[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to demonstrate a percutaneous transauricular method of balloon angioplasty in high-cholesterol fed rabbits, as an innovative atherosclerosis model.
Twenty male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into two groups of ten animals, as follows: atherogenic diet plus balloon angioplasty (group A) and atherogenic diet alone (group B). Betaalloon angioplasty was performed in the descending thoracic aorta through percutaneous catheterization of the auricular artery. Eight additional animals fed regular diet were served as long term control. At the end of 9 week period, rabbits were euthanized and thoracic aortas were isolated for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis.
Atherogenic diet induced severe hypercholesterolemia in both group A and B (2802 +/- 188.59 and 4423 +/- 493.39 mg/dl respectively) compared to the control animals (55.5 +/- 11.82 mg/dl; P < 0.001). Group A atherosclerotic lesions appeared to be more advanced histologically (20% type IV and 80% type V) compared to group B lesions (50% type III and 50% type IV). Group A compared to group B atherosclerotic lesions demonstrated similar percentage of macrophages (79.5 +/- 9.56% versus 84 +/- 12.2%; P = 0.869), more smooth muscle cells (61 +/- 14.10% versus 40.5 +/- 17.07; P = 0.027), increased intima/media ratio (1.20 +/- 0.50 versus 0.62 +/- 0.13; P = 0.015) despite the similar degree of intimal hyperplasia (9768 +/- 1826.79 mum2 versus 12205 +/- 8789.23 mum2; P = 0.796), and further significant lumen deterioration (23722 +/- 4508.11 versus 41967 +/- 20344.61 mum2; P = 0.05) and total vessel area reduction (42350 +/- 5819.70 versus 73190 +/- 38902.79 mum2; P = 0.022). Group A and B animals revealed similar nitrated protein percentage (P = NS), but significantly higher protein nitration compared to control group (P < 0.01; P < 0.01, respectively). No deaths or systemic complications were reported.
Transauricular balloon angioplasty constitutes a safe, minimally invasive and highly successful model of induced atherosclerosis in hyperlipidaemic rabbits.
Lipids in Health and Disease 02/2014; 13(1):33. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this study was to develop a model of fibrous cholangitis in the offspring of gravid domestic pigs through the administration of 1,4-phenylene diisothiocyanate (DITC). Material and Methods: Six young domestic pigs and two gravid pigs with their offspring (21 pigs) were used as experimental models and six wild-type animals were used as controls. All pigs were divided into five main groups and five subgroups, according to their developmental stage and time of exposure to DITC. The following histopathological characteristics were quantitatively evaluated on a scale of 0-5: ductal proliferation, periportal fibrosis, inflammatory infiltration, periductal fibrosis and edema, intraluminal fibrosis, duct wall thickening, epithelial apoptosis, and arterial hyperplasia/hypertrophy. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed for most of the histopathological markers between the group of pigs' offspring that received DITC at early gestation and their control group. Moreover, the group of animals that were exposed to the agent at early gestation exhibited significant differences for all histopathological characteristics compared to the animals that were exposed at late gestation. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences were observed between the group of animals that received the agent at late gestation and their healthy controls. Conclusions: Administration of DITC to domestic pigs in early pregnancy may induce histopathological patterns of fibrous cholangitis to their offspring imitating biliary atresia. This model may provide insight to the pathogenesis of the obstructive cholangitis in pigs.
Journal of Investigative Surgery 01/2014; · 1.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims
We investigated the role of endothelin-B receptors on sympathetic activation originating from the adrenal gland or from the myocardium and its impact on arrhythmogenesis during acute myocardial infarction.
We studied two groups of rats (n = 120, 284 ± 2 g), namely wild-type and ETB-deficient. Myocardial infarction was induced by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery and ventricular tachyarrhythmias were evaluated from continuous electrocardiographic recordings. Sympathetic activation, measured by indices of heart rate variability, was evaluated after adrenalectomy or catecholamine depletion induced by reserpine. Acute left ventricular failure was assessed by total animal activity.
Adrenalectomy decreased the total duration of tachyarrhythmias in ETB-deficient rats, but their incidence remained higher, compared to wild-type rats. After reserpine, heart rate variability indices and tachyarrhythmias were similar in the two groups during the initial, ischaemic phase. During evolving infarction, tachyarrhythmia duration was longer in ETB-deficient rats, despite lower sympathetic activation. Heart rate was lower in ETB-deficient rats throughout the 24-hour observation period, whereas activity was comparable in the two groups.
Endothelin-B receptors modulate sympathetic activation during acute myocardial infarction in the ventricular myocardium, but also in the adrenal gland. Sympathetic activation markedly increases early-phase ventricular tachyarrhythmias, but other mechanisms involving the endothelin system underlie delayed arrhythmogenesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) represents a therapeutic modality that could save the life of a patient with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) facing severe nutritional problems, by restoring the patient's impaired nutritional status. TPN does not compete with enteral nutrition (EN), the latter being the first choice for all patients having anatomically intact and functionally normal digestive tract. TPN allows bowel rest while supplying adequate calorific intake and essential nutrients, and removes antigenic mucosal stimuli. The value of TPN in malnourished patients with intestinal failure due to CD is beyond doubt. However, it is difficult to suggest TPN as a sole treatment for active CD. An increased rate of remission could not be expected by applying TPN. The utility of TPN is restricted to certain cases involving efforts to close enterocutaneous or other complicated fistulas in patients with fistulizing CD, the treatment of short bowel syndrome following extensive resections for CD, or when EN is impractical for other reasons. There are no advantages of TPN therapy over EN therapy regarding fistula healing. TPN has no influence on the surgical intervention rate and little benefit by bypassing the intestinal passage could be expected. Also TPN shows no advantage if the disease is chronically active. However, an optimal supply of nutrients improves bowel motility, intestinal permeability and nutritional status, and reduces inflammatory reactions. TPN might be associated with an increased risk of adverse events, although TPN undertaken by experienced teams does not cause more complications than does EN.
Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology 01/2014; 49(1):3-14. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is a crucial factor in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis and its systemic complications. Lazaroids are a novel class of antioxidants that potently protect pancreatic acinar cells against oxidant attack. The aim of our study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of 21-aminosteroid U-74389G in pancreatic injury after ischemia and reperfusion of the organ in a swine model.
Twelve pigs (weighing 28-35 kg) were randomized into the following two experimental groups: group A (control group, n = 6): ischemia of pancreas (30 min) followed by reperfusion for 120 min; and group B (n = 6): ischemia of pancreas (30 min), U-74389G intravenous injection (10 mg/kg) in the inferior vena cava, and reperfusion for 120 min. Tissue and blood sampling was conducted at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after reperfusion. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed for the evaluation of differences between the two groups.
Histopathologic evaluation did not reveal a statistically significant difference concerning hemorrhage (P = 0.193), leukocyte infiltration (P = 0.838), acinar necrosis (P = 0.183), and vacuolization (P = 0.185) in the pancreatic tissue between the two groups; nevertheless, edema seemed to be more pronounced in the U-74389G group (P = 0.020). Serum metabolic data in the control and therapy groups were not significantly different; accordingly, tissue malondialdehyde levels (P = 0.705) and tumor necrosis factor α values (P = 0.863) did not differ between the two groups.
On the basis of the histologic data and the absence of reduction in the malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor α levels, it is concluded that the administration of U-74389G does not seem to exert a sizable therapeutic effect in attenuating pancreatic damage from ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Journal of Surgical Research 11/2013; · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two isoenergetic elemental formulae with different fat content in the rat model of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) colitis that mimics human inflammatory bowel disease. A total of forty-five male Wistar rats were assigned to five groups: (1) control group; (2) TNBS-induced colitis group; (3) TNBS-induced colitis group fed a long-chain TAG (LCT)-rich diet; (4) TNBS-induced colitis group fed a medium-chain TAG (MCT)-rich diet; (5) TNBS-induced colitis group fed a baseline diet and administered infliximab. Nutritional management lasted 12 d before and 4 d after rectal administration of TNBS. Subsequently, the rats were killed, and colonic tissue samples were collected for the assessment of histology, inflammation and oxidative stress. The MCT-rich diet decreased IL-6, IL-8 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) levels and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, while the LCT-rich diet reduced only ICAM-1 levels and GST activity (P< 0·05). Neither elemental formula affected IL-10 levels. Infliximab reduced IL-8 and ICAM-1 levels and GST activity and increased IL-10 levels (P< 0·05). No significant differences were detected in oxidative stress. Histological damage scores differed significantly only between the control and the TNBS-induced colitis group. A MCT-rich formula seems to exert stronger anti-inflammatory effects than a LCT-rich formula in TNBS colitis.
The British journal of nutrition 11/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac arrest is a daunting medical emergency. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the combination of adrenaline and glucagon would improve initial resuscitation success, 48-hour survival, and neurologic outcome compared with adrenaline alone in a porcine model of ventricular fibrillation.
Ventricular fibrillation was induced in 20 healthy Landrace/Large White piglets, which were subsequently left untreated for 8 minutes. The animals were randomized to receive adrenaline alone (n = 10, group C) and adrenaline plus glucagon (n = 10, group G). All animals were resuscitated according to the 2010 European Resuscitation Council guidelines. Hemodynamic variables were measured before arrest, during arrest and resuscitation, and during the first 60 minutes after return of spontaneous circulation. Survival and a neurologic alertness score were measured at 48 hours after return of spontaneous circulation.
Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 8 animals (80%) from group C and 10 animals (100%) from group G (P = .198). A significant gradual increase in coronary perfusion pressure and diastolic aortic pressure over time, which started 1 minute after the onset of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, was observed. Three animals (30%) from group C and 9 animals (90%) from group G survived after 48 hours (P = .006), whereas neurologic examination was significantly better in the animals of group G (P < .001).
In this porcine model of prolonged ventricular fibrillation, the addition of glucagon to adrenaline improves hemodynamics during resuscitation and early postresuscitation period and may increase survival.
The American journal of emergency medicine 10/2013; · 1.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The relative role of acute myocardial ischemia and infarction in ventricular arrhythmogenesis is incompletely understood. We compared the arrhythmia pattern after ischemia/infarction to that observed after direct myocardial necrosis without preceding ischemia in rats. Methods: Coagulation necrosis was induced in Wistar rats (n=20, 280±3 g) by radiofrequency current application (for 15 s) from a 4-mm-tip ablation catheter. Myocardial infarction was induced by coronary artery ligation with (n=10) or without (n=10) reperfusion. Using 24-h telemetry recording, we examined ventricular arrhythmias, voluntary motor activity and indices of sympathetic activation. Results: The coagulation-necrosis volume was 24.4%±0.6%, comparable to the infarct size in the absence of reperfusion. Acute left ventricular failure and sympathetic activation were similar in the three groups. Coagulation necrosis induced ventricular fibrillation immediately, followed by a second peak after ∼1 h. Reperfusion decreased ventricular arrhythmias, whereas a second arrhythmogenic period (between the third and the eight hour) was noted in non-reperfused infarcts (mainly monomorphic ventricular tachycardia). Conclusions: Distinct arrhythmia patterns occur after myocardial infarction (with or without reperfusion) and after direct necrosis. They are not produced by differences in sympathetic activation and are likely related to the evolution of myocardial injury. The necrosis rat model may be useful in studies of arrhythmogenesis.
Journal of basic and clinical physiology and pharmacology. 10/2013;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The evaluation of the expression of S100B protein, in the swine heart in an experimental model of hypoxia - reoxygenation. Methods: Normocapnic hypoxia was induced in 40 male Landrace/Large White neonatal piglets by decreasing the inspired concentration of oxygen to 6-8%. When animals developed bradycardia or severe hypotension, reoxygenation was initiated. Piglets were allocated in four groups of 10, according to the oxygen concentration they were reoxygenated with: Group 1, 2, 3 and 4 resuscitated with 18%, 21%, 40% and 100% oxygen, respectively. The animals were further classified into 4 groups according with the time required for reoxygenation: group A (<15 min); group B (16-60 min); group C (>60 min); group D (deceased animals). Results: Immunostaining for S100B protein was detected in 14 out of the 40 heart samples (35%), both inside the cytoplasm of cardiomyocytes and as globular deposits in the interstitial spaces. Significant differences were observed among groups 1-4 regarding S100B expression. Reactivity for S100B in cardiac cells was detected in 50%, 50%, 10% and 33% of animals in groups 1 and 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Marked differences were also observed among groups A-D: 75%, 33%, 12% and 22% of the animals in group 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, showed reactivity for S100B in the heart. Conclusions: Expression of S100B protein occurred in the heart of some of newborn piglets following severe hypoxia. S100B storage in cardiomyocytes correlates with the different oxygen concentration used during reoxygenation, being higher in piglets reoxygenated with 18% and 21%, and lower in animals reoxygenated with 40% oxygen. Intermediate levels of S100B expression were found in 100% O2-treated animals. The finding of a higher percentage of S100B-immunoreactive hearts in piglets with a fast recovery and the detection of a decreased reactivity in animals with a slow and a very slow recovery clearly indicates S100B protein as an early protective factor with a positive prognostic value in asphyxiated newborn piglets.
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 10/2013; 26 Suppl 2:72-6. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced glycation end-products(AGEs) are increased under conditions of impaired glucose metabolism and/or oxidative stress, promoting insulin resistance and other endocrine abnormalities. AGEs play a major role in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, PCOS and Alzheimer's disease, contributing to progressive ageing. Receptor-based clearance of AGEs by the Receptor for AGE(RAGE) and/or the Macrophage Scavenger receptor-A(SR-A) is considered as main factor for the regulation of AGEs' concentration in these conditions. This study aims to investigate the expression of RAGE and SR-A under high/low dietary AGE conditions in vivo and their potential contribution to the metabolic and sex hormone profile of female rats.Female Wistar rats were fed a low- or high-AGEs diet for 3months. Serum samples were taken at baseline and at the completion of 3months period for measurements of metabolic and hormonal parameters. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated for determination of RAGE and SR-A expression. The high-AGEs fed animals showed increased glucose, insulin and testosterone levels, as well as decreased estradiol and progesterone levels compared to the low-AGEs fed ones, thus indicating a metabolic and hormonal dysregulation attributed to high-AGEs dietary exposure. The expression of RAGE was significantly downregulated in PBMCs of high-AGEs fed rats(p=0.041) and it was negatively correlated to insulin and testosterone levels, while positively correlated to progesterone levels. SR-A expression was also decreased in high-AGEs fed rats to marginal significance. Decreased monocytic expression of scavenger receptors such as RAGE or SR-A may result in higher deposition of AGEs in peripheral endocrine tissues, thus promoting endocrine-related abnormalities and diseases.
Journal of Endocrinology 07/2013; · 4.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antiarrhythmic potential of postconditioning in in vivo models remains poorly defined. We compared the effects of pre- and postconditioning on ventricular arrhythmogenesis against controls with and without reperfusion. Wistar rats (n = 40, 269 ± 3 g) subjected to ischemia (30 minutes)-reperfusion (24 hours) were assigned to the following groups: (1) preconditioning (2 cycles), (2) postconditioning (6 cycles), or (3) no intervention and were compared with (4) nonreperfused infarcts and (5) sham-operated animals. Infarct size was measured, and arrhythmogenesis was evaluated with continuous telemetric electrocardiographic recording, heart rate variability indices, and monophasic action potentials (MAPs). During a 24-hour observation period, no differences in mortality were observed. Reperfusion decreased infarct size and ameliorated sympathetic activation during the late reperfusion phase. Preconditioning decreased infarct size by a further 35% (P = .0017), but only a marginal decrease (by 18%, P = .075) was noted after postconditioning. Preconditioning decreased arrhythmias during ischemia and early reperfusion, whereas postconditioning almost abolished them during the entire reperfusion period. No differences were noted in MAPs or in the magnitude of sympathetic activation between the 2 interventions. Compared to postconditioning, preconditioning affords more powerful cytoprotection, but both interventions exert antiarrhythmic actions. In the latter, these are mainly evident during the ischemic phase and continue during early reperfusion. Postconditioning markedly decreases reperfusion arrhythmias during a prolonged observation period. The mechanisms underlying the antiarrhythmic effects of pre- and postconditioning are likely different but remain elusive.
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 03/2013; · 2.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy can successfully be performed by applying moderate (conscious) sedation. Moderate sedation, using midazolam and an opioid, is the standard method of sedation, although propofol is increasingly being used in many countries because the satisfaction of endoscopists with propofol sedation is greater compared with their satisfaction with conventional sedation. Moreover, the use of propofol is currently preferred for the endoscopic sedation of patients with advanced liver disease due to its short biologic half-life and, consequently, its low risk of inducing hepatic encephalopathy. In the future, propofol could become the preferred sedation agent, especially for routine colonoscopy. Midazolam is the benzodiazepine of choice because of its shorter duration of action and better pharmacokinetic profile compared with diazepam. Among opioids, pethidine and fentanyl are the most popular. A number of other substances have been tested in several clinical trials with promising results. Among them, newer opioids, such as remifentanil, enable a faster recovery. The controversy regarding the administration of sedation by an endoscopist or an experienced nurse, as well as the optimal staffing of endoscopy units, continues to be a matter of discussion. Safe sedation in special clinical circumstances, such as in the cases of obese, pregnant, and elderly individuals, as well as patients with chronic lung, renal or liver disease, requires modification of the dose of the drugs used for sedation. In the great majority of patients, sedation under the supervision of a properly trained endoscopist remains the standard practice worldwide. In this review, an overview of the current knowledge concerning sedation during digestive endoscopy will be provided based on the data in the current literature.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2013; 19(4):463-81. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) represents a partially-understood cerebrovascular disease of high incidence, morbidity and mortality. We, herein, report the findings of our study concerning the role of two important adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases) in a porcine model of spontaneous ICH that we have recently developed (by following recent references as well as previously-established models and techniques), with a focus on the first 4 and 24 h following the lesion's induction, in combination with a study of the effectiveness of the lazaroid antioxidant U-74389G administration. Our study demonstrates that the examined ICH model does not cause a decrease in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity (the levels of which are responsible for a very large part of neuronal energy expenditure) in the perihematomal basal ganglia territory, nor a change in the activity of Mg(2+)-ATPase. This is the first report focusing on these crucial ATPases in the experimental setting of ICH and differs from the majority of the findings concerning the behavior of these (crucial for central nervous system cell survival) enzymes under stroke-related ischemic conditions. The administration of U-74389G (an established antioxidant) in this ICH model revealed an injury specific type of behavior, that could be considered as neuroprotective provided that one considers that Na(+),K(+)- and Mg(2+)-ATPase inhibition might in this case diminish the local ATP consumption.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM: The aim of the present study is to evaluate pathologic changes in the pancreatic parenchyma in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis (AP) following bilio-pancreatic duct ligation. An effort was made to clarify the role of apigenin, a substance that is well-known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role and its likely beneficial activity to the pancreatic parenchyma following AP in rats. MATERIAL AND METHOD: One hundred twenty-six male Wistar rats 3-4 mo old and weighing 220-350 g were used. At time 0, the following groups were randomly assigned: group sham: rats were subjected to virtual surgery; group control: rats were subjected to surgery for induction of AP, by ligation of the bilio-pancreatic duct; group apigenin: rats were subjected to surgery for induction of AP and enteral feeding with apigenin. Pathologic changes of the pancreatic parenchymal and myeloperoxidase activity were measured at predetermined time intervals 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. RESULT: From the pathologic reports, by comparing the control group with the apigenin group, an improvement of pancreatic tissue architecture following apigenin administration was observed. Inflammatory infiltration, edema, ductal dilation, and necrosis were reduced following apigenin administration over time (P = 0.049, P = 0.228, P = 0.387, P = 0.046). Treatment with apigenin significantly reduced the bilio-pancreatic duct ligation and evoked an increase in pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity (P = 0.030). CONCLUSION: Oral apigenin administration in rats, following experimentally induced pancreatitis, seems to protect the pancreatic tissue. Thus, apigenin administration to humans could potentially ameliorate the damages to the pancreas.
Journal of Surgical Research 12/2012; · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: NOS inhibitors are a potential treatment for patients with cardiogenic shock during acute myocardial infarction. Despite hemodynamic efficacy, their effects on the extent of myocardial infarction (MI) and the no-reflow phenomenon (NRP) have not been clarified. METHODS: Sixteen pigs underwent occlusion of the mid left anterior descending coronary artery for 1h followed by reperfusion for 2h. Coronary blood flow (CBF), distal to the occlusion site, was measured. In eight experiments, l-NAME (non selective NO synthetase inhibitor) administration began 10min before the onset of reperfusion and continued for 2h (loading dose 1mg/kg, perfusion rate: 1mg/kg/h) (l-NAME group). Eight pigs received similarly normal saline (controls). At the end of each experiment, the myocardial area at risk (MAR) and extent of MI and NRP were measured. RESULTS: Hemodynamics at baseline and during ischemia were similar in both groups. During reperfusion, the mean aortic blood pressure was significantly higher in the l-NAME group. In both groups, CBF reached a peak at 5min of reperfusion, (no difference between groups). CBF gradually returned to baseline levels within 60min of reperfusion in both groups. No statistically significant differences in the extent of the NRP (51.8±19.7 vs 60.9±11.4 p=0.35) and MI (77.9±13.9 vs 77.1±8.8 p=0.92), both expressed as a percentage of MAR, were observed between the l-NAME group and the control group. CONCLUSIONS: l-NAME administration started immediately before and maintained throughout reperfusion has no effect on NRP and MI size. l-NAME might stabilize patients with post-MI cardiogenic shock without adverse effects on infarct size.
International journal of cardiology 09/2012; · 7.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) refers to the rapid loss of renal function. In clinical practice, AKI is common among hospitalized patients of all age groups including neonates and remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality due to its late diagnosis and therefore delayed therapeutic intervention. Although the precise incidence of AKI in newborn is unknown, several studies have reported that 8 to 24% of all critically ill newborns in neonatal intensive care units may develop the condition. We aim at reviewing the existing literature on novel serum and urinary biomarkers and discuss their role in the early diagnosis and prognosis of AKI in newborns. Specifically, this review will focus on cystatin C (CysC), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in serum and on CysC, NGAL, kidney injury molecule-1, and IL-18 in urine.
American Journal of Perinatology 09/2012; · 1.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The Pistacia lentiscus tree gives a resinous exudate called Chios mastic (CM) rich in triterpenoids. CM can be fractionated into acidic and neutral fractions (AF and NF, respectively). Oleanolic acid (OA) is a major triterpenic acid in CM with several antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently shown that CM is beneficial in experimental colitis in the form of powder mixture with inulin, as supplied commercially. However, the bioactive fraction or compound of CM is unidentified. Thus, based on the hypothesis that terpenoids exhibit functional activities via distinguishable pathways, we fractionated CM and applied different fractions or individual OA in experimental colitis. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism underlying this effect in human colon epithelial cells. CM powder mixture (100 mg/kg of body weight) or the respective CM powder mixture components (i.e., inulin, AF, NF, or OA) were individually administered in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-treated rats. Colonic damage was assessed microscopically, and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1were measured. A model of inflammation in co-cultured human colon epithelial HT29 cells and monocytes/macrophages was established. Lactate dehydrogenase release and levels of TNF-α, IL-8, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 were measured. In vivo, histological amelioration of colitis and significant regulation in inflammation occurred with CM powder mixture, even at the mRNA level. Although no histological improvement was observed, AF and NF reduced levels of inflammatory markers. Inulin was ineffective. In vitro, CM treatment down-regulated IL-8 and NF-κB p65. Neither fractions nor OA was the bioactive component solely. Most probably, the entire CM rather than its individual fractions reduces inflammation via NF-κB regulation.
Journal of medicinal food 08/2012; · 1.39 Impact Factor