Apostolos Papalois

Università degli studi di Cagliari, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy

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Publications (213)482.81 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: . Essential Skills in the Management of Surgical Cases (ESMSC) is an international, animal model-based course. It combines interactive lectures with basic ex vivo stations and more advanced wet lab modules, that is, in vivo dissections and Heart Transplant Surgery on a swine model. Materials and Methods . Forty-nine medical students (male, N = 27 , female N = 22 , and mean age = 23.7 years) from King’s College London (KCL) and Greek Medical Schools attended the course. Participants were assessed with Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS), as well as Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs). Paired t -test associations were used to evaluate whether there was statistically significant improvement in their performance. Aim . To evaluate the effectiveness of a combined applied surgical science and wet lab simulation course as a teaching model for surgical skills at the undergraduate level. Results . The mean MCQ score was improved by 2.33/32 ( P < 0.005 ). Surgical skills competences, as defined by DOPS scores, were improved in a statically significant manner ( P < 0.005 for all paired t -test correlations). Conclusions . ESMSC seems to be an effective teaching model, which improves the understanding of the surgical approach and the basic surgical skills. In vivo models could be used potentially as a step further in the Undergraduate Surgical Education.
    11/2015; 2015(1):1-10. DOI:10.1155/2015/463987

  • Resuscitation 11/2015; 96:7. DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.09.018 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of a potential autophagy (LC3a/b) deregulation in hyper- and in hypo- stages during sepsis-induced kidney injury and the temporal profile of phosphorylated ERK (pERK), P38 (pP38), Akt (pAKT) and 13-3-3β protein were investigated in the current study, using a rat CLP model, by means of flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Cell viability was assessed by 7-AAD staining and inflammation by S100 protein immunostaining. The impact of reduced kidney inflammation in autophagy was assessed by protein C zymogen concentrate (PC) administration, an anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective substance.Sepsis induction increased LC3a/b expression, which presented two peaks at 6 h and 36 h post-CLPboth in the percentage of positive cells (p = 0.024, p = 0.025 respectively) and in fluorescence intensity. At 6 h when inflammation was already apparent, LC3a/b increase was escorted by pERK stimulation and high cell viability (65%), designating autophagy as a cytoprotective mechanism against microbial infection. P38's phosphorylation was delayed to 12 h post-CLP, when autophagy was reduced. pAkt and 14-3-3β expression was stimulated between 6 h and 36 h post-CLP, although a slight inhibition of pAkt within each cell was detected (lower MnIX value). During the second peak, inflammation was intensified, necrosis was significantly increased with LC3a/b+ /7-AAD + cells to present a 1.5fold increase.PC administration declined autophagy at 6 h and 36 h post-CLP and reduced necrosis whereas, LC3a/b+/7-AAD+ cells were increased 1.68 and 2.78 fold respectively.These data open new prospectives in sepsis treatment, since they further support that autophagy represents a cytoprotective mechanism triggered by stress conditions, rather than an alternative cell death pathway.
    Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 10/2015; DOI:10.1097/SHK.0000000000000505 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been related to a wide range of liver disorders including hyperandrogenic states such as the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential impact of dietary glycotoxins exposure and androgen excess on hepatic histology and biochemistry in an androgenized female rat model. Methods: The study population consisted of 80 female Wistar rats, divided in 3 groups, a group of prepubertal (Group A, n=30) and adult rats (Group B, n=20) that were androgenized via subcutaneous implantation of dihydrotestosterone-containing pellets as well as a group of adult non-androgenized rodents (Group C, n=30). All groups were randomly assigned either to a high-AGE or low-AGE diet for 3 months. Results: Rats fed with a high-AGE diet exhibited significantly elevated levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT) (p≤0.0002) and indices of AGE immunostaining in liver tissue (pper se constitutes an aggravating factor as demonstrated by the elevated γGT levels in adult androgenized animals compared to non-androgenized, independent of diet content (p=0.0002) and by the elevated AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in low-AGE subgroups (adult androgenized vs. non-androgenized, p=0.0002) followed by increased immunohistochemical AGE deposition in hepatocytes of the latter categories (p=0.0007). Conclusion: The present study suggests that androgens and glycotoxins may contribute synergistically to distort hepatic physiology and function as observed in hyperandrogenic conditions.
    Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 09/2015; 37(3):1134-1146. DOI:10.1159/000430400 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) major and minor component anti-inflammatory effect on aorta was evaluated; Wistar rats were fed (9 weeks) on either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD supplemented with oils, i.e. EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), or oil-products modified to their phenolic content, i.e. phenolics deprived-EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. HCD induced dyslipidemia and resulted in higher aorta adhesion molecules levels at euthanasia. Groups receiving EVOO, EVOO(-), HOSO, HOSO(+) presented higher serum TC and LDL-c levels compared to cholesterol-fed rats; attenuation of aorta E-selectin levels was also observed. In EVOO/EVOO(-) groups, aorta vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was lower compared to HCD animals. SO/SO(+) diets had no effect on endothelial dysfunction amelioration. Overall, our results suggest that major and/or minor EVOO constituents improve aorta E-selectin and VCAM-1, while serum lipids do not benefit.
    International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 09/2015; DOI:10.3109/09637486.2015.1088936 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Material and methods: Twelve pigs were used, weighing 30-35 kg in average, which were allocated in two groups: the I/R group with eight pigs and the sham-operated (control) one with four pigs. The I/R group underwent portacaval anastomosis and Pringle maneuver followed by extended hepatectomy. The hepatoduodenal ligament was occluded for 150 min and the liver remnant was reperfused for 24 hours. Blood samples were steadily received throughout the surgical procedure, where hepatic biopsies were taken for pathological evaluation. Animals were sacrificed in 24 hours after the onset of reperfusion. Results: Between the two groups, statistically significant differences were noticed in serum values of AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin in the early and late phase of reperfusion. The mRNA expression of iNOS, IL-1b, and TGF-a did not increase significantly in the I/R group. Conversely, the mRNA modification of IL-6, STAT-3, and E-selectin demonstrated significantly increased expression in I/R animals. Conclusions: In the present survey, a new I/R swine model was proposed and specific parameters were analyzed, revealing differences between the study groups.
    Journal of Investigative Surgery 09/2015; DOI:10.3109/08941939.2015.1060280 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/aim: The free radical-scavenging effects of the lazaroid U-74389G have been shown in several experimental models to protect the liver from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), however, the mechanism of cytoprotection is not fully understood. Similar findings were observed when ascorbic acid was administered. This study investigates the effects of infusion of lazaroid U-74389G and ascorbic acid on cytokines and liver structure in a liver I/R rat model. Materials and methods: Sixty male Wistars rats, weighting 220-290 g, were used in the study. Six experimental groups were formed: Group 1 (control group): ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 60 min; group 2 (control group): ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 120 min; group 3: ischemia for 30 min, intraportal injection of ascorbic acid, and reperfusion for 60 min; group 4: ischemia for 30 min, ascorbic acid administration, and reperfusion for 120 min; group 5: ischemia for 30 min, U-74389G administration, and reperfusion for 60 min; and group 6: ischemia for 30 min, U-74389G administration, and reperfusion for 120 min. Tissue and blood sampling took place upon completion of each model's reperfusion. U-74389G was administered at 10 mg/kg animal body weight and ascorbic acid at 100 mg/kg. Anesthesia was induced with ketamine and xylazine. Surgery was performed through a midline laparotomy. The portal vein and the common hepatic artery were isolated and prepared for occlusion. Blood samples and wedge liver biopsies were taken to measure levels of liver enzymes, cytokines and for microscopic analysis upon completion of reperfusion once for each model. Results: Histopathological evaluation revealed a statistically significant reduction in the degree of necrosis of liver tissue in the treated groups compared to the control groups 1 and 2 [groups 3, 5 (p=0.010) and 4, 6 (p<0.0005)]. On the other hand, tissue malondialdehyde levels (MDA) were statistically significantly increased only between control group 2 and groups 4, 6 (p<0.0005). There was no statistically significant difference in tumor necrosis factor-α between groups. As for liver enzymes, only alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (gGT) were statistically significantly reduced in treated groups 3 and 5 (ALP: p=0.027, and gGT: p=0.002) and 4 and 6 (ALP: p=0.004, and gGT: p=0.015) compared to control groups 1 and 2. Conclusion: Based on histological data and the reduction of some of the liver enzymes, in spite of a rise of malondialdehyde, in this rat model, administration of U-74389G in liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has potential in attenuating liver damage.
    In vivo (Athens, Greece) 09/2015; 29(5):585-594. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prevention of left ventricular remodeling is an important therapeutic target post-myocardial infarction. Experimentally, treatment with growth hormone (GH) is beneficial, but sustained local administration has not been thoroughly investigated. We studied 58 rats (322 ± 4 g). GH was administered via a biomaterial-scaffold, following in vitro and in vivo evaluation of degradation and drug-release curves. Treatment consisted of intra-myocardial injection of saline or alginate-hydrogel, with or without GH, 10 min after permanent coronary artery ligation. Echocardiographic and histologic remodeling-indices were examined 3 weeks post-ligation, followed by immunohistochemical evaluation of angiogenesis, collagen, macrophages and myofibroblasts. GH-release completed at 3 days and alginate-degradation at ∼7 days. Alginate + GH consistently improved left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters, ventricular sphericity, wall tension index and infarct-thickness. Microvascular-density and myofibroblast-count in the infarct and peri-infarct areas were higher after alginate + GH. Macrophage-count and collagen-content did not differ between groups. Early, sustained GH-administration enhances angiogenesis and myofibroblast-activation and ameliorates post-infarction remodeling.
    Growth factors (Chur, Switzerland) 08/2015; 33(4). DOI:10.3109/08977194.2015.1072527 · 3.39 Impact Factor
  • C. Tsompos · C. Panoulis · K. Toutouzas · G. Zografos · A. Papalois ·
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this experimental study was to examine the effect of the antioxidant drug “U-74389G”, on rat model and particularly in a hypoxia – reoxygenation protocol. The beneficial effect or non-effectiveness of that molecule was studied hematologically using blood mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) levels. Methods: 40 rats of mean weight 231.875 gr were used in the study. MCH levels were measured 60 min after reperfusion (groups A and C) and 120 min after reperfusion (groups B and D) with the administration of drug U-74389G in groups C and D. Results: The results were that U-74389G administration significantly increased the MCH levels by 2.40% ± 0.57% (p = 0.0001). Reoxygenation time non-significantly decreased the MCH levels by 0.48% ± 0.69 (p = 0.4103). However, U-74389G administration and reoxygenation time together significantly increased the MCH levels by 1.33% ± 0.36% (p = 0.0005). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that U-74389G administration either alone or interacted with reoxygenation time has significant increasing short – term effects on the pathophysiology recovery of MCH values.
    Medica Jadertina 08/2015; 45(1):17-24.

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the experiment was to compare the effects of nifekalant and amiodarone on the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival, as well as on the hemodynamic parameters in a swine model of prolonged ventricular fibrillation (VF). After 8 min of untreated VF, bolus doses of epinephrine (adrenaline) and either nifekalant, or amiodarone, or saline (n = 10 per group), were administered after randomization. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was commenced immediately after drug administration and defibrillation was attempted 2 min later. CPR was resumed for another 2 min after each defibrillation attempt and the same dose of adrenaline was given every 4th minute during CPR. Forty-eight hour survival was significantly higher with nifekalant compared to amiodarone (p < 0.001) and saline (p = 0.02), (9/10 vs. 0/10 vs. 3/10, respectively). Systolic aortic pressure, diastolic aortic pressure and coronary perfusion pressure were significantly higher with nifekalant during CPR and immediate post-resuscitation period (p < 0.05). The animals in the amiodarone group had a slower heart rate at the 1st and 45th min post-ROSC (p < 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively). The number of electric shocks required for terminating VF, time to ROSC and adrenaline dose were significantly higher with amiodarone compared to nifekalant (p < 0.001). Nifekalant showed a more favorable hemodynamic profile and improved survival compared to amiodarone and saline in this swine model.
    Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10557-015-6604-7 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemorrhage is a frequent event in hospital and prehospital settings. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether centhaquin improves 24-h survival and reduces the total volume of required fluids in an established model of swine hemorrhagic shock. Twenty-five pigs were instrumented and subjected to hemorrhagic shock. The animals were randomly allocated in two experimental groups, the control (vehicle) (n = 10) and the centhaquin groups (0.015 mg/kg, n = 10); all animals received lactated Ringer solution in the resuscitation phase until their mean arterial pressure reached 90% of the baseline. A sham group (n = 5) was added a posteriori to mimic the hemodynamic profile of the centhaquin group. A statistically significant difference was observed in the time required for the three groups to reach their target mean aortic pressure, 36.88 ± 3.26 min for the control group versus 9.40 ± 1.01 min for the sham group and 7.10 ± 0.97 min for the centhaquin group (P < 0.001). The total amount of fluids in the control and the sham groups was significantly higher when compared with that of the centhaquin-treated animals (P < 0.001). All 10 animals in the centhaquin group survived for 24 h, whereas only three animals survived in the control group and one animal in the sham group (P = 0.002). Centhaquin 0.015 mg/kg administered in the fluid resuscitation phase resulted in lower volume of fluids and better survival compared with control and sham-operated animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Surgical Research 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.06.056 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although high quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one of the most significant factors related to favourable outcome, its quality depends on many components, such as airway management, compression depth and chest recoil, hands-off time, and early defibrillation. The most common way of controlling the resuscitation efforts is monitoring of end-tidal carbon dioxide. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation suggests this method both for in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, despite the abundant human and animal studies supporting the usefulness of end-tidal carbon dioxide, its optimal values during cardiopulmonary resuscitation remain controversial. In this review, the advantages and effectiveness of end-tidal carbon dioxide during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are discussed and specific target values are suggested based on the available literature. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Heart, Lung and Circulation 06/2015; 24(11). DOI:10.1016/j.hlc.2015.05.013 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The contribution of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) macro- and micro-constituents in heart oxidative and inflammatory status in a hypercholesterolemic rat model was evaluated. Fatty acid profile as well as α-tocopherol, sterol, and squalene content was identified directly in rat hearts to distinguish the effect of individual components or to enlighten the potential synergisms. Oils and oil-products with discernible lipid and polar phenolic content were used. Wistar rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet solely, or supplemented with one of the following oils, i.e., EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) or oil-products, i.e., phenolics-deprived EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], and HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. Dietary treatment lasted 9 weeks; at the end of the intervention blood and heart samples were collected. High-cholesterol-diet-induced dyslipidemia was shown by increase in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols. Dyslipidemia resulted in increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, while glutathione and interleukin 6 levels remained unaffected in all intervention groups. Augmentation observed in MDA and TNF-α was attenuated in EVOO, SO(+), and HOSO(+) groups. Heart squalene and cholesterol content remained unaffected among all groups studied. Heart α-tocopherol was determined by oil α-tocopherol content. Variations were observed for heart β-sitosterol, while heterogeneity was reported with respect to heart fatty acid profile in all intervention groups. Overall, we suggest that the EVOO-polar phenolic compounds decreased MDA and TNF-α in hearts of cholesterol-fed rats.
    European Journal of Nutrition 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0947-5 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue regeneration and wound healing are severely impaired in diabetes and are associated with poor circulation and dysfunctional blood vessels. Angiotensin II inhibitors are anti-hypertensive drugs used in clinical practice to regulate blood pressure and could affect tissue remodeling. We hypothesize that blocking angiotensin II, using Losartan, could facilitate tissue regeneration in diabetic mice. To this end, we established an experimental model of wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Our data demonstrated that Losartan accelerates wound repair and normalizes wound stromal responses, having a beneficial role in diabetic wounds. Our findings highlight a potential therapeutic use of Losartan in improving wound repair in diabetic conditions.
    Frontiers in Physiology 06/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2015.00170 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    06/2015; 31(2). DOI:10.5152/etd.2015.0005
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    ABSTRACT: Exogenous intake of glycotoxins present in western diet accelerates the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in multiple organs leading to potential tissue damage. Advanced ageing and diabetic conditions have been associated with AGEs deposition in multiple eye compartments including Bruch's membrane, optic nerve, lens and cornea. However, the impact of dietary AGEs in ocular physiology has not been extensively studied. The present study investigates the direct effects of a high AGE content diet in the ocular tissues of normal rats of different age. Two groups of baby (4 weeks of age) and adult (12 weeks of age) female Wistar rats (n = 73) were allocated to high- or low-AGE diet for 3 months. Upon completion of experimental protocol, somatometric, hormonal and biochemical parameters were evaluated in all groups. Circulating and tissue AGE levels were estimated along with their signaling receptor (receptor for AGEs, RAGE) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) expression in ocular tissues of the different subgroups. High AGE intake was associated with elevated serum AGEs (p = 0.0001), fructosamine (p = 0.0004) and CRP levels (p = 0.0001) compared to low AGE. High peripheral AGE levels were positively correlated with significant increased tissue immunoreactivity of AGEs and RAGE in retinal and uveal tissues as well as retinal VEGF-A expression. Up-regulation of RAGE and VEGF-A expression was observed in the ocular tissue of both baby and adult animals fed with high-AGE diet. Co-localization of AGEs and RAGE staining was observed mainly in the inner retinal layers and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of all groups. VEGF-A expression was elevated in the RPE, the inner nuclear layer and the retinal ganglion cell layer of the animals exposed to high-AGE diet. In conclusion, dietary AGEs intake affects the physiology of ocular tissues by up-regulating RAGE and VEGF-A expression contributing to enhanced inflammatory responses and pathologic neovascularization in normal organisms independent of ageing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Experimental Eye Research 05/2015; 137. DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2015.05.017 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the effects on the kidney of hypoxia-reoxygenation in an experimental model of normocapnic asphyxia. To this end, 40 newborn Landrace/Large-White piglets aged 1-4 d were studied in this work. Hypoxia was induced by decreasing the inspired fiO2 to 0.06-0.08. Animals were resuscitated with different fiO2 and subdivided into 4 groups: group 1, 2, 3 and 4 received 18%, 21%, 40% and 100% O2 respectively. Macroscopic examination was carried out to evidence possible pathological features. Tissue sample were obtained from both kidneys. Four or five micron paraffin sections were stained with H-E and PAS stain and examined under an optical microscope. Pathological changes, mainly affecting tubular cells, were observed in the vast majority of kidneys of asphyxiated piglets. The most frequent tubular changes were: tubular casts (95%), tubular dilatation (87.5%), tubular vacuolization (70%), tubular eosinophilia (52.5%), sloughing (50%), fragmentation of the brush border (50%), oedema (32.5%), apoptosis (15%) and glomerular changes (meningeal cell proliferation, capsular adhesion between the flocculus and Bowman's capsule, glomerulosclerosis and fibrous or cellular crescents associated with collapse of the glomerular tuft). Statistical analysis was carried out on changes observed when the animals were allocated in the 4 groups (χ(2)-test 0.05). The statistical analysis showed no evidence of differences regarding kidney lesions among the animals groups. Our data show that renal pathology in newborn piglets is characterized by interindividual variability to hypoxia and is not associated with oxygen concentration.
    05/2015; 4(2):313-8. DOI:10.5527/wjn.v4.i2.313
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic carcinoma is one of the commonest malignant diseases today and the majority of patients are suitable for palliative treatment only. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been used extensively for the treatment of solid organ tumors but little is known on the efficacy and safety of pancreatic ablation. To further investigate the safety of pancreatic RFA, 18 pigs had RFA of the pancreas, close to superior mesenteric vein and duodenum. Group A (nine animals) was protected with peripancreatic cool perfusion and Group B (nine animals) with portal vein (PV) intravenous injection of cool saline. Biochemical and histological evidence suggested lateral thermal injury of the duodenal wall and superior mesenteric vein and acute pancreatitis in most animals. However, clinically and at autopsy, Group B animals fared much better. PV thrombosis, hepatic abscess, duodenal perforation, ascites, and extensive pancreatic necrosis were observed in Group A but not in Group B. The present study suggests that PV cool saline perfusion can prevent major complications caused by pancreatic RFA and may be used in combination with other protective techniques in the clinical setting to reduce RFA-associated morbidity.
    The American surgeon 05/2015; 81(5). · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) are important mediators of intracerebral haemorrhage inflammatory response. Lazaroids, established antioxidants and neuroprotectants, have been studied in several brain pathologies. The present study was designed to investigate: a) TNF-α and IL-1β changes, in neurons and b) U-74389G effects, 4 and 24h after haematoma induction in a porcine model of intracerebral haemorrhage. In twenty male landrace pigs (swines) aged 135-150 days old, autologous whole blood was injected around the right basal ganglia territory; in ten of the pigs the lazaroid compound U-74389G was administered. Brain TNF-α and IL-1β immunopositive neurons were determined by immunoarray techniques at 4 and 24h timepoints. After the haematoma induction the number of TNF-α immunopositive neurons ipsilateral to the haematoma was significantly higher compared to the contralateral site at 4h (p<0.0005), while U-74389G significantly reduced the number of TNF-α immunopositive neurons, ipsilateral to the haematoma, at 4h (p=0.002); at 24h, TNF-α immunopositive neurons were found significantly higher at both contralateral and ipsilateral site (p<0.0005), The number of IL-1β immunopositive neurons at 4h after the hematoma induction was significantly higher ipsilateral to the haematoma site (p<0.0005). U-74389G had no statistical significant effect. TNF-α and IL-1β, increase in neurons, 4h after the haematoma induction, ipsilateral to the haematoma site. The administration of the antioxidant compound U-74389G, results in early (at 4h), decrease of TNF-α immunopositive neurons but shows no statistical significant effect to IL-1β immunopossitive neurons. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Brain research 04/2015; 1615. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2015.04.034 · 2.84 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
482.81 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Università degli studi di Cagliari
      Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy
  • 2009-2015
    • University of Ioannina
      • Division of Cardiology
      Yannina, Epirus, Greece
  • 2014
    • University of Glasgow
      • College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2012-2014
    • Laiko Hospital
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
    • University of Patras
      Rhion, West Greece, Greece
  • 2006-2014
    • Elpen Pharmaceuticals Co. Inc.
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
    • Forest Research Institute of Athens
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
  • 2011-2012
    • Attikon University Hospital
      • Department of Anesthesiology II
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
    • Hospital for the Heart
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2004-2012
    • Harokopion University of Athens
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
    • Alexandra Regional General Hospital
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
  • 2003-2012
    • National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
      • Department of Medicine
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
  • 2010
    • Democritus University of Thrace
      • Τμήμα Ιατρικής
      Komotina, East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece
    • Γενικό Νοσοκομείο Σάμου Αγίου Παντελεήμονα
      Vathy, North Aegean, Greece
  • 2000-2010
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
  • 2000-2001
    • Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center
      • Department of Cardiology
      Kallithea, Attica, Greece