalized estimating equations for longitudinal data with the Global Severity Index of the Brief Symptom Inventory as the dependent variable at each interview and substance use as predictor variables measured by number of substances used in the past 6 months and, separately, the 17 individual substances, adjusting for use of substance-use treatment, demographics, and recruitment site. On average, both Global Severity Index score and use of many substances declined over the course of study. Global Severity Index score was significantly associated with (a) greater number of substances used in the past 6 months (p < .0001) and (b) use of crack cocaine, methamphetamine, and nonprescription use of prescription painkillers and tranquilizers. Multiple and specific substances appear to incrementally increase psychological distress. Users of cocaine and methamphetamine are present in rural areas; these associations with poor psychological health raise concerns regarding availability of local treatment services for individuals with mental-health problems, as well as substance abuse.
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 03/2010; 71(2):258-67. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined whether particular dimensions of religiousness are prospectively associated with the development or maintenance of an alcohol-use disorder (AUD) among at-risk drinkers or persons with a history of problem drinking. A prospective cohort study was conducted among at-risk drinkers identified through a population-based telephone survey of adults residing in the southeastern United States. The cohort was stratified by baseline AUD status to determine how several dimensions of religiousness (organized religious attendance, religious self-ranking, religious influence on one's life, coping through prayer, and talking with a religious leader) were associated with the development and, separately, the maintenance or remission of an AUD over 6 months. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the odds of developing versus not developing an AUD and maintaining versus remitting from an AUD while adjusting for measures of social support and other covariates. Among persons without an AUD at baseline, more frequent organized religious attendance, adjusted odds ratio (OR(adj)) = 0.73, 95% CI [0.55, 0.96], and coping through prayer, OR(adj) = 0.63, 95% CI [0.45, 0.87], were associated with lower adjusted odds of developing an AUD. In contrast, among persons with an AUD at baseline, no dimension of religiousness was associated with the maintenance or remission of an AUD. The findings of this study suggest that religious attendance and coping through prayer may protect against the development of an AUD among at-risk drinkers. Further research is warranted to ascertain whether these or other religious activities and practices should be promoted among at-risk drinkers.
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 01/2010; 71(1):136-42. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have demonstrated that collaborative care (care management) for depression improves outcomes, yet few clinics have implemented this evidence-based practice. To promote adoption of this best practice, our objective was to describe the steps needed to tailor collaborative care models for local needs, resources, and priorities while maintaining fidelity to the evidence base. Based on lessons learned from 2 multisite Veterans Affairs implementation studies conducted in 2 different clinical, organizational, and geographic contexts, we describe in detail the steps needed to adapt an evidence-based collaborative care program for depression for local context while maintaining highly fidelity to the research evidence. These steps represent a detailed checklist of decisions and action items that can be used as a tool to plan the implementation of a collaborative care model for depression. We also identify other tools (eg, decision support systems, suicide risk assessment) and resources (eg, training materials) that will support implementation efforts. These implementation tools should help clinicians and administrators develop informed strategies for rolling out collaborative care models for depression.
    Population Health Management 04/2009; 12(2):69-79. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Psychiatric and substance use problems are commonly found to be contributing factors to frequent Emergency Department (ED) use, yet little research has focused on the association between substance use and psychiatric comorbidity. This study assesses the association of a psychiatric comorbidity on (ED) use among patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). The study focuses on 6,865 patients who were diagnosed with SUDs in the ED of a large urban hospital in the southern United States from January 1994 - June 1998. Patients were grouped by type of substance use disorder. After examining frequency of visits by diagnosis, the sample was assigned to the following groups-alcohol dependence (ICD9 = 303), alcohol abuse (ICD9 = 305.0), cocaine dependence/abuse (ICD9 = 304.2, 305.6), and polysubstance/mixed use (ICD9 = 305.9). A patient was classified with psychiatric comorbidity if a psychiatric diagnosis appeared during any of the patient's visits. The following psychiatric diagnoses were included-schizophrenia/psychoses, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, and dementia (ICD-9 codes available upon request). Patients with SUDs and psychiatric comorbidity had significantly higher mean number of ER visits (mean = 5.2 SD = 8.7) than SUD patients without psychiatric comorbidity (mean = 2.5, SD = 3.7). In logistic regressions predicting several categorizations of heavier use of the ED (either 4+, 8+, 12+, 16+, or 20+ visits over the span of the study) SUD patients with psychiatric comorbidity had adjusted odds ratios of 3.0 to 5.6 (reference group = patients with SUDs but no psychiatric comorbidity). This association was found across all substance use diagnostic categories studied, with the strongest relationship observed among patients with cocaine disorders or alcohol dependence. The results provide further support for the notion that the ED could and should serve as an important identification site for cost-effective intervention.
    BMC Emergency Medicine 01/2009; 8:17.
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    ABSTRACT: The study investigated patient- and program-level variables associated with attrition from intensive outpatient (IOP) substance use treatment in a national VA sample. National databases were used to identify a recent cohort of veterans receiving intensive IOP substance use treatment. Attrition was defined as receiving less than five visits of IOP treatment. Patient-level variables examined included age, gender, race, and psychiatric and medical comorbidities. Program-level variables examined included the number of hours of treatment offered, the percentage of patients living on-campus, and extent of staff cuts in the past year. Twenty-seven percent of veterans left treatment early. Being older, female, and having a psychotic disorder was associated with attrition. Program-level factors associated with attrition were the number of hours the program offered treatment, in that more treatment offered was associated with higher attrition. Focus on individual and program level factors associated with attrition is crucial to retaining individuals in treatment.
    The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research 02/2008; 36(1):25-34. · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article describes the process used by the authors in developing an implementation intervention to assist VA substance use disorder clinics in adopting guideline-based practices for treating depression. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting implementation science frameworks and tools developed by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI). The process involves two steps: 1) diagnosis of site-specific implementation needs, barriers, and facilitators (i.e., formative evaluation); and 2) the use of multi-disciplinary teams of local staff, implementation experts, and clinical experts to interpret diagnostic data and develop site-specific interventions. In the current project, data were collected via observations of program activities and key informant interviews with clinic staff and patients. The assessment investigated a wide range of macro- and micro-level determinants of organizational and provider behavior. The implementation development process described here is presented as an optional method (or series of steps) to consider when designing a small scale, multi-site implementation study. The process grew from an evidence-based quality improvement strategy developed for - and proven efficacious in - primary care settings. The authors are currently studying the efficacy of the process across a spectrum of specialty care treatment settings.
    Implementation Science 02/2008; 3:17. · 2.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

526 Citations
74.77 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2014
    • University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
      • • Department of Health Policy and Management
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
  • 2006–2013
    • University of Arkansas at Little Rock
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2012
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2002–2011
    • Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States